organizational studies. While there is focus upon the articles and their contents, the greater focus or endeavor of the paper is to analyze the writing techniques and approaches to research. At the center of the assignment is the relationship among the construction of the research question, the research question, and the research. By studying and referencing the methods of master researchers and writers, the paper forges a path into the unknown, yet mandatory territory of conducting research and sharing it with the academic community.
Organizational Studies: Article Reviews
The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising by Denise DeLorme,
Jisu Huh, Leonard N. Reid & Soontae An
The authors' suggestions for further research are rather climatic in this article. The authors pose nine questions to the readers and those questions serve as possible directions future research could go. Out of these nine questions, the two areas that speak the most to me are
"Q4. What role does advertising play in patient/physician interactions and patient/pharmacist interactions regarding OTC medicines?" (DeLorme et al., 2010,-Page 223) and "Q2. What is the nature and character of the content in advertising for OTC medicines to which the average consumer is exposed?" (DeLorme et al., 2010,-Page 222)
Often in the advertisements of over the counter drugs, the narration in the advertisement states that readers should ask their doctor if the advertised product is right for them. In the long run, does the relationship between physician and patient become more along the lines of drug dealer and junkie? The content of these advertisements is subversive and often laughable, particularly as the narrator lists the most common side effects. I choose these specific areas for further research for the aforementioned reasons.
The first research question under examination is "What role does advertising play in patient/physician interaction and patient/pharmacist interactions regarding OTC medicines?" (DeLorme et al., 2010,-Page 223) This question is a descriptive research question. This question seeks to understand what the current natures of the aforementioned relationships are. The authors want to know how relationships between physician and patients as well as patients and pharmacists stand regarding OTC medicines. This implies learning and characterizing the history of behaviors and dynamics among the parties involved. On top of this understanding, the research question further ponders what role advertising has in these relationships. The research question implies that there exist multiple roles advertising could play and multiple affects advertising has.
The research question asks which of the many roles advertising plays, are the ones that play a part within the scope of these particular relationships regarding OTC drugs. Within the research question is the word "interactions." Interactions imply relationships. If the question is concerned with relationships and interactions, then it is arguable that the nature of the research questions is moreover relational in addition to being descriptive. The variables in this relational research question are the patients, the pharmacists, the physicians, the OTC medicines, and the advertisements. The question pairs variables together into relationships and then asks the nature of the relationships between the pairs and the additional variable of the advertisements. This research questions may also be indirectly causal. While the primary concerns of the research question are about relationships, the questions indirectly or subversively asks, what effects does advertising about OTC have upon the relationships between patient/physician & patient/pharmacist? It is therefore arguable that this research questions is casual as well, or at least as causal implications within it.
Having come to a deeper understanding regarding the nature of the research question, another research question I derive from this research question is "What are the kinds of interactions between patient/physician and pharmacist/patient directly sprung from advertising?" Once the role(s) of advertising is known among these relationships, it follows that there will be patterns to the changes in behaviors and interactions. What are they? What do they mean? How do the interactions affect the healthcare experience? How does advertising change patients perceptions of OTC medicines and their experiences with their physicians and pharmacists as a direct result of advertising?
The second research question that suggests areas of further research to be examined is "What is the nature and character of the content in advertising for OTC medicines to which the average consumer is exposed?" (DeLorme et al., 2010,-Page 222) The advertisements are powerful. They have the power to alter relationships as mentioned in the previous research question. A compelling and logical question is, then, what content is within these advertisements that is so causative such that it affects behavior patterns and series' of interactions in consumers/patients? This research question is certainly casual. The advertisements cause changes in the consumers. The changed consumer further changes the nature of his/her interactions with his/her physician and pharmacist. What are those changes? How did the advertisement effect such changes? How are these advertisements written, produced, constructed, and distributed? These questions lie within the overall research question.
The question is also descriptive. In order to answer the question, the advertisements must be observed and the observations must be documented, organized, and studied. Observations are descriptions; therefore, if the answers to the questions are a series of descriptions, then the question itself must at least in part be inherently descriptive as well. This question, too, is arguably relational. It hints to the relationship between the content of the advertisements and the rate of exposure per average consumer. The content would have to be studied; the frequency of appearance of the advertisement would have to be charted; information regarding the consumption rates of the average consumer/patients would also have to be known in order to effectively answer this question from a relational perspective.
Once again, having come to a deeper understanding regarding the nature of the research question, another research question I derive from this research question is "How do rates of exposure to OTC advertisements contribute to behavioral changes in consumer?" Once the research reveals the nature and character of the content, we know to what the consumer is exposed. What we are left wondering is do consumers need to see the advertisements a lot or a little before they change their behaviors, interactions, etc. Is once enough or are multiple exposures necessary? What is the threshold of overexposure and what are those affects?
Hypotheses from the first research question I constructed, "What are the kinds of interactions between patient/physician and pharmacist/patient directly sprung from advertising?," are: "Interactions between pharmacist and patient become more educational in nature as educated consumers inquire about OTC medicines in advertisements they have consumed"; and, "Interactions between patients and physicians have become more about selling as educated consumers develop stronger preconceived notions of OTC medicines in advertisements they have consumed." Hypotheses for the second research question I created are: "Consumer behaviors regarding OTC medicines are likely to change based on the advertisements they consume and their reactions to the advertisements"; and "There comes a point where exposure to advertisements numbs consumers/patients and there is negligible change in consumer behaviors because of advertisements about OTC medicines."
A variable used in this line of research are the OTC medicine advertisements themselves. They are critical in this study and related studies. Using the variable of the OTC medicine advertisements, I will present three hypotheses in reference to the two research questions I came up with as a result of studying the authors' section of suggestions for further research. Question 1: "What is the nature and character of the content in advertising for OTC medicines to which the average consumer is exposed?" A null hypothesis is: "The content is persuasive and semiotic." An alternative hypothesis is: "The content is intentionally designed to distract and captivate consumers/patients." A directional hypothesis would be: "The content of OTC medicine advertising helps consumers/patients be more selective regarding OTC medicines." Regarding the second research question created, "How do rates of exposure to OTC advertisements contribute to behavioral changes in consumer?," three hypotheses are: "Over exposure to OTC medicine advertisements do not effect significant behavioral changes in consumers" (directional); "Exposure to OTC medicine advertisements make patients more likely to choose them while shopping" (null); and "OTC medicine advertisements make consumers choose them more often while shopping, but also make them more paranoid about OTC medicines in general" (alternative).
Regarding the first research question, the best hypothesis is "The content is intentionally designed to distract and captivate consumers/patients." It is both descriptive and relational just like the question to which it refers. Regarding the second question, the best hypothesis is "OTC medicine advertisements make patients more likely to choose them while shopping, but also make them more paranoid about OTC medicines in general." This hypothesis is descriptive and casual, similarly like the research question. This hypothesis also accepts that the advertisements are both effective, ineffective, and cause unintended effects.
Part 2: Independent and Dependent Variables
The two hypothesis I will work with in this section are: "The content of OTC medicine advertisements intentionally distracts and captivates consumers/patients," and "OTC medicine advertisements make patients more likely to choose them…