Parental Supervision Its Effects on Term Paper

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(Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira, 2007)

The following labeled Figure 1 shows the factors associated with truancy among adolescents in the study conducted and reported in the work of Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)

Factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Swaziland

Factor or (95% CI)*





Schooling (years) to 8 to 11


Most of the times or always

Drank alcohol

Number of times bullied or 2

Most students kind and helpful

Most of the times

Parents checked homework

Most of the times

Parents understood problems

Most of the times

Parental supervision

Most of the times

or (95%CI)* adjusted for all the factors in the model

Siziya et al. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2007 1:15 doi:10.1186/1753-2000-1-15

Source: Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)

The work of Stanton et al. (2004) entitled: "Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention" states that while "numerous interventions have been demonstrated to reduce targeted adolescent risk behaviors for brief periods, sustained behavior changes covering multiple risk behaviors have been elusive." Stanton et all report a study conducted for the purpose of making a determination of "whether a parental monitoring intervention (Informed Parents and Children Together [ImPACT]) with and without boosters can further reduce adolescent truancy, substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors and can alter related perceptions 24 months after intervention among youth who have all received an adolescent risk-reduction intervention, Focus on Kids (FOK)." (2004) the study was conducted through a randomized, controlled three-celled longitudinal trials in thirty-five low-income, urban community sites among 1817 African-American youth aged 13 to 16 at baseline. All youth participated in Focus on Kids which is an 8-session, theory-based, small group, face-to-face risk reduction intervention. (Stanton, et al., 2004; paraphrased) the main outcomes measures are stated to be "responses at baseline and 24 months after intervention to a questionnaire assessing risk and protective behaviors and perceptions. Analyses used General Linear Modeling, intraclass correlation coefficient, analysis of covariance, and multiple comparisons with least significant difference test adjustment." (Stanton, et al., 2004) Stanton et al. states that over the past ten years emerging have been "several adolescent risk-prevention programs of demonstrated efficacy toward the reduction of sexual risk behaviors, substance abuse, and tobacco use prevention." (Stanton, et al., 2004)

Characteristics that successful programs stare include the following characteristics:

1) theory-based;

2) practice in skills;

3) attentive to personal values and social norms, narrowly focused on specific risk behaviors and using multiple delivery formats." (Stanton, et al., 2004)

While these efforts have been substantial in nature, "their transient influence on risk behavior has been disappointing for those interventionists who have attempted to follow up youths through the adolescent years." (Stanton, et al., 2004) Stanton et al. states that parents, quite differently from friends, parents are "more or less permanent in an adolescent's life..." In that the role of the parent in the life of the adolescent is an important determinant of risk and protective behavior among adolescents, competing admirably with the influence of peers." (Stanton et al., 2004) Stanton et al. (2004) states findings in this study as follows: "This study demonstrates the ability of a supplemental intervention among parents to substantially enhance and sustain the intervention effect enjoyed from an adolescent risk-reduction intervention. Intervention effect on behaviors, perceptions and knowledge was demonstrated 2 years after intervention." (2004) Results of the study show that student's grades, test scores, and educational aspirations, parents helped daughters in some ways

In a separate study it is reported by Carter (2000) entitled: "Parental Involvement with Adolescents' Education: Do Daughter's or Sons Get More Help?" that research examining whether "parents were involved differently with the education of their adolescents daughters and sons." (Carter, 2000) Data in this study was collected from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) which was comprised of information collected from 25,000 eighty-grade students." Parental involvement was analyzed for 'gender differences' which included:

1) school discussion;

2) parent-school connection;

3) parental expectations;

4) parental attendance at school events, and 5) three measures of parental supervision (checking homework, limiting television watching, and limiting going out with friends). (Carter, 2000)

Research has shown clearly that parental involvement in the education of an adolescent is critically important for academic achievement of a positive nature resulting in successful outcomes. There is only very little information relating to the involvement of parents and the differences existing between parental involvement in their son's and their daughter's education. The work entitled: "Background for Community-Level Work on Educational Adjustment, Achievement and Attainment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors" states that few studies "have examined the characteristics of adolescents' families and peer relationships that have implications for their achievement motivation. Preliminary research has found that adolescents whose parents are more involved in their schooling and who were brought up in more cognitively stimulating homes tend to hold more positive forms of achievement motivation." (Redd, Brooks, and McGarvey, nd) Additionally stated that the several studies have indicated that children from "two-parent families and children whose mother had her first child at an older age tend to show higher levels of school engagement. Further, positive parent-adolescent interactions are related to higher levels of school engagement." (Redd, Brooks, and McGarvey, nd) Stated as findings in this study is that development of programs should focus toward involving parents in their children's lives. Specifically stated is: "For instance, adolescents whose parents are more involved in their lives have higher levels of educational adjustment than those whose parents are less involved. However, some forms of involvement appear to matter more than others. Research suggests that adolescents who have parents who communicate to them their interest in their well-being and their high expectations for them in the educational realm have improved school engagement, achievement, and attainment." (Redd, Brooks, and McGarvey, nd)

The work of Carter (2000) entitled: "Parental Involvement With Adolescents' Education: Do Daughters or Sons Get More Help?" reports research which examined "whether parents were involved differently with the education of their adolescent daughters and sons. The investigation used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), which collected information from approximately 25,000 eighth-grade students. Several types of parental involvement were analyzed for gender differences, including school discussion, parent-school connection, parental expectations, parental attendance at school events, and three measures of parental supervision (checking homework, limiting television watching, and limiting going out with friends). " (Carter, 2002)

Carter reports that findings from the study demonstrate that: " of students' grades, tests scores, and educational aspirations, parents helped daughters in some ways and sons in other ways. Generally, daughters experienced more parental involvement with their education than did sons. The findings are discussed in terms of parents' traditional socialization practices vs. A shift in parental treatment in response to social trends." (Carter, 2000) Carter reports effective parental behaviors to include:

helping children with their homework; encouraging them to study; answering questions,; offering guidance on educational decisions; having contact with the school and teachers; and attending school events. (Carter, 2000)

Considered as well in the study reported by Carter (2000) were the following:

Frequency of parents' attendance at school events in which their child participated;

Parental attendance;

The interaction of parents with the school (parent-school connectivity),

The work entitled: "Improving School Attendance: A Resource Guide for Virginia Schools" states that truancy "is a multifaceted problem" and is affected by family factors which include: "lack of parent supervision and/or guidance, poverty, substance abuse in the home, domestic violence, lack of familiarity with school attendance laws, and varied education priorities."

Additionally stated is: "Parental attention certainly has an effect on children's school attendance. Parent involvement with school and homework correlates with students having better attendance records..." citing the research of Corville-Smith, et al.(1998) and Jenkins (1995). This work goes on to relate the fact that: "Parents are key allies in a school's efforts to increase students' connection to school. Studies indicate that the quality of the relationship between home and school is connected to a student's improved achievement and behavior. The Search Institute has found that when parents are engaged in their children's schooling, those children tend to have a higher commitment to education and fewer problems in school, including with high-risk behaviors. However, it can be difficult to connect parents with school, especially those who had difficulty in school themselves. For them, school is likely an aversive place, Blum says. School staff needs to find ways to reach out to all parents, and to these parents in particular." (Virginia Department of Education, 2005) Schools can assist parents in creation of a home environment that supports education through providing:

Workshops, videos, and phone messages on parenting and child rearing at each age/grade level;

Parent education, GED prep and family literacy classes, and college credit;

Family support programs to help with nutrition and…[continue]

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