particularly using multicriteria analysis model of land use planning and land use management and how it affects the future of land management. It has 10 sources in APA format.
Issues pertaining to land use management, and land use planning are as varied in nature as their challenging existence. Taking diversity as one challenge, it is noticed that ascertaining the various goals, values and techniques of the land user have remained a crucial task. The intention of this paper is to detail some methodologies on selected issues of land use management and land use planning, and present relevant literature review that give credence to these methodologies.
The determination of how our land is or will be used is coined as land use planning and land management. Seeking to create a vision for use and management of lands and the natural resources, the land and resource management plans requires the involvement of people from equally different disciplines of life. Strategic planning as we know it today owes its existence to the planning carried out during the period that is normally called the great colonialism, the focus of which was on the manipulation of the physical environment around us. The aim then was to pursue plans that were 'orderly' as perceived by the different colonialist nations. Their approach towards planning was comprehensive in nature, yet limited to the use of land resources to achieve developments in selected areas only. This selection of areas by the few not only led to displaced urbanization, but a pattern of settlement that was immensely distorted, fragmented, unequal, incoherent and inefficient.
With the passage of time, where independent states across the world focused on the multitude of social and political problems at hand, they also became aware of the fact that the economic, social and environmental future of the nations lay in the better utilization of land resources. Thus, they began to develop and pursue plans that served communities across nations, including taking steps for the preservation of regional and global resources. Some of the specific needs that could truly satisfy optimum utilization of land resources include the development of policies, the application of which will ensure the best use and sustainable management of land; bringing an improvement and strengthening planning, management, monitoring and evaluation of various land use planning tools and methodologies; strengthening institutions and coordinating mechanism amongst them; and the creation of mechanisms to facilitate a satisfaction of the needs and objectives of communities and people across the nation.
Summarizing the strategies and objectives of land use management, and land use planning, it must be ensured that all programs henceforth adopted and pursued must be of holistic and comprehensive in nature. The plans so adopted should take into account all the requisite factors that are in any manner related to land resource and environmental conservation. When considering and deciding on the various needs assigned for the lands so chosen, it must be ensured that all land use options are duly considered.
Yet, the fact also holds true that of all the measures and policies so taken for the optimum utilization of land use management and land use planning, this responsibility is not limited to a single department, public or private, or of any single group or organization. On the contrary, it is up to every single individual, every national and provincial department to take up spatial planning, for the general and common benefit of the entire nation. Striking a balance between ownership, responsibility and benefits from land use should be the epitome of all such measures (Toit, 2001).
Multicriteria Analysis Method
Euro Beinat and Peter Nijkamp in their book Multicriteria Analysis for Land-Use Management  stirred the environmental communities with their theory of multicriteria decision making analysis model. Basically the model takes its cue from land use requirement. Management of land use is dependent on multiple factors and requires professionals in the filed to have a careful balance between the multitude of the usage goals and the search for the desirable land use. The effectiveness of land use planning therefore rests on sustainable management practices which is made up of sophisticated environment, economy and social analysis. These analysis leads to better land use planning and management.
Furthermore the main objective of the multicriteria analysis rests on land use management that can integrate all kinds of possible problems that the authority is going to face. Beinat and Nijkamp's model therefore support the structuring of land use planning issues and allowing the planner to concentrate on the major factors instead of on the trade offs of conflicting land utility goals. The purpose is to evaluate and develop options to choose from for decision making purposes. Unless the planners have clear goals and multicriteria schemes of the different types of methods available for analysis, land use planning and management, they will not be able to achieve the objective goal of maximizing finite land forms.
For example Guillermo A. Mendoza, Herlina Hartanto, Ravi Prabhu and Teodoro Villanueva  use the muliticriteria analysis model to assess the sustainability level in forestry. They have based the concept of resources and utilization of environmental space by first identifying the qualitative and quantitative models for assessment of forestry. The sustainability analysis is then carried out in three stages. In the stage the development of criteria and indicator is set; in the second stage the multicriteria model is used to estimate the importance of the factors and in the third stage the qualitative and quantitative factors. Scores are then allocated to the factors by using different kinds of information analysis and feedback to reveal the information extracted from the relevant set of factors. The end result of the analysis is then used for over viewing the sustainability level of the forest [Mendoza et al., 2002]. Thus, it is clear that criteria setting and choosing of alternatives is not only a management tool but it is also used for the physical allocation of resources. Planning uses criteria to prioritize what elements comes first and what comes second and so on. In land use planning too, criteria in order of importance is set according to the relativity. It is not necessary to have the most important element first. Instead effective land use management requires the decision maker to envision the utility of the land for the current scenario as well as future ones. He is to analyze how he can create an amalgamated whole and not fragmentation of important components.
Land use planning and land use management criteria have evolved over the years due to the changing environment and the apparent limitation of land. It seems that land as a resource has become limited in the production sense as well as for urban development. Its allocation is becoming complex due to the nature of the land itself, the geographical location and the wealth inherent. Political entities like government as well as commercial endeavors like industries are finding it difficult day by day to allocate land resource for their usage. Users are becoming more varied and diversified day by day and hence sophisticated techniques and methods have to be adopted for its allocation.
Over the years there have been a multitude of tools and techniques introduced for this purpose. Remote sensing techniques and simulation modeling are two preferred techniques introduced recently. With the help of technological advancement these two methods introduces the concept of allocation of land by using real models and then integrating hypothesis simulation factors to analyze feasibility of the plans.
Remote sensing help to achieve the above purpose comprehensively with the use of sensing GIS devices and satellite technology for planners to comprehensively study the problem before choosing alternatives and making the final decision. The multicriteria analysis model support the above two techniques which will be used as the basis of the following discussion.
The concept of land use and planning for its management is not a new one. It has gained great importance over the years due to the increase in the openness of the world market and the change in agricultural and urban planning. In Europe for instance land is used for agricultural purposes since age old and is still one of the most important modes of production. The scarcity of arid land has become a major problem as the people, the government and the business sector all depend on the land for its productivity. Secondary and tertiary industries too experience drawbacks when they were faced with the under productivity of land. As a result of this governments in Europe have adopted zoning techniques to divide the land and manage it according to the needs of the users. Economic develop was possible as the land were allocated according to the utility producers wield from their allocated land forms. Responsiveness of administration in this regard therefore has become imperative. The planning authority for instance has to develop plans for the land use according to the priority of the demand importance, the needs of the economy and the people. For this…