Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from essay:
In fact, the entire damage was caused by the tsunami itself along with other factors like the geology and geography of the region. The damage that the tsunami caused to mainland India, a seismically quiescent region, was concentrated mainly on the eastern coastline but some damage due to diffraction also occurred on the southernmost tip of the western coastline. A factor which played a major role in the scale of devastation that occurred in this region is the bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is quite shallow with an average depth of 2600 meters. The shallowness can be attributed to the huge amount of sediment that the Ganges River deposits in it. (Strand; Masek, 40)
After the earthquake, the bay was sealed off by the deep Sunda Trench and the tsunami waves were reflected back towards the Indian Ocean striking the eastern Indian coastline within two hours. As the waves traveled across the Cocos Basin, they gradually got amplified. The long-term geological impacts were more visible in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The peaks of a submarine mountain range constitute the Indian islands of Andaman and Nicobar. These mountains lie over a major tectonic fault zone. In the Andaman and Nicobar islands, the earthquake on December 24, 2004 resulted in mud volcano eruptions, ground deformations, liquefaction, tilting of the islands and tectonic subsidence apart from the immense damage to life and property by the tsunami. The eastern coasts of the islands were inundated whereas the coral beds on the western sides were exposed. The central regions of the Trinkat and Teressa Islands went under water, cutting both the islands into two parts. (Strand; Masek, 40)
Since the orientation of the subduction zone earthquake was in a north-south direction, the general path of the tsunami waves was towards the east and the west. It has been observed that coastlines that have a mass of land between them and the point of source of a tsunami usually escape the tsunami's fury. It is for this reason that Bangladesh, situated at the northern part of the Bay of Bengal, had very few fatalities in spite of the fact that it is a low-lying country and situated relatively close to the rupture zone. However, steep bathymetric features and diffraction around landmasses can propagate tsunami waves. Thus, Kerala, an Indian state on the western coast and the western coast of Sri Lanka also suffered damages due to the tsunami. In fact, Colombo or Sri Lanka witnessed a larger tsunami reflected from the Maldives Islands which reached the Sri Lankan coast around two and a half hours after the first tsunami came. Again, distance does not ensure safety since the tsunami caused more devastation in Somalia, which is much farther away than nearby Bangladesh. (Bernard; Robinson, 43)
In Sri Lanka, coral reefs were found to be lightly damaged and sediment was eroded from the beaches and shoreface and traveled as far as 400 meters inwards to be deposited in pockets and sheets with a thickness ranging from five centimeters to thirty-seven centimeters. (Richmond; Jaffe; Gelfenbaum; Morton, 247) In Maldives, the impact of the tsunami ranged from complete overwashing of the islands to inundation of the regions at the margins of the islands. Islands which were situated near the eastern reef rim standing in the path of the tsunami faced greater changes to coastal morphology. There was widespread beach erosion typified by the formation of 0.3 -- 0.5 meters high erosional scarps. Human activity enhanced the force of the tsunami in many areas including the Maldives. The reef areas revealed signs of dredging of gravel and sand which accelerated the shoreline erosion problem resulting in severe damage to several coastal structures. (UNEP Asian Tsunami Disaster Task Force, 7-8)
The tsunami waves resulted in the deposition of gravel-sized reef debris on the eastern beaches in the form of 10-20 centimeters deep and 10-20 meter wide sheets. In the case of island overwashing, the western sandy beaches developed prominent scarps leading to sediment deposition on the adjoining western lagoon and reef flat areas. The island interiors, however, displayed the deposition of thin and patchy sediments. It has been observed that wider reef flats result in more dissipation of wave energy and thus have a more coastal protection role. This factor may have led to the local variability observed in the impact of the tsunami. Again, fringing coral reefs usually provide protection against normal waves but in the case of tsunami waves, the shorelines sheltered by such fringing reefs suffered major coastline and terrestrial damage. In such locations, damage was concentrated close to the deeper channels that let the waves break closer to the shore. Thus the two basic benefits that the fringing reefs afford to coastlines, viz. The combination of ocean access and shelter which have permitted coastal development to take place just over the high tide line, have also become the primary reasons for their more vulnerability to tsunami damage. (UNEP Asian Tsunami Disaster Task Force, 8)
Thus to conclude, it may be said that the extent and scale of damage that the great earthquake and the resultant megatsunami caused on 26th December, 2004 represents geologically important seismic event which has captured the attention of geologists, sociologists, scientists and political leaders worldwide and several studies in various disciplines have been conducted based on this event. Geologically, this event is not only significant in order to study and reconstruct ancient tsunamis that may have had an impact on various aspects of various geological features but it is also important in order to better construct early tsunami or earthquake warning systems in the future in order to minimize the scale of damage.
Bernard, Eddie N; Robinson, Allan R. The Sea Tsunamis.
Harvard University Press. 2009.
Bilham, R; Engdahl, E. R; Feldl, N; Satyabala, S.P. Partial and Complete Rupture of the Indo-Andaman plate boundary 1847-2004. University of Colorado, Boulder.
Seism. Res. Lett. 2005.
Chester, Roy. Furnace of creation, cradle of destruction: a journey to the birthplace of ... AMACOM, 2008.
Fehr, Irene; et. al. Managing Tsunami Risk in the Aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean
Earthquake & Tsunami. http://www.rms.com/Publications/IndianOceanTsunamiReport.pdf
Kundu, Anjan. Tsunami and nonlinear waves.
Richmond, Bruce M; Jaffe, Bruce E; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Morton, Robert A. Geologic
Impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Z. Geomorph. N.F. Suppl, vol. 146, pp: 235 -- 251.
Satake, Kenji. The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsumani in the Indian
Shiki, T; Yamazaki, T. Tsunamiites: features and implications.
Stein, Seth; Okal, Emile A. Long period seismic moment of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and implications for the slip process and tsunami generation.
Strand, Carl; Masek, John…[continue]
"Physical Geology The 'Indian Ocean" (2009, November 23) Retrieved October 26, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/physical-geology-the-indian-ocean-17187
"Physical Geology The 'Indian Ocean" 23 November 2009. Web.26 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/physical-geology-the-indian-ocean-17187>
"Physical Geology The 'Indian Ocean", 23 November 2009, Accessed.26 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/physical-geology-the-indian-ocean-17187
Besides the deaths, more than one million people were left homeless and hundreds of thousands homes and businesses were destroyed. The United Nations estimated that, "...the disaster will prove to be the costliest ever recorded, with full economic recovery not expected for up to 10 years in many areas. " (Intute: Science, engineering and technology: Tsunamis) The physical structure of the coast and the environment was severely damaged which meant that
At the American coastline, the estimated age is between 1 and 60 million years. Finally, at the borderline with the Philippine and the Australian Plates, the approximated age is somewhere between 160, up to 180, or even 200 million years. 6) the Atlantic Ocean plate is similar to that of the Pacific Ocean in the meaning that its age differs. Just like with the Pacific crust, the Atlantic crust is
plate tectonics is responsible for changing continental landmasses through geological occurrences. Thousands of years ago the earth's surface has been hypothesized as one big landmass. The Earth's surface has been constant motion. "Fragmented into giant sheets of solid rock that glide atop a layer of hotter, more pliable material, the globe's appearance is forever changing." [Cowen, 1999]. These plates are semi-rigid, floated on flow of mantle. The plates measured around
Data has shown that society was previously inclined to underestimate tsunamis and their power. Advancements in tsunami studies have made it possible for the masses to become better acquainted with the concept and with the fact that it can practically happen more frequent than they thought. In addition to that, it appears that no coast lines are protected from tsunamis, as they can be affected more or less, mainly
Heavy objects need to be placed in locations from where they are unlikely to fall, emergency numbers need to be on speed-dial, and building structures need to be carefully inspected by engineers in order for them to determine whether or not they are probable to collapse in the event of a seismic wave. Emergency services also need to be alert in the event of an earthquake, given that deaths
Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron Range as well as the Michigan Iron Range that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee Range in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee Range, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up
Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans