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These indications then proceed to the neuromuscular connections of skeletal muscles. From there, acetylcholine is released from the axon terminal knobs of alpha motor neurons and received by postsynaptic receptors of muscles, thereby communicating the stimulus to contract muscle fibers (Ihlen & Vereijken, 2010).
Research on patient's brains scanned by Positron Emmision Tomography have designated that the kind of thoughts people have influence the balance of brain chemicals, so by learning to think more positively and sensibly one can influence brain chemistry in a positive way, but other factors like an unloved, unsupported childhood can influence brain chemistry and physiology in such a way that it makes people less able to cope with stress in adulthood. If people think mainly negatively their brains secrete chemicals that can undermine their psychological and physiological health, whereas if they think more positively they can cause chemicals to be secreted that boost their psychological and physical well-being (Nervous system, n.d.).
People also need to be aware that they are not exact carbon copies of each other. People have subtle biochemical and physiological differences that partly influence how they react to stress. For instance, each person's nervous system can react quite differently to any given stimuli or situation. Some people's nervous systems are more sensitive than others; more easily set off by stress, and may also take longer to switch on the relaxation mode, once the stress response has done its job. There can also be dissimilarities in the amount of stress hormones that people secrete in response to a stressor. People who have more of a tendency to being what is known as Type A personality are more reactive to stress and can produce up to forty times more cortisol, they can produce four times as much adrenalin and also pump three times more blood to their muscles than the more laid back Type B personality. This does not mean however that there is nothing that the more biologically reactive Type A's can do to reduce their stress. Research on Type A personalities who had suffered a heart attack showed that if they were taught stress management techniques then they could radically reduce their risk of a second heart attack when compared to Type A personalities who had not been taught stress management techniques (Nervous system, n.d.).
Psychophysiology is the study of the interrelationships between the physiological and psychological parts of behavior. Psychophysiologists examine the physiological foundations of psychological processes which is the relationships/link between psychological events and mind/brain responses. These include:
how activation of one neural brain structure exerts an excitatory or inhibitory effect on another structure
Event Related Potentials (ERPs)
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
Effects of stress on the cardiovascular system -- vasodilation or vasoconstriction, myocardial contractility, or stroke volume using parameters including:
Heart rate (HR)
Heart Rate Variability (HRV)
Effect of one cardiovascular event on another cardiovascular or endocrine event
Skin conductance response (SCR)
Galvanic skin response (GSR)
Pupil diameter changes and eye movement
Respiration (Psychophysiology Studies, 2010).
As the most multifaceted system, the nervous system serves as the body control center and communications electrical-chemical wiring network. As a key homeostatic regulatory and coordinating system, it senses, construes, and reacts to alterations in internal and external circumstances. The nervous system incorporates innumerable bits of information and makes appropriate reactions by sending electrochemical impulses through nerves to effector organs such as muscles and glands. The brain and spinal cord are the central nervous system and the connecting nerve processes to effectors and receptors serve as the peripheral nervous system. Special sense receptors provide for taste, smell, sight, hearing, and balance. Nerves carry all messages exchanged between the CNS and the rest of the body.
It is the complicated make up of the nervous system that often makes figuring out what has gone wrong with it very hard. Problems with the nervous system can affect people on a physical level as well as a psychological one and sometimes can even cause's issues on both levels at once. This is why it is so important to know exactly what makes up the nervous system and exactly what it does. Because of the very nature of the system and its complex structure it is sometimes hard to determine exactly where a problem is stemming from. Neuroscience or the study of the human nervous system consists of understanding human thought, emotion, and behavior since all of these things are interconnected with each other and with the way that the body communicates with itself. Neuroscientists use tools like computers and special dyes in order to examine molecules, nerve cells, networks, brain systems, and behavior. It is from these studies, they learn how the nervous system develops and functions normally and what goes wrong when neurological disorders occur.
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The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system carries out the motor commands that are sent from the central nervous system. These commands or signals are then sent directly through the nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system to the target organs where they will then be signaled to perform the desired action (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 380). The peripheral nervous system can be further broken down as being a
Nervous System: In order to achieve its function, the nervous system is divided into two major parts i.e. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The central nervous system is basically made up of the brain and spinal cord and has the main function of receiving information from the body and sending out instructions. While the brain is protected by the skull, the spinal cord is guarded
nervous and digestive systems at reptiles, emphasizing their main characteristics and briefly compare them to the nervous and digestive systems at other vertebrates. In this sense, referring to the reptilian nervous systems, many authors have found common basis and similarities between the nervous systems of reptiles and other higher vertebrates, including mammals These similarities manifest themselves both in the form of anatomical and physiological resemblances. The main difference between the reptilian
Nervous System The major structures of basal ganglia are pallidum, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and striatum. They are inappropriately named because the name striatum refers to all major components of basal ganglia. However it was used to refer to only one of the structures. The general function of basal ganglia is to take part in learning and motor control. Is called motor cortex, receives its primary input from the ganglia structures The
Space Physiology Love Of Extremes: Space Physiology About the effect of gravity on the human being in space Early milestones in space exploration and space physiology Gravity The effects of microgravity on human physiology Physiological changes during a space flight The effects of microgravity on the human body The Vestibular System Orientation in space Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS) and Space Motion Sickness (SMS) The effects of radiations on astronauts in space DNA damage mechanisms by radiations The biological effects of radiations Acute effects
When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment. 8) Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the
Neuroscience and Human Development One of the most noticeable aspects of human beings involves the changes in shape, size, form, and function of the individual from a newly formed fetus to a fully grown adult. As the single most successful organism on Earth, human beings have developed, through millions of years of evolutionary adaptations, integrated yet malleable systems involving biological, physiological, emotional and intellectual components. This paper will review some of