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The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze, gold, stain glass and embroidery were being used to decorate clothing, art and buildings.
The Romanesque period lead to the Gothic period, which transitioned to the Renaissance. The Gothic period saw a continuation of the power of the Church. The church was the patron of the arts and this was reflected in the biblical stories told in art and architecture. During the Romanesque period the acquisition of knowledge came to a complete halt due to famine and the plague.
During the Byzantine Empire religion was the focal point of individual and collective life. The Byzantines are remembered for their ability to create alliance, which extended their power. The Islamic civilization focused on the humanistic notions of individualism, liberalism, religious freedom and cross-cultural exchange. The art of management focused on a leader and their establishment of a moral conduct for the community. During the Crusades, management evolved to code of behaviors for the knights. Chivalry created the manners and mores of society and guided the behavior of knights. The knights treated each other with respect and managed as a group of equal partners. This respect and equal partnership carried over to the Romanesque period as households combined to create cottage industries. Each neighbor was in charge of a specific process in the creation of a final product and they worked as a unified team without a formal leader. During the Gothic era cathedrals became the center of town where citizens gathered for religious services, town meetings and markets. The size of the cathedrals created complex projects over many decades of construction. The Gothic period introduced the art of long-term project planning and systematic project management.
The tools and techniques of construction grew more sophisticate as time progress. Builders during the Byzantine Empire utilized ramps, levels, levers, pulleys and winches as well as the mathematical concepts of angles and arches. Byzantine builders improved the supporting structure of domes and the use of buttresses. The Islamic Golden Age added cranes to the toolkits of builders. Additionally, the Islamic community contributed to the craft of sculpting and the use of marble, composites and metal as building materials. During the Crusades the main purpose of buildings was protection against invaders, which including very thick exterior and interior walls and the creation of motes. The need for security brought about innovations in cranes, ramps, pulleys and winces. Complementing these innovations were improvements in stone masonry including faster production and shorter construction timeframes. The Romanesque period saw the creation of interior design, creating rooms for specific purposes. Comfort of the residences became a focal point with innovation in heating and cooling, plumbing and running water. During the Gothic period builders began to interior lighting study the use of building height to create better lighting in the cathedrals. Gothic architects began to develop small-scale models to test the stability of the buildings. The creation and use of flying buttresses, rib vaults and pointed arches created tall structures that maximized the availability of interior light. To construct these cathedrals the crane became a treadmill, which allowed for control of the compass and clasp arms providing more control of horizontal and vertical movements.
From the Byzantine Empire to the Gothic period, the master-builder as architect expanded to include both functional and decorative design. The design process began to take into account the proposed use of the structure, the impact of nature's elements to the building and the residents and the desire for comfort. The mater builders became the conduit for communications between the client, usually the Church, and the workers. The master-builder was becoming the project manager. Master-builders began to document their architecture designs and worked to educate each other on construction techniques and project management. During the Romanesque period, the works began to organize themselves into guilds of specific crafts and trades, which created monopolies and its co-respondent power.
The master-builder continued as the master architect, designer and planner and the structures they created became more complex. The master-builder's role as project manager increased with the increase in complexity. The selection of materials and design focused on strengthening the support structures of the building. The need for specialized crafts and trade, the master-builders added the role of educator to their list of responsibility. The complexity of the building also created the need for the master-builder to develop skills in long-term planning.
History of Project Management from the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution
The current definition of project management is the very deliberate orchestration of people, resources, money and time to complete a specific project. The first step is the development of a project plan, which includes a task breakdown, a list of resources needed, a budget and a timeline. The planning phase is then followed by the implementation phase, the actual organization and use of resources to accomplish the specified goal.
Project management has evolved over the ages; as culture, knowledge, and construction skills, tool and techniques evolved so did the purpose and construction of buildings. This essay looks at the societal, the managerial, and the scientific changes, which took place prior to classical antiquity. The impact of these changes on project management will then be evaluated.
A review early modern project requires an examination the Renaissance period, the Baroque period and the Industrial Revolution. For each time period, the following factors will be investigated:
1. The early modern cultural environment is which project activities were performed.
2. The early modern environment, which facilitated problem solving, decision making, development of the right skill and tool to get the project done.
3. The general management of a project early modern times, which determined how resources were allocated and optimized
4. The early modern techniques and tools used to complete the project and the resulting impacts on time, scope and cost of the project.
5. The early modern professional traditions, which includes the organization of labor.
6. The early modern project activities, which includes an examination of historically valuable buildings.
History of Project Management from the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution
The period between the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution was all about reviving and improving upon the Greek and Roman knowledge of science and mathematics. The acquisition of new knowledge produced significant changes in how people worked, how and where people lived and how quickly products could be produced.
Society began to question the theories of the earlier generations and acquiring new knowledge through empirical evidence and the integration of science and mathematics. Sir Francis Bacon introduced the process of inductive reasoning, which required scholars to consider all the evidence. During this time period, the scientific revolution occurred and contributed new instruments of measurement, such as microscopes, barometers and calculators. Scholars began to understand the principles of natural phenomena such as gravitate and motion.
One very important change occurred during Renaissance period, feudalism was dying and capitalism was emerging as the fundamental basis for organizing societies. This switch to capitalism encourage Europe to find new sources of raw materials and new markets to sell their increased output, thus began to colonization of the world by European powers. Another important change occurred during the Baroque period - a movement from religion to secularism. The Industrial Revolution expanded upon these two important changes by the utilization of new knowledge to create of new machinery, which reduced the need for human labor and increase the amount of output while decreasing the time it took to manufacture the output.
General management evolved as more sophisticated knowledge was acquired. During the Renaissance, the theory of management was greatly influenced by the writings of Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli believed that people were motivated by self-interest and recommended that leaders control the emergence of self-interest through management by fear. Puritan reform touch place during this time period; Calvin and Luther believed that work was not a necessary evil but a way to service God.
During the Baroque period society began to question the answers provided by the church. To confirm or displace the religious strong hold on knowledge, people began…[continue]
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The 1960's were also characterized by project management development. The discipline and practice of project management were influenced by a series of new techniques and tools like earned value, or work breakdown structures. Project management's importance became even more obvious in the 1970s when it became a permanent function for companies working with projects. This is the time when a series of institutes and organizations designed for project management started to
Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to
A more definitive explanation is; "... A proposed explanation for a phenomenon." (Scientific Reference) a hypothesis should be able to be tested and functions as a directive for further research. In my research study for example, the hypothesis that was explored was that certain circumstances in different historical periods affect the development of the areas of expertise and their application to project activities. These circumstances include social and cultural movements;
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