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In the end, it depends on the power of the propagandistic process.
The third technique is related to the second one and includes the description of the common values and of current realities in a different way. More precisely, "when propagandists use glittering generalities and name-calling symbols, they are attempting to arouse their audience with vivid, emotionally suggestive words. In certain situations, however, the propagandist attempts to pacify the audience in order to make an unpleasant reality more palatable. This is accomplished by using words that are bland and euphemistic" (Propaganda Critic, n.d.). This was rather obvious in the way in which the Bush Administration presented the ongoing war in the Middle East. While there are wide acclaims for the values it promotes in Iraq, at the same time, they try to diffuse the news concerning the victims of the war (Shah, 2003).In this sense, the Pentagon and the State Department tried to minimize the growing conflict between the Shia and the Shuni in Iraq as they tried to constantly underline and emphasize the moral reasons for the intervention in the country.
Forth, another essential technique in propaganda is the "bandwagon." This is very well described in a document presented by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis. Thus, "the propagandist hires a hall, rents radio stations, and fills a great stadium, marches a million or at least a lot of men in a parade. He employs symbols, colors, music, movement, all the dramatic arts. He gets us to write letters, to send telegrams, to contribute to his cause. He appeals to the desire, common to most of us, to follow the crowd. Because he wants us to follow the crowd in masses, he directs his appeal to groups held together already by common ties, ties of nationality, religion, race, sex, vocation. Thus propagandists campaigning for or against a program will appeal to us as Catholics, Protestants, or Jews...as farmers or as school teachers; as housewives or as miners" (Propaganda Critic, n.d.). It can be said that an idea or a view can be better inoculated inside a crowd rather than an individual. This is due to the crowd spirit which determines a person to take into account the general view of others.
In the case of the war in Iraq, it was not necessarily the existence of large masses of people advocating freely the decision of the Administration to invade Iraq, but rather the media (Shah, 2003). Thus, there were a large number of debates promoting different ideas in support of the intervention. At the same time, the fact that an important part of the politicians advocated this course of action was relevant for creating a general view of acceptance.
Fifth, a technique used with great success in propaganda is the "false connections" one. In general, it represents a means endorsed in the electoral campaigns as well. It tries to point out the support important people or actors have for a particular issue which in the end influences the general opinion. There are certain connections being made between the person who endorses the particular action and the rightfulness of the action itself. In particular, the case of Iraq is relevant. In the beginning the U.S. tried to get the support of the United Nations for its intervention precisely because the UN represents a criterion for the rightfulness of an international intervention. This would have attracted the public support more easily because a certain association between the UN and the moral values of the humanity and the war in Iraq would have been created. However, taking into account the fact that the U.S. And its allies did not tacitly receive, they chose not to discuss the matter of the intervention in the Security Council precisely because a refusal would have immediately be associated with the illegality of the war.
There are several other techniques used such as the "plain folks" or the "fear" techniques. However, they represent parts of the wider approach of propaganda.
Overall, it can be said that despite the fact that propaganda has been used for more than six decades, it continues to be a widespread means to influence the masses.
Cuesta College. (n.d.) Recognizing Propaganda Techniques and Errors of Faulty Logic. Accessed 9 June 2008, at http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/404.htm
Gill, Jo Anne. (1993) National Archives Teaching With Document Series. Accessed 9 June 2008, at http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/activity/second_war_independence/pages/aganda.html
Propaganda Critic. (n.d.) Name calling. Accessed 9 June 2008, at http://www.propagandacritic.com/articles/ct.wg.name.html
Shah, Anup. (2003) "Media, Propaganda and Iraq." War, propaganda, and the Media. Accessed 9 June 2008, at http://www.globalissues.org/HumanRights/Media/Propaganda/Iraq.asp[continue]
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