Whitney, C. & Wartella, E. (2001). Violence and Media. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.
Media in a way supposedly contributes to violence in the world. This is a controversial subject, but reviews conclude that media violence plays a significant role in the real world violence is a public policy issue. Impacts of social media on a young audience are the most impressionable and there is a perception that adults have resistance to the influence of violence. A number of agencies dealing with health have identified media violence as a main health problem. Research shows that Americans are among the world's most violent, most exported, and there exists some arguments that violent behaviors in adulthood have developed from media using social media.
Through audiovisual, viewers learn certain behaviors, and they determine which behavior to term as a reward or punishment. Viewers identify actors and learn their aggressive thoughts, evaluations, and violent behaviors. Violence from audiovisual store in the cognitive map, and frequent viewing help in maintaining the violent behaviors. The violent effects fall into five categories including physiological, emotional, cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral. The violent content aired on television is because there is no consistent definition of violence, especially defining population and sampling frames in television studies.
In the media, they term findings on media violence as controversial. The U.S. Telecommunication Act mandated all television networks to create a rating system. The one they created suggested a certain age, categories and classes of sex, language, and violence to allow for program choices. The same Act mandated inclusion of a chip in newly manufactured televisions to allow parents to filter out programs with violence. In these cases, young children may use age-based ratings to avoid violent programs while adolescents may choose ratings suited for adults. It is clear that media violence has an effect. Interventions aiding development and implementation of policies to incorporate socially responsible forms need encouragement.
Klarer, M. (2005). Pornography: John Gabriel Stedman's Narrative of a Five Years Expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam (1796). New Literary History, 36(4), 559-587.
John Gabriel Steadman was the son of an English officer in Holland, and a Dutch mother. He took part in the five-year expedition (1771-1775) to Dutch Guinea to a place called Surinam. The main mission of Steadman was to protect the European planters against the Negro slaves in that colony. John Steadman published his experiences in Surinam towards the end of his life in 1976. The accounts of his adventures are in a narrative he composed while in Guinea. The narrative has eight plates and gives a lavish illustration of the adventures.
The narrative is against the revolted Negroes of Surinam. It is an influential text of the late 18th and 19th century. It gives a vivid description of Steadman's experience in Surinam as an English officer. The narrative aims at drawing sympathy from the reader by showing detailed imaginations of gruesome descriptions of how the African slaves were tortured and mutilated. The slave abuse has an additional pornographic scene. These scenes form the basis of this narrative. The description of the pornographic scenes appears erotic but later on followed by violence. The pornographic scenes attract a male audience.
The narrative has a melodramatic adaptation especially the romantic relationship between Steadman and Mullato, a slave. However, the poem relies on only one side. It says nothing good about the blacks. Mullato a slave gets a child with Steadman, an English officer, but abandoned in slavery even though the officer might have at least help her. The narrator seems to encourage slavery because there is no part in the poem that discourages the tortures the blacks underwent. In addition, the narrator draws Africans as objects for use by the Whiteman, through slavery and pornography.
Roos, J. (2012). Nationalism, Racism and Propaganda in the Early Weimar Germany: Contradictions in the Campaign against the Black Horror on the Rhine. German History, 30(1), 45 -- 74.
The article says that an average of 25,000 colonial soldiers from North Africa, Senegal, and Madagascar joined the French army positioned in the Rhineland. This was early in the 1922. There were several protests. For instance, there was the race, gender, and nation in the international racist campaign against the black shame. Koller in his careful analysis on the debate about the incorporation and use of colonial powers in Europe realized that there were state directed troops, and other troops aimed at overcoming revolution. The black shame at times conflicted with the official strategies, but the primacy of foreign policy objectives is determining the course of the black shame campaign.
Another campaign against troops was the "black horror of the Rhine." This one was the most important propaganda tools during the Weimar period. It is certainly accurate that the origin of this campaign has substantial evidence to the extent to which the German society supported racism and termed Africans as inferior and uncivilized. The conflicts over black shame heightened forces about national identity in Weimar. In this propaganda, images of women abused sexually abused served as the main cause of victimization through the Versailles treaty.
Black horror was a successful movement, but it contained some contradictions. There existed frequent disagreements among the propagandists on the question on what an effective propaganda should constitute. Racists also claimed that the phenomenal in Rhineland lead to alienation, and there was a risk of exacerbation of traditional forces between the Catholic Rhineland and the central state. In addition, there were concerns that some propagandists were detrimental to the stability of Germany and to its positive image abroad. This led to the fall of the campaign. This article claims that black horror was a successful movement while it was propaganda, and propagandist has adverse negative effects that may lead to war. Africans are the tools for war; they fight amongst themselves through the official and unofficial troops in case there is a conflict.
Entman, R.M. (2001). Mass Media, Representations in. Elsevier Science Ltd.
According to the article, representation entails making something visible to an audience that is absent physically. In most cases, the item presented may be an idea, ideology, or interest, and it has no tangible physical embodiment. Representation mainly involves encoding and decoding this means that the conscious intent of the person relaying the representation may lack significant relevance to the audience's reaction, subsequently to the political and social impacts of the media representation. There are several methods of media representation, among them is framing.
Framing defined as choosing factors of a viewed reality and making them in a communicating text, hence promoting definition, interpretation, moral evaluation, and recommendation. Research suggests that media images reflect and reinforce dominating status judgment. Representation often carries explicit judgments based on capacity, intellect, and morality. Gender representation in the media does register cultural change to endorse gender roles. In the field of politics, and policy, media representation is likely to favor structures of power that merit white men.
This article assumes that representation in a text will have to influence individuals without the individual determining their own sentiments, and at the aggregate level, the sequence of representations in a society's mass media describes and enhance the definition of the media's belief, reinforcing its cultural values and others, yet also disclosing and initiating cultural change. Such assumptions have no basis for perfect research or credible source of information. This means that the article may partly be true or false.
Reinders, C.R.: Racialism on the Left E.D. Morel and the 'Black Horror on the Rhine.'
Africans have experienced the worst form of treatment under the White man's influence. The black man remains trapped in the Whiteman's occupation. The white man cruelly seized, enslaved, and transported the Africans under ferocious cruelty. In slavery, the colonial powers used them as their instruments to commit crimes against humanity, and fighting against their fellow white powers. The Militaristic French government conscripted the blacks, trained using modern weapons, and used them against the defenseless British, and in fighting their enemies. Morel's article describes the blacks as innocent victims of a white policy that made them kill innocent white men and rape their wives.
Morel faced opposition from authorities and called his accusations as propaganda. They accused Morel of collaborating together with the European press to spread propaganda against the governments involved. A reporter from the Daily News confirmed that the accusations had no substantial evidence, after an investigation in Germany. Some of the African troops stationed in the Rhine land include Senegalese, Moroccans, and Malagese. The British never considered Morel's issue; they dismissed him and his supporters. Morel's appeal was mainly addressing a liberal and labor audience. Overall, Morel did not give up he continued informing people on the "black horror," a term he coined after the black troops cause menace, killings, and raped women in the Rhineland.
McKay a black, in the article claimed that Africans have no power to rule, their inferiority has favored this. The blacks only asked the right to live peacefully and…