The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.
Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration of supplement insulin. Insulin administration is through injection at periodic specified periods per day. Transplantation of islet cells or the entire pancreas cures the illness. However, as much one wish to look at the management of diabetes, there is a psychological aspect of diabetes on individuals that needs consideration.
Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, differs from Type 1 diabetes in relation to some particular aspects. A medical practitioner can distinguish the two types of diabetes mellitus using the autoantibody-testing technique for persons with Type1 diabetes. C-peptide assay technique is also a test for diabetes. People suffering from Type2 diabetes need continual indefinite treatment. These continual and constant treatments interfere with daily regular activities of people. Diabetes in other respect affect the psychological part of a person in the following ways: one may have increased level of anxiety, increased stress levels which on many occasions lead to depression. Patients get training on how to manage their disease independently. Nevertheless, other patients are unable to handle this challenge. Complication may also arise when there is either low or high blood sugar. This happens due to the non- psychological manner of insulin replacement (Funnell et. al., 2009).
Low sugar in the blood may lead to seizures or episodes of being unconscious. Replacement of energy treatment is the best remedy at this stage. High blood sugar results in fatigue and many damage individual's organs over a period. Symptoms of the diseases' include frequent urination, dry mouth, increased hunger and weight loss. Type2 diabetes cuts across the entire population of industrialized nations. Nevertheless, affects adults socially and materially. Children living with the disease tend to isolate from others due to medical restrictions (Penckofer et. al., 2007).
Risk Factors of Diabetes
Some particular risk factors may result into development of diabetes on an individual. One of the risk factor relates to family history. An individual is most likely to develop diabetes if one sibling or a parent has a history of diabetes. Other risk factors of the disease include inactivity, age, weight and even race. Asian-American, Hispanics, American-Indians, African- American, is at a higher risk level of developing diabetes (Sepa et. al., 2005). As a person progresses in terms of age, so is the possibility developing diabetes. Having a lot of body fat affects the performance of insulin on the body. Exercises results to the use of glucose in the body thus increase the use of insulin and finally preventing weight gain. The risk factors in relation to age and race are uncontrollable. However, relating to weight and inactivity of individuals, control is feasible. Through frequent daily and routine exercises, a person controls the development of diabetes.
Complications resulting from diabetes may have long- term or short- term effects on individuals. Therefore, lack of treatment may have life threatening implications. Some of the complications of diabetes include high blood pressure, kidney failure, vision impairment and even nerve damage. Treatments available for treating diabetes include taking insulin through injection, using anti-diabetic drugs, frequent exercising eating healthy foods and constant monitoring of blood sugar level. People with Type2 diabetes may take oral medication while people with Type1 need to take insulin. While some with Type2 may need insulin injection. Diabetes causes some depressive episodes on patients. Children with Type1 diabetes suffer depression episodes as do adults. Therefore, there are effective tools and techniques for identifying depression on people (Penckofer et. al., 2007).
Developmental, socio-economical and Gender aspects of Diabetes
Obese individuals are at a higher risk of having type 2 diabetes. This also results in impaired tolerance to glucose. Causes of obesity are multi-dimensional and not clear. Some of the aspects considered reflect on genetics, availability of calorie foods and the increasing sedentary lifestyles. Non-communicable diseases like diabetes and obesity originate from the people's lifestyles. Today's lifestyle of sedentary behavior and taking foods of very high calorie results to conditions of obesity and diabetes. Obesity as a condition poses as a health challenge to the populations of the world today. The complex condition related to diabetes is characterized by other risk factors. These factors include glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia and these have been on a gradual increase (Sepa e.t al., 2005).
The reasons for a rapid increase in the number of individuals with obesity relates to an increase in the calorie food intake and to the decline of physical activities. There has been an increased account on the influence of the environment. There has been reports on the effects on the fetal stage may result to profound susceptibility to this disease later in life. Men are at a greater risk of having diabetes as compared to female members it is estimation that there are about seventy million women with diabetes in the world according to data from World Health organization (Penckofer et. al., 2007). Diabetes affects the high and low-income areas within the United States of America. Women deaths to diabetes complication represent 55% of the population.
Gender, on the other hand, is an aspect of obesity. Women are likely to develop obesity than men due to high risk in women as compared to men. In the United States, women are more likely to be obese as compared to women. Distribution of fats on the body within individuals differs in relation to gender. Obesity has consequences on fertility and menopause stage accelerates obesity. Exercise and dieting have different impacts on men and females. Men can maintain and lose central obesity by simply dieting unlike women who need to restrict intake of calorie foods to produce the same effect. Gender aspects in relation to diabetes and obesity provide information to show that men and women's susceptibility to both diabetes and obesity is different (Sepa et. al., 2005).
Social economical aspects of diabetes affect individuals in the populations. An individuals socio economical standing influences Socio-cultural beliefs, behaviors and attitudes. Children or adolescent who reside from low income areas suffer segregation in school affecting their psychological well-being. Socio cultural aspects of diabetes and obesity have a bearing on the psychological aspects of individuals. The disease may affect individuals physically, mentally and on the performance of activities by individuals. Sociocultural aspects represent individuals' belief, attitudes on the illness.
Treatment Options Available
Diabetes treatment is grouped into different units; the disease treatment is by administration of drugs, injection of insulin to persons suffering. The disease avoidance is by dieting and observing constant exercising schedules. Eating a balanced diet meal and undertaking exercises have an impact in the reduction of the negative aspects of diabetes. Even though, there are drugs and insulin injections for treating diabetes the most effective remedy for diabetes starts with the change of personal lifestyle (Sepa et. al., 2005). The following are some of the lifestyle changes that a diabetic should practice reducing the effects of the disease on their psychological well-being: observing diet, medication and treatment of insulin dependent diabetes.
Treatment of diabetes begins with diet and exercise. Diabetics require a balanced diet; setting health goals on weight and nutrition. In other cases, exercises alone can take the extra load from the pancreas thus putting diabetes under control. Exercise and good diet can bring glucose level to a considerable level than supplementing with the use of drugs. Individuals need to take food rich in vitamins, protein carbohydrates and minerals important for the functioning of the body. An exercise schedule of 30 minutes a day is effective in controlling the level of glucose in the body. Great care however, needs consideration (Sepa et. al., 2005). For diabetics, a sudden change in the exercise pattern can drastically destabilize the sugar level in the blood. Therefore, individuals need to monitor their sugar level, medication, and change in food intake to match the sudden changes in the exercise level.
Some classes of drugs that help the body perform some functions are used to treat diabetes naturally by providing assistance in the management of glucose levels. This medication can inform the pancreas to produce more insulin or cell to respond better to the insulin. The problem with this technique is that the treatment will only work on a limited amount of…