However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a severe eating disorder). The therapist must evaluate the seriousness of the client's threat and the rights of those individuals affected by the client.
2c. Discuss the importance of ethical standards in the counseling profession: Clients must feel as if they can be candid with their therapists. Therapy as a profession is based upon trust. When a therapist is revealed to be engaged in unethical behavior, and this becomes widely known, clients began to distrust the entire profession, and thus the therapy of many individuals, not just the client in question, is jeopardized.
4. Behavioral therapy has been very effective in setting goals for me to mitigate the effects of negative behaviors I engage in, spanning everything from irrational fears (like driving over bridges) to procrastination and fear of failure. The communication techniques fostered in family therapy have also been helpful.
5a. Low self-esteem: Low-self-esteem would not be helped with psychoanalytic therapy, given the level of personal excavation into the patient's past problems might worsen rather than help the client; cognitive-behavioral therapy might be very helpful given its focus on altering ineffective and irrational beliefs, like "I'm not good at anything."
b. Phobias: The unconditional positive self-regard of Rogerian (client-centered) therapy might validate, rather than challenge the client's irrational phobias. Behavioral therapy can set realistic goals to overcome the client's irrational fears, such as looking at a picture of a spider, being near a spider, and finally touching a spider, in the case of an arachnophobic client.
c. Marital problems: Family-focused therapy stresses interpersonal systems and is likely to be very helpful, as it focuses on relationships rather than individuals in isolation. Psychoanalytic therapy would be very unhelpful, given its stress upon personal feelings, the subject's past, and feelings and associations distinct to the individual.
6. Rogerian (client or person-centered) therapy: Is based upon the fundamental assumption that empathy is the core of the therapeutic process. Therapists give unconditional, positive self-regard to the client to foster self-esteem and personal growth. Being an active listener, reinforcing that the therapist validates the client's feeling, is the primary focus of the therapist, and the client directs the process.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy: Is based upon the need to change behaviors and thought patterns to promote change. The therapist challenges the client's beliefs and assumptions about the world, to show their irrationality: "Why do you believe that no one likes you? How is that possible to know?" Changing the behavior changes the client's mood and way of being in the world, and creates more positive coping strategies. This type of therapy often of short duration and goal-focused.
Family systems therapy: Focuses on the family system and the individual in a social context. The therapist examines the functional role of individuals within the family, such as who plays the role of the 'bad boy,' examines issues of codependency, and attempts to alter interpersonal relationships to create a more productive unit. It is based on the assumption that individuals cannot be understood in isolation from one another, and tries to be culturally sensitive to differences in families from other demographics. The therapy examines the family as a structural unit, such as triangles; relationship patterns: marital conflict, dysfunction, child impairment, emotional distance; projection; multigenerational transmission of behaviors; reducing or cutting off emotional contact with certain members; sibling positions, and the family's social location in a larger demographic (Family systems, 2009, Genogram).
Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,
CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at http://www.genopro.com/genogram/family-systems-theory/