Public Management Over the Last Essay

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Like what was stated previously one of the biggest issues facing China was large amounts of corruption taking place. This caused many local governments to experience runaway deficits and inefficiency. Under new public sector management, the government would address this issue by: using a combination of privatization / government-based models that were discussed earlier, it reduced the size of government, improved the rule of law and they would allow the free market to set prices (to a certain extent). These different elements would provide a way of reducing corruption, by taking power out of the hands of government officials. Instead, this power would be divided in a loosely-based confederation between the government and various private entities. This is significant, because it shows how these reforms were able to reduce corruption, by providing various checks and balances of government officials. (Lunt 2010)

E government would be used as a tool to provide the government with a way of more effectively responding to the people. Where, it helped improve economic development and it would be useful in monitoring corruption. These different elements are important, because they show the how government is seeking to improve responsiveness and how quickly they can provide these different services to the people. (Lunt 2010)

In the case of China, they have developed new public sector management, by using it as a way to increase the performance of the government and how various services are delivered. The difference is how these services are provided, where they will often use a model that is combination of the government, private business or the government indirectly funding various projects. As a result, the strategy that they are utilizing is: one that will increase the reforms dramatically in certain areas, while maintaining some form of political control.

New Zealand

New Zealand would achieve independence from Great Britain in 1948. Where, the government would follow a model that was occurring around the world, central planning, with the government heavily involved in many sectors of the economy. While, overall amounts of control were not as extreme as in China, the government was the main provider of: housing, wages, social services, education and health care. In the years between 1948 and 1984, this model would be expanded rapidly, as the country would enjoy tremendous amounts of economic prosperity during the 1950's and 1960's. However, by the 1970's the economy would begin to implode, with the country facing the forces of stagflation and rising unemployment. These two factors would lead to the realization that reforms were needed, in the way various services were provided. In 1984, the Labor party would implement a series of reforms; that would seek to redefine the relationship between the government and the people. These reforms would continue throughout the 1990's, when the National party would come to power. (New Zealand a very Short History n.d.) The results were that a new way would be developed, in how the government would respond to needs of the people, as new public sector management became the strategy utilized to achieve this objective. Under the model used in New Zealand this would include a number of different elements such as: selling various state assets to private entities, making the government run similar to a business, reducing the size of ministries and reducing government interference through reduce regulation / the delivery of services. Selling various state assets was a part of the realization that different entities of the private sector, could deliver services more effectively. Making the government run similar to a business is when: you are attempting to reduce the overall amounts of inefficiency in the government. To help improve responsiveness, the government would use various forms of information technology. This would allow them to more effectively communicate with the people. Reducing the size of ministries involved: decreasing the size of the ministry, by splitting its responsibilities into two different functions (separating policy advice from the delivery of different services). Reducing government influence through regulation is when you are limiting, the overall power of government officials to regulate the private sector. The results of these effects were that the reforms were to extreme, which would expose the economy to various swings in the economic cycle. As the government would begin to modify the way new public sector management was being applied, by focusing on: of partnership, coordination, services users, rebuilding trust / professional ethos of public service, cohesion, and modernizing administration systems. (New Zealand a very Short History n.d.)

In the case of New Zealand, they used new public sector management, as way to reduce the overall amounts of government regulations and how various services are provided, by liberalizing government controls on key industries. This would lead to a shift in the way various services were delivered, as the private sector would play an increasingly dominate role. However, this would expose the economy to volatile swings in the economic cycle, which would lead an increase in government regulations. In this aspect, new public sector management was based more on values rather than efficiency, where the government was trying to give the citizens more of a choice as to how they want various services delivered to them.

UK

The UK would follow a similar approach to what was occurring in New Zealand, where the years after World War II would see a massive increase in the size of the government. This would mean that many government ministries would play a central role, in providing a variety of different services to the general public. During the 1950's and 1960's, the economy would experience unprecedented amounts of growth that would cause the size of the government to increase even more. However, by the 1970's, stagflation and high unemployment would make this model ineffective at meeting the needs of the people. This would lead to large amounts of deregulation that would occur during the 1980's and into the 1990's. With new public sector management being the core principal defining these reforms, as the government was utilizing similar tools and strategies that were being used in New Zealand. The only difference is that the central role of government would not be as reduced, as it was in New Zealand. By 1997, this model had given the private sector to much control over the economy, which made the public nervous. When, Tony Blair was elected, he would institute a wave of embracing the ideas of new public sector management, while increasing the overall role that government would play. This is similar to what occurred in New Zealand, as the total amounts of reforms during the 1980's and early 1990's would become too extreme, which would involve a shift in the role that government would play under this new model. (United Kingdom a very Short History n.d.)

South Korea

South Korea would undergo a period of state planning and militarization from the 1950's into the early 1990's. This was in response to the devastating civil war that the country would fight with North Korea, resulting in the total devastation of all infrastructure. To revitalize the economy, a period of heavy central planning and militarization would occur. During the 1960's until the mid to late 1980's, this would help South Korea begin to experience unprecedented economic growth. However, corruption became more rampant, as families that were tied to the government, were able to have control over various state controlled industries. This would lead to the implementation of new public sector management, during the late 1980's and into the 1990's. This led to reforms of the economy and the government, with many state controlled industries being deregulated. In the government itself, they created an open competition system for government jobs to include: increased transparency, greater accountability and to challenge the vested interests of government officials. This was accomplished using information technology (e-government); to more effectively respond to the needs of the people. The results were that this would increase transparency, helping South Korea to become a major economic powerhouse in region. In many ways, one could argue that the shift to new public management procedures would have profound impact upon the success of the country. (South Korea a very Short History n.d.) (Lunt 2010)

North Korea

In the decades following the end of the Korean War, North Korea would engage in an aggressive policy of self suitability, utilizing a combination of the ideas of: Marxism and Leninism. During this time, they would collectivize land ownership and nationalize various industries. By the 1960's this policy would provide the country with above average economic growth. However, once the Soviet Union and China began to reduce aid, is when the country would face economic challenges going forward. As time went by, North Korea would try to seek improve relations with the West. Yet, each attempt at re engagement was subsequently refused. This would lead to a desperate situation, as the government would have trouble…[continue]

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