Kinesics interviewing identifies and "interprets a range of verbal and nonverbal, conscious and unconscious behavior" (Ibid) that individual typically exhibit when questioned.
The more definite the pattern of an individual's observed behaviors, the more likely the person being questioned is being "being evasive or untruthful." No single behavior, however, stands alone or can serve as absolute proof regarding the validity of a statement. Instead, a combination of behaviors need to be assessed.
The interviewer must look at the cumulative message of behaviors.
The following behavior includes not only how the words are spoken, but also components that accompany speech; for instance: stalling; hesitating; being excessively polite; responding to a question with another question; trying to attach validity to a response by invoking God or religion ("I swear to God"). (Ibid.) Gaining and maintaining a client's attention during interviews is a key technique for securing relevant data. Although I do not perceive my clients to be criminals, studying and utilizing interviewing techniques from law enforcement, I contend, has strengthened my ability to obtain more relevant data during the interview process.
When My Learning Took Place
My learning of components of Dynamics of Case Management began in 1997 and continues even today.
1. In 1997, when I first began working at the Capital Region Workforce Development Board in Hartford Connecticut until I left my position there in 2000, I basically worked full time, 40 hours per week. At times, when a need arose for me to work additional hours, I made a point to be available. I learned first and foremost that I had to discipline myself, as well as strengthen myself in skills in my chosen profession. "Step-by-step," a concept Watson (2002) proposes in regard to training, has also become a part of my training mode training others, staff and clients, as well as disciplining myself. Training, albeit, is not always the solution for performance deficiency. Sometimes, an observed deficiency may be due to a lack of knowledge or skill, and in turn, "training will serve no purpose."
My work from 2001 to 2002 at Catholic Family Services, also in Hartford, Connecticut also consisted of 40 and sometimes 40+ hours per week, as I was employed full time. As I invested more time in learning more about Oral Communication and trying the following five steps, known as the ADDIE mode, are used in terms related to security manager, etc. But relate as well to Case Management training:
Analysis. The first phase of the ADDIE model, instructional analysis, is the foundation on which the entire program is built. The security manager needs to determine whether training is the proper solution and, if so, what the goal or outcome of the specific training will be....
Design. The next phase deals with the design of the training. With the instructional objectives now written, the security manager must determine what format the training course will take....
Development. The security manager will need to determine exactly what the course or training will look like. To this end, the security manager will use the instructional objectives from the analysis phase and the formatting decision made in the design phase and review the available resources at his or her disposal, with training specifics depending on the size of the department and the level of formality desired for the final product.
Implementation. Implementing the program is the next step. Once again, depending on the size of the operation, available resources, and the level of formality desired, this step can take as little as one day or as much as several months to complete.
Evaluation. The purpose of the evaluation phase is to determine whether students have learned the intended knowledge or skills. Managers can determine the success of the program by repeating the analysis phase to see whether the performance gap has been eliminated. But the manager must also review the training program itself, considering performance results over time, feedback from the learners, associated costs, and operational impacts on the department. These results, taken in their totality, should then be used to improve the training program. (Ibid) began a new position in 2003, but continued to work at the Catholic Family Services full-time. During this time, I gained extensive experience in the Hunan Services field, including employment and training,
People Involved in This Learning
1. Individuals involved in my life in 1997 to 2000 when I worked as Client Services
2. People who know me and supported my work from 2001 to 2002, as Assistant Project Coordinator/Team Leader at Catholic Family Services, also in Hartford, Connecticut, include:
3. Individuals involved in my life during my work from 2003 until the present at Catholic Family Services include:
4. Demonstrate familiarity with a variety of techniques and methods for collecting client data, such as telephone contact office contact, in-home visits emergency screening, family interviews, and information from other agencies.
Techniques and methods for collecting client data for case management of a client include:
Telephone contact: This may occur prior to or after initial, personal contact with Client, which may take place in Case Manager's office, in Client's home, in other agency setting, mutually agreed-upon meeting place, etc. During telephone contact, Case Manager may use a variety of methods to collect data from Client. At times, specific questions will merit specific answers. At other times, however, Case Manager may need to disguise his/her quest for data in a more general conversational method.
During office contacts, techniques to obtain data may range from Case Manager verbalizing specific questions to having Client fill in particular forms. Case Manager may need to fill in forms for client if client is unable to read or cannot read very well.
During in-home visits with Client, Case manager may use same techniques utilized in phone calls and/or during office contact to retrieve needed data.
When Case Manager visits with Client in emergency screening, along with obtaining data from Client (if client is able to respond), Case Manager may also solicit data from family member and/or friend who is with Client. Staff employed by emergency organization may also provided needed information.
During family interviews, information may be obtained from family members individually, as well as, from members in group setting. At times, Case Manager may have to implement creative guidelines to help insure communications remain positive and on task.
Case Manager may obtain information from other agencies, after securing a signed Release of Information form from client.
There are advantages and disadvantages involved with each of the techniques used to obtain data:
Telephone contact may be difficult to complete as Client may not have access to a phone or refuse to answer phone. At times, Client may not be "free" to share particular information, if someone else is listening to conversation. An advantage to support phone contact is that it saves time when information is immediately needed.
Office contact proves to be advantageous at times, as Client may readily share his/her concerns in face-to-face. A disadvantage can be complications related to transportation if Client does not own vehicle or cannot drive.
In -home visits prove to be positive for Case Manager as he/she is able to observe Client in his/her natural habitat, which usually reveals even more information that other methods.
A disadvantage to obtaining data in an emergency screening is that tensions may run higher than normal due to stressors related to emergency situations. This can prove to be an advantage; however as Case Manager may witness how Client deals with crises situations.
Family interviews can turn into emotional confrontations that may prove to be an disadvantage or a disadvantage. Unchecked meetings with family members may turn into a crisis. On the other hand, they may prove to be an advantage, as Case Manager will likely learn more about more personal family concerns and issues.
Information from other agencies may be a disadvantage or advantage. If Client does not or cannot divulge particular data that would compliment his/her case, information from other agencies will prove to be advantageous. If other agencies, on the other hand, have inadequate; poorly presented; false information, this may prove disadvantageous for Client and Case Manager.
A professional, comprehensive assessment is generally accepted as an intervention which may foster constructive outcomes. As it increases a client's understanding of their personal situation and awareness of available resources for them, an assessment may also help a client acknowledge their need to change and motivate them to commit to change and consequently begin to change. (Gursansky, Harvey & Kennedy, p 65)
5. Evaluate intake and referral procedures through an analysis of a case study. What were the strengths and weaknesses of that process? What would you change and why? Was there collaboration with agencies? Were treatment objectives specific, attainable and measurable? Was the client directly engaged in the treatment plan?