Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Ro Vargo" (Vargo, & Vargo, 2005, p 27) that focuses on the life story of a young girl called Ro whose parent enrolls in a regular tradition school from kindergarten through college. The girl had some intellectual disability because she could not communicate properly with people. Despite her disability, her parent showered her a parental care and brought her up in a way they would have done if Ro were a normal child. The parent made an effort to ensure that Ro developed excellent psychological and educational developments. To assist Ro enjoying positive educational development, Ro's parents enrolled her in a kindergarten school, and showered her love to assist Ro enhancing positive psychological development.
Overview of the whole issue reveals that Ro's story is consistence with a developmental pathway of socio-cultural theory. Socio-cultural theory is an emerging theory that reveals the importance of the society to an individual mental development. The theory stresses that interaction with people within the cultural environment is very critical for mental development of an individual. The socio-cultural theory was developed from the work of Lev Vygotsky, a psychologist who believed that parents, peers, caregivers as well as a culture at large are responsible for the development and high order functions of a child. According to Vygotsky, a child developmental process appears twice: First, on a social level and on the individual level. A child developmental stage at a social level is referred as inter-psychological, while the child individual developmental stage is intra-psychological. Essentially, the theory argues that both the inter-psychological and intra-psychological affect logical memory and relationship of individual towards the society.
Parritz & Troy (2014) contribute to the argument t by pointing out that it is critical to focus on the multiple environmental settings, which a child is embedded. Typically, understanding different stage of development promotes children learning ability. Thus, it is critical to implement an effective approach to understand child psychopathology environmental learning to assist children to cope with distress and dysfunction.
Effectively, socio-cultural theory enhances a greater understanding on the dynamic interdependence between individual learning process and social-cultural norm. A human cognitive development is supported by the interaction of the social environment where an individual has grown up. Several examples in the story are consistent with the socio-cultural theory. The next section discusses examples in the story, which are consistent with the socio-cultural theory.
Examples from the story Consistent with the Theory
One of the examples in the story consistence to the socio-cultural theory was the first invitation of Ro to a birthday party when she was in the kindergarten. Typically, Kristen's mother was aware of Ro's disability and she called Ro's mother whether she could make a special arrangement for Ro at the birthday. It was revealed that there was an aspect of socio-cultural influence on Ro development despite that she was still a kid. In essence, Kristen daughter liked Ro to attend party because "She says she likes Ro's smile and that Ro is someone you can really talk to ... And that she wears really neat clothes" (Vargo, & Vargo, 2005 p 27). Thus, it is revealed that Ro peers also started to accept Rio despite her disability.
Similar issue in the story consistence to the socio-cultural model was the time when Ro was in the second grade. Ro's parent invited "several kids to Ro's birthday party." (Vargo, & Vargo, 2005 p 27). To ensure that the kids attend the party and making Ro enjoying the social relations with her peers, her parents voluntarily aimed picking every kid from schools. For example, Ro parent called Eric's mother politely and asked whether Eric would attend the Ro's party. However, the Eric mother replied that Eric had already confirmed that he would attend the Ro birthday party. Essentially, organizing birthday party for Ro and inviting Ro peers to the birthday is an example of the issues consistence with the socio-cultural model.
Another example of the issue in the story consistence with the theory is the fact Ro parent not only enrolled Ro in school, the parent also enrolled her in the church service. Typically, the parent ensured that the pastor enrolled Ro in the church service so that Ro could receive the Holy Communion. Essentially, school and church are the ideal places where individuals could interact with people to develop essential social-cultural relations. Churches and schools assist individuals to make friends with people of the same ages. To ascertain that Ro received the First Holy Communion from the church, the Ro parent approached the pastor. The strategy was to assist Ro receiving the Holy Communion with the kids of the same age. Essentially, when the Ro's parents approached the pastor that Ro would become the member of Holy Communion, the pastor was excited that Ro was ready to receive the Lord. The pastor was also more existed about the effect Ro's presence would have in the church. Typically, Ro presence in the church would assist Ro to achieve positive experience. (Vargo, & Vargo, 2005). During the First Communion Day when Ro was called to the altar, her parent was very happy. The liturgy ended with kisses, tears and hugs of a renewed believe that Ro had received the Christ.
"A non-Catholic friend, unaware of the spiritual significance of the day for us, said she was intensely moved by seeing Ro in a seemingly transfixed state. Her reaction brought back memories of our pastor's words about the potential effect of Ro's Communion on others' lives." (Vargo, & Vargo, 2005 p 27).
When Ro got to the 4th grade class, her classmate voted Ro as the "Best Friend." Typically, "Ro's inclusion in the school life "made a tremendous difference in the life of many kids." (Vargo, & Vargo, 2005 p 27). Ro's "giftedness" was celebrated and recognized. It was a tremendous opportunity for Ro to enjoy full benefit of social relations. Typically, Ro was highly recognized by her classmate despite Ro's disability and she was always at the center of the class. Tiffany, who was one of the Ro's friends even remarked that Ro's being the member of the class was very beneficial for the class because she was learning a lot from Ro.
Overview of the socio-cultural theoretical framework reveals that the theory has a profound implication on children schooling, teaching and education. Typically, the theory influences the cognitive development of a child because participating in activities will assist a child to develop effective communication and social interactions. More importantly, the socio-cultural theory reveals that a child's life can be developed through the interaction with social world and participation in activities enhances cognitive and communication functions of a child. Apart from learning at school, learning also comes from social events as well as making interaction with the object, people and events. Thus, the social-cultural theory builds an individual personal development and self-esteem.
The socio-cultural theory further points out that an adult is very critical in accomplishing a child developmental change and personal development. For example, each cycle that a child displays is very important; this begins with smile, babble and a direct reach. The adult's interpretation and reactions transform a child emerging behavior and relations into a social act. With continuous interaction between the child and parent, a child gradually masters the socio-cultural context.
Enrolling Ro in the regular and traditional schooling with the support of stable and healthy home life assists Ro to overcome several barriers in its developmental cycle, which influence her intellectual growth.
Full Inclusion Research
Inclusionists argue that special educators and regular classroom teachers can assist children with disabilities to acquire important knowledge, skills and behaviors that will facilitate child school learning. (Tienda, 2013). In essence, such achievement will depend on the continuum placement of regular classroom teachers and special educators. Thus, special educators' placement in school offers individualized, specialized and intensive education development.
However, full inclusion paradigm argues that the primary function of educators is to assist children with disabilities establishing friendships with non-disable individuals. (Tienda, 2013). Polat, (2011) point out that there has a move towards inclusive education globally, which attempts to integrate children with learning disabilities into the mainstream of non-disabled peers. The author argues that the goal of inclusive education is to maximize participation of everybody in the mainstream of normal educational system and minimize discriminatory educational system.
Algozzine, et al. (2012) contribute to the argument by pointing out that the goal of education is to assist students maximizing their performances, and students with learning disabilities should be educated in the same learning environment with students without disabilities. In essence, students with disabilities should have access to the same learning curriculum similar to the curriculum of normal students.
Typically, educators are required to assist child with disabilities to achieve a normal development. Moreover, educators are required to assist disable child to develop social skills, which will make them interacting more effectively in the societal context with family members, friends, and society. However, full inclusion paradigm can assist child with disabilities…[continue]
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