Schizophrenia Affects the Brain Person & Family Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

Schizophrenia Affects the Brain, Person, & Family

This paper looks at the how schizophrenia affects the brain, the person, & the family, also looking at the history of the subject and its role within society. Bibliography cites four sources


Schizophrenia is one of a range of mental conditions that is widely misunderstood. May see it as a relatively recent disease, and the term has only been in use for about a century. However the condition is not new. This disease, which is one of the most disabling of the range of metal conditions, can be traced back for millennia. The first documented cases appears to have occurred in Ancient Egypt, where a discretion of the condition is described in the Eber papyrus, in the Book of Hearts (Okasha, 1999). The condition was not understood in detail, and the treatment was usually incubation, this was an achieved by spending the night in the temple, and the dreams would then be interpreted in seeking the answer to the cause of the illness (Okasha, 1999).

Hippocrates saw the condition as an hormonal imbalance, and with the work of people such as Kraeplin and Bleuler the understanding of the disease has developed greatly. The illness is now divided into five subcategories; catatonic, paranoid, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002). Typically, the disease will be evident before the age of forty five and the symptoms must be present for at least six months. There are a range of symptoms, and these will present in different combinations, with only some, but not all evident.

There are some difficulties with diagnosing schizophrenia, as the onset may be gradual when it occurs in industrialised nations, in developing nations the same condition tends to have a more sudden appearance (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002). One tool used for the diagnosis of the condition is the DSM tests. Here the symptoms are considered, and there needs to be a history of six months with at least two of the symptoms present during the last month. These symptoms are;

Delusions; these are beliefs that are false and do not appear to have any logical grounding or basis in reality (Anonymous, 2002).

Hallucinations; This means seeing, feeling or hearing things that are not there (Anonymous, 2002).

Disorganised speech (Anonymous, 2002).

Disorganised behaviour or catatonic behaviour; unusual motor behaviour marked with a decline in "reactivity to the environment," or hyperactivity which is not related to stimulus (Anonymous, 2002).

Negative symptoms; these may be a lack of reactions or apparent lack of emotions (Anonymous, 2002).

The difficulty may not only be with a gradual onset, but also the way it may be, missed, as an onset nay result in an increased isolation and withdrawal form society, so that there are less possibilities for the symptoms to be missed (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002).

If we look at the different categories of schizophrenia they are differentiated by the symptoms, catatonic schizophrenia has the symptoms of motor disturbances, stupor, rigidity and negativism, lack of personal care, excitement, and potential also a decrease in response to painful stimulus (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002). As already noted not all symptoms will be present in any single patient.

Paranoid schizophrenia is marked with symptoms such as delusions thoughts, such as persecution or even grandeur, anger, anxiety and/or violence and a tendency to be augmentative (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002). Disorganized schizophrenia has the symptoms of regressive behaviour, incoherence, delusions and/or hallucinations, laughter at inappropriate times, unusual mannerisms and a social withdrawal (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002). Undifferentiated schizophrenics may display symptoms form more than a single subcategory, and residual type can be seen as a type where the most dominant symptoms of the disease have reduced, but some symptoms, for example hallucinations, may still continue (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002).

Schizophrenia has an incidence rate of roughly 1% of the population spread equally between men and women. In terms of prognosis some may recover completely and for the majority of cases there can be an improvement to the level of regaining independent living, but ten percent of suffers will commit suicide (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002).

The causes are unknown, but it is known there is a strong genetic link. With two parents that do not have the condition the likelihood of incidence is 1%, however, where one of the parents has the disease this probability increases to 13%, where both parents have the disease the probability increases to about 35% (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002). It has also been noted that twins have a higher likelihood of incidence, likelihood is increased by 17% for dizygotic twins, and between 40% - 60% for monozygothic twins, however, these are not fully conclusive figures (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002)

In most cases the initial psychotic episode in late adolescence or early adulthood. Onset after the age of thirty is unusual, and after the age for forty it is very rare (Anonymous, 2002). In men the onset will usually be between 16-25, with a greater onset being present in males in this age category. However, in the females there is a higher appearance of the disease in the age group 25 -30 (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002). By the age of thirty there is an roughly equal spread of the disease according to gender.

The recovery rates also vary, only between 20% - 30% have a recovery to the extent they may continue to live a normal life, the same percentage probabilities also apply to the number of sufferers that will have only moderate symptoms, between 40% - 60% will still remain significantly impaired (National Institute of Mental Health, 2002).

Most patients will respond well to drug treatment's, with only 15% unresponsive (Anonymous, 2002). In acute cases there will usually be a need for hospitalisation in order to protect the patient and also allow a more accurate diagnosis (Anonymous, 2002). Where a patient is in hospital this will also be able to medicate the patient. Drugs used are the antipsychotic drugs, which are also known as neuroleptics, these have been used since the 1950's and can have a marked effect, with an average of a 75% improvement (Anonymous, 2002, National Institute of Mental Health, 2002).

There are two types of antipsychotic drugs, traditional antipsychotics and new antipsychotics. The traditional drug operates by reducing the symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. Examples of these types of drug include chlorpromazine, haloperidol and fluphenazine (RXlist, 2002). The drugs operate by the blocking of the dopamine receptors and are effective for the treatment of positive symptoms (RXlist, 2002).

The drugs are not without side effect, these may include mild side effects such as dry mouth, the blurring of vision, constipation and dizziness (RXlist, 2002). There are also some more serious potential side effexr such as those similar to the onset of symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease with muscle tremors or rigidity, Dystonia; unusual movements, Akathisia; agitation and restlessness and a possibility of the accordance of Tardive dyskinesia, this is a movement disorder that appears later in life (Anonymous, 2002). Prolonged usage may also create facial ticks, lip licking and panting.

The newer antipsychotics are serotonin-dopamine antagonists (SDAs) (RXlist, 2002). These alleviate the same symptoms, but on a different way, this time they block the dopamine receptors, as seen with the traditional antipsychotics, but they also block the serotonin receptors, and as such it is treating not only the positive symptoms, but also the negative symptoms (Anonymous, 2002).These are seen as better drugs for some cases as the side effects are lower and the range of symptoms that they treat are wider.

Once the worst symptoms are controlled the patient may be released from hospital, however, there are often many…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Schizophrenia Affects The Brain Person & Family" (2002, July 04) Retrieved December 2, 2016, from

"Schizophrenia Affects The Brain Person & Family" 04 July 2002. Web.2 December. 2016. <>

"Schizophrenia Affects The Brain Person & Family", 04 July 2002, Accessed.2 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Schizophrenia Psychosis and Lifespan D Schizophrenia and

    Schizophrenia Psychosis and Lifespan D Schizophrenia and Psychosis and Lifespan Development Schizophrenia and Psychosis Matrix Disorder Major DSM-IV-TR Categories Classifications Subclassifications Schizophrenia and Psychosis Symptoms Positive (Type I): represent excesses or distortions from normal functioning Delusions Bizarre Nonbizarre Hallucinations Auditory Visual Disorganized Speech Loose Association Neologisms Clang Associations Echolalia/Echopraxia Word Salad Grossly disorganized behavior Catatonic: motoric Waxy Flexibility Negative (Type II): the absence of functioning Apathy Affective Flattening Withdrawal Anhedonia Avolition Poor Concentration Poverty of speech Alogia Schizophrenia and Psychosis Diagnostic Types Paranoid Delusions and Hallucinations Disorganized Disorganized speech Disorganized behavior Withdrawal Affective flattening Catatonic Grossly disorganized behavior Disorganized speech Catatonic Echolalia/Echopraxia Undifferentiated Active symptoms that do not fit other diagnostic types Residual No Type I symptoms but some negative symptoms Schizoaffective

  • Schizophrenia When People Think of What it

    Schizophrenia When people think of what it means to 'go crazy,' quite often the common image that comes to mind is that of someone with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a serious mental health disorder that can be physically, socially, and personally destabilizing. "Schizophrenia affects men and women equally. It occurs at similar rates in all ethnic groups around the world. Symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions usually start between ages 16 and

  • Affect of Tylenol Overdose on the Cardiopulmonary System

    Tylenol Overdose Health Sciences 101 The Health Impact of Acetaminophen Overdose Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common over-the-counter (OTC), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic that is more commonly known as Tylenol®, a product of Johnson & Johnson1. Overseas the drug is called paracetamol and is manufactured and sold by countless generic drug makers. A number of concerns regarding the safety of APAP have arisen over the past several years, including liver and kidney toxicity and adverse cardiovascular

  • Affect on Social and Economic Standards

    Business on Social Standards It is often said that air, water, food, clothing, and shelter are the basic needs for human survival. However, while this statement may be fundamentally true, the fact is that the structure of modern day economies has resulted in expanding basic human needs to include a whole host of products and services. Indeed, this is evident in the manner in which the average consumer sees yesterday's

  • Brain Dysfunction in Criminal Behavior

    Brain Dysfunction and Criminal Behavior Criminal behavior can be caused by many things, social inequality, class differences, drug or alcohol addiction, peer pressure to name a few. These are all external conditions which can lead to criminal behavior. However, scientists are now starting to discover the link between dysfunction of the actions of the brain and a person's propensity to engage in criminal conduct. Individuals with brain dysfunction either caused by

  • Brain the Left and Right Brain the

    Brain The left and right brain The left brain vs. The right brain: How does this impact learning The left brain vs. The right brain: How does this impact learning People often categorize themselves or others as left brained or right brained. This is based on the functions of brain. It is said that the people using right brain more emotions oriented, intuitive, creative, imaginative and subjective. On the other hand, the left brain

  • Investigations Workplace Violence

    Workplace Violence Everyday in the United States millions of Americans leave their homes and enter the places of their employment. Captain Among these millions, most report to work unaware of the prevalence of workplace violence or fully understand the gamut of actions that represent such violence. It is typical of the media to only report high profile cases including a former employee or a worker losing control - the most

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved