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, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Because of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips, candy, soda, and other foods that are fine in moderation but are not good as a daily diet for young children (Mokdad, et al., 1999). It is clear that obesity is a serious problem in children and one that is not easily solved.
Based on the background and other information presented here, there are four specific research questions that will be asked:
Which age-groups profit best from prevention interventions?
In regard to the gender effects of prevention intervention, what can be done to improve effects in the less successful sex?
Which approach of prevention is most effective and efficient - universal, selective, or targeted prevention?
What are the best ways to include parents in these interventions and does this improve the effects?
Overview of the Study of this importance and magnitude needs an overview so that the reader can be provided with a sort of road map that makes them aware of exactly what will be involved in the study. The first chapter detailed some of the basic information that will be dealt with in the rest of the study, including the statement of the problem and the rationale behind why the study was conducted. These are all very important issues to discuss, as they set the stage for what will come later.
In Chapter Two, the literature on this subject will be reviewed. The literature review chapter will be relatively extensive, as there is a lot of literature that has been written about childhood obesity and there are many theories that deal with it in some way. These theoretical ideas are very important because they help with an understanding of what the problem and the beliefs surrounding it stemmed from. The most important thing is the idea that the literature review must be complete and thorough in order to ensure a solid understanding of the rest of the chapters.
Chapter Three will be thorough, as it is important to ensure that the type of analysis being done is clear and that all limitations, validity issues, and other possible considerations are studied and defined. The data analysis will be included in Chapter Four. This chapter will examine the data that was collected by the method discussed in Chapter Three. The results of the analysis will be shown in Chapter Four so that conclusions and recommendations can be detailed in the following chapter. Chapter Four is possibly the most important chapter in the study because it will provide the solid information that the rest of the study is based on and show whether what was suspected appears to be accurate in the end.
Chapter Five will summarize the entire study and discuss the information that was provided in it. Also in that chapter will be the conclusions that were reached by the researcher and the recommendations that the researcher made toward future research into the issue. This is also very important, because every study has some limitations that must be dealt with and leaves possibilities for other researchers in the future. These possibilities should be pointed out so that research that is done in the future can take the proper direction and provide the most beneficial information where the issue of childhood obesity is concerned.
There is a real and definite need in today's society to teach physical education in schools, along with classes that deal with health education. There are many reasons why this information would be thought to be valuable for teachers and parents alike, and it is with this in mind that the following pages will discuss the importance of physical education in schools for lowering obesity in the childhood population.
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
There is a growing trend of obesity in the country today, and part of the blame for this appears to be falling on the schools, because many parts of the country no longer have mandatory physical education classes. This is especially true for the higher grades, such as high school and even some middles schools, depending on what part of the country they are located in. This trend of obesity is no longer affecting only adults, and this is becoming more troubling to those in schools and other arenas that must work with and teach children. Many of the habits that young children used to have are no longer present, and this is causing obesity, as well as diseases such as type II diabetes, to appear in children. Before, diseases such as this one were only seen in the adult population (Langford & Carter, 2003).
The medical community appears to be somewhat alarmed by the amount of adult diseases that are now being seen in children, and the amount of obese children that are found in this country. There is great concern for the future, because what one generation does, that generation tends to pass on to their children. It was not that long ago that most people in America were thin or average built. Now, over 60% of Americans are overweight. This trend did not happen overnight, but it is clear that it must be reversed.
One of the ways to reverse this trend is to start with children. When they learn healthy habits they will grow up and teach these habits to their children. Eventually, the trend of obesity will begin to diminish. However, the goal becomes not only getting children interested in physical activity, but keeping them interested in it long enough to develop a habit that will remain with them into adulthood.
This problem involves parents and teachers alike, but mostly it is the students that are affected and harmed by it, even though many of them may not realize it at the time. The habits that people learn when they are children often carry over into their adult lives, and when these habits involve little exercise, that person can become obese or suffer from other health problems simply because they are sedentary (Burgeson, Wechsler, Brener, Young, & Spain, 2001; Pennington & Krouscas, 1999; Chung & Phillips, 2002).
Whether or not the school system is to blame for the problem of obesity in this country is currently a matter of opinion. Because of this, it is not designed to be a matter for discussion throughout this paper. However, it is important that people become aware of the fact that physical education in the school system has been declining in recent years. The number of overweight and obese children has also been rising in recent years. It would appear as though there is a correlation, although it likely could not be proven, since other factors have also certainly contributed to the amount of overweight children. It is estimated that one out of every three school children between the ages of 6 and 11 has a weight problem, and that the number of children who are overweight in this country has actually doubled over the past 30 years (Burgeson, et al., 2001).
Naturally, the concern over obese and overweight children is a concern to both parents and teachers. Other than the lack of physical education taught in the schools, there are other reasons that children become overweight. It is not entirely the schools' fault that there are obesity problems in America's children today. However, the purpose of this paper is to discuss issues that relate to the teaching of physical fitness and competitive sports to students of all ages throughout the school system. In this way, they learn about many things including health and good sportsmanship.
It is an important topic, but it is also a difficult one. Different age groups require different teaching methods and not all children enjoy taking physical education for various reasons. It appears that children that are in high school are the most outspoken about what they would enjoy in their physical education classes, while children in the younger grades tend not to…[continue]
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Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9). 3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that
Knowing that students in minority and low socio-economic groups have in the past traditionally scored lower on state adopted achievement tests, most school districts allot extra time and resources to improve their test scores. Furthermore, variation in teacher competencies from facility to facility and even year to year may also compromise accurate assessment of the effectiveness of the interventions in this area. Conclusion Many factors contribute to obesity including activity levels,
School Health Education HEALTH THROUGH EDUCATION Comprehensive School Health Education Kolbe's Expectations Dr. Lloyd Kolbe lines up the expectations of a school health education. These are: increased understanding about the science of individual and societal health; increased competency to make decisions about personal behaviors that influence health; increased skills required to form behaviors conducive to health; contribute to the development and maintenance of such behaviors; and enhancement of these skills to maintain and improve
Parental consent will also be sought for an individual to be a participant in the project. It is expected that 110 persons would participate in the project; this will be the final number after the initial screening has taken place and the unsuitable candidates removed from the initial listing. Data collection The data will be collected using questionnaires which will be administered at the beginning of the program to establish a
In other words, sports participation may actually discourage some children from being physically active. Another current intervention is to reduce the amount of time that a child spends in front of a screen of some sort. Screens, whether computer screens, video game screens, or television screens all encourage children to be passive recipients of entertainment, rather than active players in a game of some sort. What is fascinating is that
S. is between $4.8 and $6.1 billion, as is suggested by the analysis presented in the first paragraph of this report, only 3.3% to 4.2% of these children would need to achieve a healthy weight to achieve the break-even point for the cost of the intervention. There is a significant limitation to this health promotion proposal. A moderate-sized study investigating the efficacy of the LEAP program revealed small, non-significant improvements in
Non-Pharmological interventions for ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a relatively common affliction that affects approximately 3 to 5% of school age children in the United States (Friel, 2007). Although the majority of research into effective interventions for this disorder are primarily focused on pharmacological therapies (Karpouzis et al., 2009), some researchers have explored the efficacy of non-pharmacological treatments, such as types of psychotherapy and alternative interventions. It has been