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Sexual Abuse-Does it exist in every culture?
Sexual abuse along with violence is an issue of serious concern that go beyond factors such as social, economical, racial and regional lines. The common victims of sexual abuse are females and youth, and the reason behind them being victim is that they are either lacking social or economical status to defend against or steer clear of it (Adams, 1998).
Females and youths, particularly, undergo sexual abuses in various forms, such as, sexual assault or rape, domestic violence, exploited sexually, and genital mutilation of women. Due to the less amount of research carried out, finding out the exact amount of sexual abuse prevalence in third world countries is hard (Crowder, 1995). Moreover there is also difficulty in assessing the reporting of sexual abuse due the cultural background. Throughout many years, sexual abuse has turn out to be a social issue which is "mediatized." To be precise, the studies and researches used to describe sexual abuse are predicated on models that are psychopathological. Culture is an aspect of sexual abuse; however the exact nature of association between sexual abuse and culture is still debatable topic. According to Sanday (1979), sexual abuse is a part of violence culture where there is a dominance of males.
As far as modern societies are concerned, the sexual abuse rate varies considerably, and among the other cultures, the culture of United States is on the whole rape-prone of all. For instance, the sexual abuse reported in United States was 18 times more in 1980 than the equivalent ratio of United Kingdom (Andrews, 2004).
Sexual abuses widely exist in the third world countries. There is also serious life and health expectancy of females. According to the World Bank, the estimation of domestic violence and sexual abuse results in 5% of females' healthy life years of reproductive age in developing countries (Crowder, 1995).
Throughout the globe, about 47% victims of sexual assaults are girls of age 15 or more. In a study of Uganda, it was revealed that 49% of girls of primary school who were sexually active said to have been forced for the sexual intercourse (Hoffman, 2005). In the third world countries, sexual abuse occurs in both rural and urban environments. In a study of Zimbabwean city revealed that 50% of the rape cases involved girls of age 15 years (Hoffman, 2005). Girls of this age are the most vulnerable victims of sexual abuse by males who are neighbors, teachers and relatives.
In the third world countries women are helpless and remain silent about their abuse and rape due to the threat of social dishonor. There have been instances in the Zimbabwe where rape and sexual abuse cases are settled outside the court by means of paying compensation to the father of victim girl or paid a price of marrying her so to avoid attention of public and stigma to the female and her family (D'Haene, 2002).
It is not by choice that female gets involved in sexual activities i.e. reports regarding the third world countries shows that most of these females are forced to have sex. A study of Malawi revealed that about 60% of young female of ages 12 to 26 reported being forced in sexual activities (D'Haene, 2002). 30% of these females have no choice but to get involved in such activities due to their economic crises, as sexual activities is the easiest job opportunity to avail for them.
A report carried out in Ethiopia shows the estimation of 30% of the prostitutes range from age 13 to 27 where in some cases the engagement of underage females in such prostitution might be far much greater than anticipated. In another study of Kenya, it was revealed that 50% girls involved in sexual activities admitted that they receive gifts in a way of cash, or clothes, jewelry from their sex partners when they indulge in the prostitution for the first time. A study of Uganda had the same story with less percentage, about 22% girls of primary school revealed that they receives cash or ornaments gifts for consenting sex (Andrews, 2004).
There are various instances in the culture of third world country where there have been cases of young girls forced to marry older males. South Asian studies revealed that in rural areas of India and Pakistan there have been instances where immature girls of age 9 to 14 are forced by their fathers to marry older males, for this their fathers receive money as a reward while leaving little or no social or economical power for those girls. The girls reportedly die due to the early age pregnancy or suffer from other child birth complication for their entire life.
Sexual abuse against females in different culture exists to be a worldwide phenomena which results in killing, torturing and maiming of females of ages 12-30 which leaves them devastated in way of physical, psychological and economical (Birke et al., 2004). It is by far violating human rights at a high ratio by denial of the rights, security, dignity, equality and prestige and basic freedom of females.
The instances of sexual abuse exist in every country and beyond the cultural boundaries, status, education, age and ethnicity. Despite that fact that a lot of societies try to limit the practice of sexual abuse, however the harsh fact is that the cultural norms and practices are the main triggering elements of violating the rights of females. Furthermore, when sexual abuse takes place in a home, which has been frequently reported every now and then, the abuse is ignored effectively the by state and law enforcement agencies' inferred silence and submissiveness. The global sexual abuse rapid increase rate has been an alarming situation for the governments of the many countries. There is no society claimed to be clean of such abuse and violence yet there could be difference in the ratio of its occurrence and prevalence (Birke et al., 2004).
The major victims of sexual abuse in different cultures and third world countries are female groups who are immigrant, minority and locals, women who are refuge seekers, females having disabilities, underage females and mature women. Although there have been little information available based on the studies, there have been reports that about 25 to 60% of females becomes victim of sexual abuse by the intimate partner, a relative or a neighbor (D'Haene, 2002).
The increasing momentum has constrained a better cause and consequences understanding related to the sexual abuse against females, and therefore in a number of countries, positive steps are taken such as reforms and changes in laws dealing with the sexual abuse issues. Many activists, jurists and experts of human rights stressed that the sexual abuse often with severe results imposed on females is similar to torturing in terms of both temperament and brutality. The abuser commits it intentionally for various reasons including punishing, intimidating and controlling the behavior and identity of a female.
In many cultures the females do not consider sex by force as rape since they are married to that partner and assumes it to be the right of the partner to force her for sex due to the presumption that the husband can have unlimited sexual intercourse after marriage. According to a report which reveals that about 15% of female are forced to indulge in sexual activities with their marriage partners (Doyle et al., 2006). Although a number of countries these days have started to bring law acts opposing the forced sex after marriage. Even though, there has been a substantial progress due to these laws, however it is time and again hard for females to press charges against the forced sex after marriage due to the rules that seeks evidence relating the crime.
As far as forced prostitution is concerned, it has been reported…[continue]
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