Social Exclusion on the Health Term Paper

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Colic's (2005) argument is that there is a very strong correlation between porr housing and an individual's physical ill health. He goes further to point out that six out of every ten homeless individuals do suffer from a certain form of mental distress. About 20% of this lot have severe mental illness. In a nutshell, social exclusion gives rise to a direct form of social and economic consequences that include poor housing and limited financial resources.

Dunn (1999) studied the link between social exclusion and mental health. His concluded that the correlation was rather strong and was in congruence with what other authors have documented. It has been acknowledged that unemployment affects persons who have long-term mental disorders in a way that is far greater as compared to the other persons with disability. A total of only 13% are employed as opposed to the more than a third of individuals with disability in general terms (ONS, 1998).The lack of ability to gain employment culminates to a significant level of poverty amongst persons who are having problems associated with mental problems ( FMH,2001).The effect of the inequality falls in a way that is disproportionate on certain groups of persons who use mental health services as compared to others. There is also an element of gender inequality in terms of income as well as wealth both of which when combined with the role of women as mothers as well as carers make the refugees very susceptible to poverty. The poverty itself is also associated with physical illness as well as mental illness. The existence of social exclusion amongst the refugees contributes to a significant impact on both their physical and mental health. A study involving Iraqi asylum seekers revealed that depression had a more close correlation with social support in a manner that is greater that with the history of the torture in that country (Gorst-Unsworth and Goldenberg, 1998)

Burnett and Peel (2001) identified that there is a strong link between an individual's well being and the support that they get from their communities. This is because it aids them in the development of their friendships and links with the host community in order to promote their health as well as their well being.

Dunn (1999) further shows that persons who are of older age who suffers from mental health problems and face other inappropriate acts of discrimination, negative stereotyping, low income and isolation are at a higher risk (more vulnerable) to an elevated vulnerability in terms of their poor physical health (HEA, 1997, Roberts, Seymour and Robinson,2002 and McCulloch,2002)

Galabuzi (2006)'s calls for attention to the eincreasing gap that exists between the rich and the poor amongst the Canadian society. The book makes a challenge to certain common myths that are usually employed in order to deflect the concern of the public as well as for the purpose of masking the various escalating level of social crisis. Galabuzi goes ahead to point out the various roles of the historical patterns of the mainly historical pattern in the prevailing systemic kind of discrimination which then is essential for the succinct understanding of the level of over-representation of the groups that are racialize in the various low paying companies

The link between poverty and health

Several studies have categorically shown that health status is measure via:

Mortality chronic conditions

Emotional stability

General life satisfaction

Physical functioning.

The socio-economic status is however noted via the following measure:

Current income level

Recent income change,

Poverty flags,

Current earnings,

Multi-period averaged incomes,

Relative position in the income distribution

Number of spells of poverty.

Various studies have indicated that the measures of income are significantly linked to the health outcomes (Mullahy, Stephanie and Barbara, 2001). Mullahy and colleagues concludes that several empirical studies as well as reviews have demonstrated that there is a strong association between an individual's income and morbidity by means of various measures derived from both income and health from a diverse layout of samples at various moments (Mullahy, Robert and Wolfe, 2001)

More analysis from literature suggests that:

There is a relationship that exists between the income of an individual and their health. This relationship is however non-linear. This is to means that low-income persons do suffer a greater amount of negative health consequences as compared to the high-income individuals who stand to reap various health benefits.

The long-terms measures that are used for average income do have a higher association with an individual's health as compared to the measures of current income which is regarded to be highly volatile.


The Sudanese refugee community in Australia to a large extent is affected negatively on health matters because they are socially excluded from the other communities. They are not being given attention or health care by the Australians' healthcare providers like the rest, thus they suffer a lot as they are excluded.

H1: Over 75% of Sudanese refugee Community in Australia gets poor health services due to social exclusion

H2: Less that 75% of Sudanese refugee Community in Australia gets poor health services due to social exclusion


The methodology to be utilized in this research is meant to de-colonize the various research experiences to the largest extent in order to adhere to the objectives that are outline in the research questions as pointed out by (Smith, 2006). This is done by drawing on the various experiences of the participants since the methodology gives enough room for the encapsulation of the voice of the Sudanese refugees, their experiences as well as opinions regarding the phenomenon of poor health as a result of social exclusion. The various dimensions of the concept of social exclusion that is experienced by the Sudanese refugees in Australia is investigated via a first target group by means of semi-structured interviews that solicits the opinions and vies of the refugees themselves and the community health workers (second target group) who are integral for helping them in the path to social inclusion. The advantages of interviewing both the first and the second target groups is to ensure that one obtains an in-depth understanding of how the process of social inclusion actually affects the level and manner in which poor health of the Sudanese refugees comes about. The views obtained from the refugees are then contrasted against the ones obtained from the community workers.

The questions to be asked include the refugee experiences in the process of securing jobs and accessing integral community services such as health care (our main concern).

Research design

The research is to be carried out using a meta-analysis design that will then be used in the integration of the findings obtained from several other studies. These sources include a selected academic and non-academic journal articles, theses, books, dissertations as well as investigations. The investigations are to be derived from generated databases. The results of the selected studies are then described accordingly and then statistically calculated. This is all in an effort to summarize the effects social exclusion on the health of Sudanese refugee community in Australia.

A meta-analysis research design will be used to integrate the findings from several studies, selected from journal articles, books, theses, dissertations, and investigator - generated databases. The outcomes of the selected studies will be described and statistically calculated. To summarize the effect of classroom management on high school academic achievement. A meta-analysis design was chosen because it allows for generalizations across studies, and can reveal useful patterns in the combined study data (Glass, 1981).


The sample for this experiment comprises of 200 Sudanese refugees who live in various parts of Australia. The sample comprises of both male and female of different ages. The majority is however adults who have experience in the normal household. The majority of the respondents are however to be derived from the Greater Dandenong region of Australia since it has the highest population of Sudanese in Australia

Data Collection

The outcome of the processed data that is obtained from the published studies is compared to the size of the Sudanese refugee population that is negatively affected in health as a result of the social exclusion policy is compared with the Sudanese refugee community that is not affected by the element of social exclusion in the Australian society.

Hypothesis testing

The hypothesis is to be tested statistically by coming up with a critical value that is then running a test that involves subjecting the value to the z-score algorithm.

H1: Over 75% of Sudanese refugee Community in Australia gets poor health services due to social exclusion>150

H2: Less that 75% of Sudanese refugee Community in Australia gets poor health services due to social exclusion<150n
The testing statistic is then derived where:

Z = test statistic

= mean of the sample

= mean of the population

= standard deviation of the sample

= number in the sample

We then determine the test statistic. However, since we are testing a population mean which is normally distributed, the best statistic…[continue]

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