Social History One of the Research Paper

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The Nika riots, based on antipathy between Blue and Green racing teams resulted in 30,000 deaths ("The Nika Riot," 1997). In the 1980s fans were so violent that some English teams were banned from European competition. In high-stakes European soccer matches local governments regularly warn that violence could cause forfeiture of the game. Still, there remain a number of violent events from fans resulting in property damage, physical injury, and even death. Some see a similarity between modern fan violence and Gladiatorial attitudes (Nosotro, 2000).

Off-Field Violence -- Off-Field violence may occur prior to, or after, a sporting event, but is directly tied to that event. It may occur in a bar, parking lot, or any public gathering spot. What tends to characterize this for sociologists is that it, too, may be tied in with fervent nationalism, alcohol consumption, or simply letting the idea of a fan's preference get out of control. Many social theorists believe that this type of behavior is a learned response, almost a crowd mentality, and can certainly be stopped if enough people become intolerant of it (Coakley, 203, 202-16).

Conclusions- The conundrum in the modern world focuses on the interrelationship between what is expected of players from fans and management, and their own particular temperaments. It is also not unheard of for fans to explode in violence while players remain calm and sportsmanlike. Certainly, the advent of technology has changed the way that violence is perceived. With television coverage, close ups, instant reply, and multiple camera angles it is almost impossible for a coach or player to have any semblance of privacy during a game. The sociological view of the public, however, seems to be moving towards a growing dissatisfaction with sports violence (with some exceptions). Changes in rules, enhancement of equipment, and even the changes in athlete's physical make-up seem to be part of a fluid evolution towards enhancing fairness and competitive, team spirit. The media are able to find and portray more violent incidents, but most scholars believe there appears to be a continual and aggressive view against violence within sports. Among some managers, there remains a level of ambivalence, though, and athletes are the first to admit that they are opposed to violence, but it is expected of them. Thus, society is changing, and with it the tolerance to subject an increasingly global audience to unnecessary violence (Kerr, 2005).

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Ateyo, D. (1979). Blood and Guts. New York: Paddington Press.

Berger A., (2002). "Mediatribes -- Making Sense of Popular Culture in America," ETC: A

Review of General Semantics. 59(2002): 131-42.

Boxill, J., ed. (2002). Sports Ethics: An Anthology. New York: Wiley.

Coakley, J. (2006). Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies. New York: McGraw.

Davies, R. (2006). Sports in American Life: A History. Wiley-Blackwell.

Gorn, E. (2004). A Brief History of American Sports. University of Illinois Press.

Johnson, C. (March 6, 2008). "Was Baseball Racial Integration Leader? Or Basketball?"

The Black Fives Blog. Cited in: http://blackfivesblog.com/?p=430

Kerry, J.H. (2005). Rethinking Aggression and Violence in Sport. New York:

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Kyle, D. (2007). Sport in the Ancient World. New York: Wiley.

Nelson, M. (2008). Encyclopedia of Sports in America: A History from Foot Races to Extreme Sports. Greenwood Press.

Nosotro, R. (2000). "Violence in Sports: Today's Gladiator Attitude." Hyper History.

Cited in: http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw32violentsports.htm

Rader, B. (2008). American Sports: From the Age of Folk Games to the Age of Televised

Sports, 6th ed. Prentice Hall.

Riess, Steven A. (1995). Sport in Industrial America, 1850-1920.Harlan Davidson.

____. (1996). Major Problems in American Sport History. Wadsworth Publishing.

Taylor, J.A. (2007). "On Field Violence," Sports Agent Blog. "The Nika Riot," (1997).

University of Chicago. Cited in:

http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/circusmaximus/nika.html

Wiggins, D. (1994). Sport in America: From Wicked Amusement to National Obsession.

Human Kinetics.

The decade of the 20s has been called "The Golden Age of Sports." Superb athletes appeared in almost every major sport and became media stars and legends, influencing advertising, popular culture, and the way Americans viewed themselves. America wanted to play -- and the boom in income and perceived prosperity prior to the Depression was characterized by people moving to the cities and finding evenings and weekends free to enjoy sporting events. Some names from this era that remain part of the mystique of American Sports: Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Knute Rocknet, Helen Wils, Bill Tilden, Bobby Jones, Jack Dempsey, and Tommy Hitchcock. For more information, see: Marshall, J. "The Golden Age of Sports: A Roaring Replay of the 1920's." Sporting History. Cited in: http://www.sportplanet.com/sbb/apfas/20R.HTM; "Movies, Music and Sports of the 1920's." The Great Gatsby World. Cited in: http://www.albany.edu/faculty/jjpowers/risp361/projects/F_Viau_Jim/moviesmusicsports.htm/

For example, European Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in the world, but enjoys only a newfound interest in the United States. The most popular team sports in the United States are American Football, Basketball, Baseball, and Ice Hockey; and only Ice Hockey is a major sporting event outside of the United States. That is not to environment that it does in…[continue]

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