The organization of the five chapters in the study includes:
Chapter I: Chapter I includes the design of the study, the study's research problem and three research questions, study objectives, the scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study of DNA, research methodology and philosophy of the studies from different related literature.
Chapter II: During Chapter II, the researcher presents information to address the first research question; presented in the introduction for the thesis: What evidence points to the origin of flutes in SEA? During Chapter II, the researcher relates the kinds of flute in SEA that have been passed on from one generation to the next and their physical structure which attributes scale, sound, expressions, melody, and rhythm. In Chapter II, the researcher also discusses the studies on ethnic groups of SEA and their flutes, and additionally notes studies on history of geology and aboriginals' migration map to provide information regarding the origin of these particular individuals and the kinds of flute they played. This chapter also includes relevant information regarding SEA.
Chapter III: In Chapter III, the researcher addresses the second research question of the study: What kinds of flutes and characteristics depict those flutes that may be found in SEA? During this chapter, the researcher also notes the physical comparisons of three kinds of flutes found in different cultures: 1) Side-blown flute; 2) vertically blown flute; 3) nose blown flute. In addition, this chapter includes information relating to the musical aspects and origins of these three flutes, as well as traces the history of the bamboo flute tradition vis-a-vis, the religions and their influence on the development of flutes; with their performance and practices.
Chapter IV: Chapter IV addresses research question 3: How may the tradition of flute playing in SEA be enmeshed with practices of a number of cultures? In this chapter, the researcher also examines certain aspects of SEA's socio-economical background which may have affected the development of flutes. In addition, the researcher presents information relating to the history of trading and invasions of outsiders on SEA which influenced the culture and life styles; consequently determining various functions of flutes.
Chapter V: During Chapter V, the study's conclusion chapter, the researcher summarizes findings of the research and poses recommendations for further and future studies on the topic of bamboo flutes.
The study focuses on the flutes from three main areas: Mainland SEA, Maritime SEA, and Pacific region of SEA. During the researcher's examination of the origins of three kinds of flutes, the researcher compares traditional flutes from other cultures such as Chinese, Indian, Central Asian, Australian, Hawaiian, Saudi Arabian, Native Indians and African. The cultural mapping of these flutes serves as guide in following the routes of the flutes from one location to the other.
Even though flutes included in this research have been the focus of earlier studies, only a few of these studies, however, currently exist. To establish relationships, the researcher compares the musical traditions of bamboo flutes of Southeast Asian countries to each other, as well as how these flutes vary from one country to another vis-a-vis society and ethnomusicology. In the study, the researcher notes that society, the context and the historical influences are considered as factors affecting the instrumental development of the flute.
1.2 Research Problem
The study illustrates whether Southeast Asian flutes comprise engendered instruments of indigenous people or adopted cultural outcomes. During the research process, the antiquity of bamboo flutes, which encompasses vast areas of cultures and ethnic groups, posed particular problems for gathering data. As a result, this thesis covers the studies about SEA bamboo flutes and cultures. Specifically, the literature reviewed for this thesis addresses the following questions:
1. What evidence points to the origin of flutes in SEA?
2. What kinds of flutes and characteristics depict those flutes that may be found in SEA?
3. How may the tradition of flute playing in SEA be enmeshed with practices of a number of cultures?
The objectives of the study include the following:
1. To recognize the kinds of bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia;
2. To identify the characteristics of bamboo flutes in SEA to uncover the origins of the flutes;
3. To show the musicality and instrumentality of the bamboo flute in the of SEA;
4. To investigate the possible influences from different cultures through socio-economical interactions, invasions and religious movements;
5. To explore the possible origins related to the indigenous people's migration through centuries.
1.4 Scope and Limitations
1.4.1 Type of Flutes:
Those who crafted the flutes often constructed them out of the materials readily found in the immediate surroundings. The tradition of making flutes, however, may be transported from one country to another. The study includes details regarding a variety of aspects relating the following three types of flutes; including their construction: Side-blown, vertically blown and nose blown.
The side-blown flute has a blown hole on the side. The blowing hole for this flute may be located either on center or near the end. The vertical flute, also called end-blown flutes, has a hole on the end. Both ends of flutes are opened and one of end is manipulated to create different sound in vertical flutes or end-blown flutes. The ends may all be opened, closed or opened on one side. The musician may play the nose blown flute vertically or sideways, but he uses his nose instead of his mouth to produce the sound. The nose flute may be transverse or vertical flutes, nevertheless the individual must blow this type flute by nose.
The Southeast Asian countries included in this thesis include the Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Myanmar. The researcher considers bamboo flutes found in Central Asia, Saudi Arabia, India, China, Europe and South America, similarly structured or blown, as part of the influences that brought about the flute's existence in the SEA countries.
1.4.2 Historical Limitations
The researcher sets up chronological markers to compare the development of bamboo flutes in Southeast Asia. The first periodical section, set 50,000 years ago, denotes the time when the first kind of side blown flute might had been developed. The second consideration on time period reflects the movement of Austroasians to Southeast Asia and Oceanic nations. The researcher projects the next period as 1st Century BC when the massive trading occurred in Asia and Europe. The researcher also includes the 3rd Century, the era when musical development in Eastern Asia affected the musical development of Southeast Asian instruments in the study. The 14th Century European ventures to Southeast Asia, the researcher asserts, clearly showed the decline of interest in bamboo flutes. [Footnote or reference needed here]
The map of Ice-age, portrayed in Figures 1.1 illustrates the scope of study reveals possible geographical influence among cultural in neighboring countries. This map reflects the scientific research regarding how some of lands linked during the Ice-Age.
The Indonesian islands, as far east as Borneo and Bali, were connected to the Asian continent in a landmass identified as Sundaland. Palawan also comprised part of Sundaland, albeit, the remainder of the Philippine Islands fashioned one massive island which the Sibutu Passage and the Mindoro Srtait separated from the continent. As Australia and New Guinea connected, they formed Sahulland. Islands remained between Sundaland and Sahulland, Wallacea, nevertheless the number and width of water gaps between the two continents ranged significantly less.
Fig.1.1: 18,000 BCE, SEA Map (Ehlers and Gibbard).
The article, "Trade Routes between Europe and Asia during Antiquity," explains that the trade routes, according to similar to the Internet in contemporary times, served as the ancient world's communications highways. In addition to transporting goods and raw materials, individuals moving from one area to another to conduct businesses transported new inventions, artistic styles, languages, social customs, and religious beliefs. For instance, the Hellenistic styles the Romans popularized, as well as the sculptural styles of Gaul (modern-day France) and Gandhara (modern-day Pakistan and northern India) reflect these trade connections.
Figure 1.2 portrays a contemporary map of SE Asia. Rivers in SE Asia, as rivers throughout the world, enable civilizations to transmit cultural components inside the continents. Crystallizations in SEA and in other countries may not always be peaceful.
Figure 1.2: Contemporary Map of Southeast Asia (History of SE Asia, p. *)
1.4.4 Socio-Economical Aspects:
During the first century, traders used trade routes primarily for transferring food items, raw materials, and extravagant products from areas with surpluses to other regions where these products were in short supply. Some countries, such as China, obtained monopolies as it supplied silk to West Asia and the Mediterranean world. South Asia similarly gained a measure of control as it sold spices to particular areas. Along the silk and spice routes, individuals transported goods to be traded over enormous distances overland by pack animals or on water by seagoing ships. The land and the water served as the primary means for the various ancient empires of the…