Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
Violence in video games and the role of culture.
The video game industry is a multi-billion dollar industry representing about $9.9 billion dollars in retail sales in the U.S. alone in 2004 (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). In this paper, video games refer to electronically controlled games played on any platform including console units, computers, internet, hand-held devices or various technology toys. In recent years, video games have redefined leisure activities among children as studies conducted in U.S. estimated that 99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games (Whitaker and Bushman, 2009), with children age 2-7 years spending an average of 3-5 hours a week playing games, while 8th and 9th grade students spend an average of 9 hours per week (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). According to Whitaker and Bushman (2009), violence in video games is also commonplace with violent content available in over 85% of video games.
The effects of violent games on children have been reviewed extensively in the literature. For example, Dill and Dill (1998) suggested that exposure to violence in video games increases short-term aggressive behaviors due to identification with video-game characters particularly with aggressors in the game. In terms of gender, Funk and Colleagues (2000) noted that there were no gender difference with preference for violent video games as a higher preference for violent video games were observed in boys and girls. Recently, Sestir and Bartholow (2010) noted that the simulated experience with exposure to violent video games may increase aggressive feelings, thoughts and behaviors while decreasing prosocial behaviors and attitudes such as helping people in real-life situations. Bushman and Anderson (2002) conceptualized the General Aggression Model which illustrates the relationship between violent video games and aggression. Indeed, the authors noted that there are short-term and long-term effects of violent video games on aggression, with short-term effects leading to increased aggressive behavior over time, while long-term effects ultimately dictate that aggressive behaviors or attitudes are effective and appropriate with addressing issues related to conflict and anger (Anderson and Bushman, 2002).
Although the influence of violent-video games on aggressive behaviors is well established in the literature, the role culture plays in determining the level of aggression (whether short-term or long-term) exhibited from engaging in violent video games particularly among children of Hispanic origin is unknown. Indeed, it is possible that having Hispanic ethnicity (such as with being Puerto Rican, Mexican-American, Cuban, or Southern American) may act as protective factor by creating little or no form of aggression with exposure to violent video game given the level of acculturation with the American culture. Also Hispanic children with parents with low levels of acculturation may retain aspects of their parent's original culture which may reduce the opportunity to play with violent video games. As a result, lack of exposure to violent video games may reduce the effects of increased aggressive behavior over time as well as decrease the opportunity to interpret real-life conflicts in aggressive manners. Given that belonging to an ethic group with strong family ties such as the Hispanic culture may determine the type of activities, beliefs or practices that children are exposed to, it is important to explore cultural differences with exposure to violent video games.
Thus, the present study seeks to expand upon existing literature by examining whether there are cultural differences with exposure to violence in video games among children of Hispanic origin. This study is exploratory in nature in that it utilizes qualitative data to explore the role culture plays with violence in video games among children of Hispanic origin. The study is guided by the following research questions:
1. Are there cultural differences in short-term aggression from exposure to violence in video games in children of Hispanic origin vs. children with non-Hispanic Heritage?
2. What cultural factors are perceived to be protective against violence in video games among children of Hispanic heritage?
Methods: Qualitative research methods consisting of participant observations and in-depth interviews will be used to collect data for this study. Since this study is exploratory in nature, qualitative research methods such as observations and in-depth interviews are ideal in that they allow a better exploration of the cultural factors (such as language, family ties, cultural beliefs and practices etc.) that may influence short-term aggression due to exposure to violence in video games. Given the lack of data on culture and violence in video games, particularly with identifying cultural factors that…[continue]
Violence in Video Games Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content? Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content. "It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play. Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence Body
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Violence in Video Games The cultivation of violence in video games: causal or correlational? Studies on media effects have always included the influential role that television and new media technologies such as the computer and Internet (ICTs). With the proliferation of both mass media, there is greater penetration of its content to children and the adolescent youth, who are frequent TV watchers and ICT users. Among the concerns of parents and scholars
Winning a game activates a cerebral reward center, in a way that 'teaches' players to be violent in a Pavlovian way, so the players associate acting violently with gaining a reward. This thesis has been supported by recent MRI scanning research examining the brains of children who have just played violent video games: "A new study employing state-of-the-art brain-scanning technology…say that brain scans of kids who played a violent
Dopamine is a pleasure inducing chemical that is secreted whenever an individual engages his/her mind in the playing f video games. The New brain research that was conducted years back (Bartholow, Bushman & Sestir, 2006) was the first to show that the playing of violent video games results in bad health of the players. The emphatic responses of the brain to the simulation of certain real-life violence such as shooting
" (Eagleheart, 2000) Eagleheart (2002) notes that violence does constitute a primary concern for children, particularly in schools. Rather than contributing video games as a cause of violence in children, she encourages educators and others to look deeper and consider that violene has goals; that the particular goal will depend on the individual. At times, goals of violence may be evident, conscious choices from a child is playing now wants. Other
Thee children, when socializing with their friends, invariably mimicked those violent characters they saw in the video games. While concluding, these researchers, pointed out that if children continued to play these kinds of violent and aggressive video games, then it is highly likely that negative and anti-social behavior becomes a norm for them (Nicoll and Kieffer, 2005). In one study carried out by Williams and Skoric (2005) revealed that gamers
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