Younger Brother's Development Since He Was Born Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.

Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.

The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial concepts of Austrian physician Sigmund Freud at the end of the 19th century, as he expanded upon his theory of psychoanalysis. In his psychoanalytic view, early experiences shape one's personality for a lifetime, and psychological problems in adulthood may have their origins in problematic childhood experiences (Murray, 1999).

According to Freud, child development consists of five psychosexual stages in which a particular body region is involved with sensual satisfactions. During the oral stage -- from birth to one -- the mouth, tongue, and gums are the focus of sensual pleasure, and the baby develops an emotional attachment anyone providing them (primarily through feeding). This occurred during my brothers first eight months, when he was more interested in activities as sucking, biting, swallowing and manipulating various parts of the mouth. Because he could not yet talk, he often entertained himself with making noises such as smacking. During the anal stage, from two to three, children focus on pleasures associated with control and self-control, primarily with respect to defecation and toilet training. My brother was about three years old when he became potty trained. He was about 2 1/2 when he began realizing that "no" meant "no," and was able to stop certain behaviors.

In the phallic stage -- from ages three to six -- children derive satisfaction from genital stimulation. They are also interested in physical differences between the sexes and identify with their same-sex parent. This started taking place when my brother was about 3 1/2 years old. He started watching my dad get dressed in the morning and tried to do the same. The latency phase -- from ages seven to puberty -- is when sensual motives lessen and psychological focus is channeled into normal activities, such as schoolwork. Finally, during the genital stage -- from adolescence through adulthood -- individuals develop mature sexual interests. My brother used to hate girls when he was little. Then something completely changed when he turned 14.

With Freud's stages as a foundation, in 1956 psychiatrist Eric Erickson noted eight stages of social development (Murray, 1999). He observed these development patterns within the context of social structures, along with the child's efforts to become a member of the social group. These theories help developmental specialists prepare for some of the awkward moments in a person's life. In Stage 1, Infancy until age one, a child will develop trust or mistrust. My brother was well taken care of by all family members, so he has a strong self-esteem and has a trusting nature; In Stage 2, Toddler until age two, autonomy or doubt are built. The child learns to walk, talk, use toilets and begins self-control. My brother was encouraged to be independent and allowed to make mistakes so he has the confidence to try new things; During Stage 3, Early Childhood until age six, initiative vs. guilt are established. This is when my brother began to learn self-restraint, although he was quite stubborn (and still is!). However, he does listen to what my parents have to say and does not rebel. In Stage 4, Elementary and Middle School, six to 12, a youth acquires competence / industry or inferiority. At school, children acquire skills to be a worker and a potential provider. If learning correctly, they will not develop a sense of inferiority.

In Stage 5, Adolescence, 12 to 18, young adults learn identity or role confusion. The youth begins to incorporate all the other resolutions in order to know who he/she is and a strong sense of identity. My brother just got through this stage before going to college. At times it was tough, since he did have an identity crisis here and there -- what child hasn't? But he's doing well now and narrowing in on what he wants to do when he graduates down the road. At Stage 6, Young Adulthood, 19 to 40 (where I am at now), one establishes male/female intimate relationships. Someone who is strong in this area, will not have making long-term decisions and feel comfortable making a commitment; At Stage 7, Middle Adulthood, 40 to 65, is a time for generativity or the ability to care for others or stagnation. Self-centered people have not resolved this challenge; and In Stage 8, Late Adulthood, 65 to death, a period of integrity vs. despair. If an individual is pleased with what has been achieved in life, he/she will be able to accept, rather than fear, death.

These are only two of several different types of stage theories. Development biologist, Jean Piaget, for example, devoted his life to closely observing and recording the intellectual or cognitive abilities of infants, children and adolescents that were related to major developments in brain growth (Singer, 1996) Too often, adults expect that children are going to have the capacity of forming decisions or mental abilities before they are capable. Knowing stage theories will encourage them to not push a child into doing something before reaching his/her capacity. Piaget's stages consisted of four primary cognitive structures: sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, and formal operations. In the sensorimotor stage (birth to two), intelligence takes the form of motor actions. The child, through physical interaction with his or her environment, builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works. This is the stage where a child does not know that physical objects remain in existence even when out of sight. (Hiding things from my brother was not any fun!). Intelligence in the preoperation period (three to seven) is intuitive in nature. The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. (I had to show a picture to my brother rather than describe something). The cognitive structure during the concrete operational stage (8 to 11) is logical but depends upon concrete referents. At this point, the child starts to conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his/her physical experiences. Abstract problem solving is also possible at this stage. For example, arithmetic equations can be solved with numbers, not just with objects. (I quickly learned my brother was much better in math than I was.) In the final stage of formal operations (12 to15), thinking involves abstractions. (I thought he would never get to this point.)

There are other stages for speech and language, temperament and personality, moral and physical development. By seeing where a child falls at these various stages, it is very possible to get a well-rounded idea of his/her degree of success as an adult.

As noted previously, there is enough leeway among each of these stages to take in account the differences between one child and another. No two youths are exactly alike, even twins, and cannot be expected to reach each stage at the same time. If a child consistently lags behind at a significant degree, then a specialist should be consulted. For example, if a child cannot walk or talk by ages 2-1/2 to…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Younger Brother's Development Since He Was Born" (2004, April 18) Retrieved October 28, 2016, from

"Younger Brother's Development Since He Was Born" 18 April 2004. Web.28 October. 2016. <>

"Younger Brother's Development Since He Was Born", 18 April 2004, Accessed.28 October. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Comparative Study Between Homer s Odyssey and the Coen Brothers O...

    O Brother, Where Art Thou? Homer in Hollywood: The Coen Brothers' O Brother, Where Art Thou? Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is

  • Psychology of What s Eating Gilbert Grape

    Gilbert Grape Otto Rank's conflict theory posits that the experience of birth is the root cause of all human anxiety. The state of being in the womb is theoretically blissful, and birth is a deeply traumatic experience (Wolverton, 2011). From this premise, Rank suggests that several core conflicts characterize the human experience and can lead to neurosis. One conflict is between the life instinct and the death instinct. The life instinct

  • Family Centered Approach in Child Development Family Centered

    Family-Centered Approach in Child Development Family centered Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are

  • Sister s Keeper by Jodi Picoult

    A biopsy of the bone marrow is the only way to be sure that it is leukemia. TREATMENT Treatments for leukemia can vary depending on the stage, the age of the patient, the type of leukemia, and the advanced or infant stages that it is in, but most leukemia patients do go through a host of treatments that include chemotherapy. Treatment also depends on the stage that the disease is placed in.

  • Warner Brothers and Sound

    Warner Brothers and Sound Warner Brothers, name normally pertains to Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc., which is an American motion-picture production company, and was the first to use series of synchronized sound in a silent feature film. Four American brothers namely Harry Morris Warner, Albert Warner, Samuel Lewis Warner, and Jack Leonard Warner were the founders. (Warner Brothers: Encyclopedia Article from Encarta) Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack turned jointly to any commercial

  • Benjamin Franklin Was Born on

    He also related how his small group of friends played tricks with their unwitting neighbors. His friends would set fire on alcohol, rekindled candles blown out, imitate lightning flashes or by touching or kissing and make an artificial spider move (Bellis). Using the Leyden jar, Benjamin made an electrical batter, roasted a fowl on a spit fired with electricity, ignited alcohol by electricity through water, fired gunpowder and shocked wine

  • West Virginia Women During U S

    The distinction between folklore and fact is not always as lucid as it could be when researching the background of a state heroine, and the humble beginnings of Hart are no different in this respect. She was born in Raleigh, North Carolina either in 1846 or 1843 depending on which source is sought, although most popular accounts tend to credit her birth as taking place in 1846 (Bakeless 1970,

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved