About Harvard Citation…
The Harvard citation style is widely used in America and in the United Kingdom. Citation is important – showing that you have carried out relevant research and giving credit to others for their ideas and words. Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing. Harvard is a classic citation style that can be used when no citation style has been specified.
Key Point to Remember…
Harvard citation uses an ‘author-date’ approach. All references emphasize the author, publication and year of a work.
General Format for Printed Journals: Author. (Year of publication) Title of journal article. Title of journal (this should be in italics), Volume number (Issue number), Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers)
Khyber, P. K. & Maunder, S. K. (2003) Proprietary owners and profitability: Property rights, control, and the performance of firms. Journal of Law & Economics, 42 (1), 209-238.
Online Journals: (Note: If an electronic journal article has a doi (digital object identifier), you can use this instead of the URL).
Aramid, M. & Garner, H. (2012) A tale of two citations. Nature. [Online] 451 (71), 397-399. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v451/n7177/full/451397a.html [Accessed 20th July 2013].
Susiana, F., Maiden, G., Morley, J. & Taser, R. (2007) The evolution of new media. Part 1: Experimental investigation. Applied Communications. [Online] 27 (17-18), 2893-2901. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.06.011 [Accessed 15th July 2012].
Gilbert, S. (2012) Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the western North Atlantic. U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Report number: 43.
Books, Printed Materials
General Format: Author/Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name). (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics). Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition). Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named), Publisher.
McGregor, N. E., Menes, B. & Reynolds, M. (2011) A Short Course in Wetland Delineation and Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing.
TWO or MORE AUTHORS: (Note: Within each entry author names should be listed in the order in which they appear on the source or as displayed on the title page).
Schneider, Z, Whitehead, D & Elliott, D 2012, Midwifery research: methods and appraisal for evidence-based practice, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia Mauriceville, NSW.
Book in electronic format:
Tylor, N. E., Menes, B. & Matthews, M. (2009) A Short Course in Wetland Delineation and Engineering. [Online] London, Thomas Telford Publishing. Available from: http://www.myilibrary.com?ID=93941 [Accessed 18th June 2013].
Chapter in an edited book:
Partridge, H. & Halim, G. (2013). Evidence-based practice and information literacy. In: Lippi, S., Williamson, K. & Lloyd, A. (eds.) Exploring methods in information literacy research. Sydney, Australia, Centre for Information Studies, pp. 149-170.
Book without Author (includes encyclopedias and dictionary). (Note: When referencing from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as an authored book.)
Guide to wind energy and meteorological phenomenon 2009, 2nd edn, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.
European Space Agency. (2011) ESA: Missions, Earth Observation: ENVISAT. [Online] Available from: http://envisat.esa.int [Accessed 13th July 2013].
Personal emails should always be referenced as personal communication, unless you have permission from the sender and receiver to include their details in your reference list.
McMullen, J.T. (2012) Email sent to Tabatha Lowry, 8th June.
Online Newspaper Article:
Wentworth, WC 1999, Possibility of Time Travel, Sydney Morning Herald, 24 January, p. 11, viewed 30 April 2013, Sydney Morning Herald Archives database.
Wagner, G. (2013) Structural and functional studies of protein pairs in gene expression. [Lecture] Imperial College London, 12th April.
Basics for In-Text Harvard Citations
When you omit the author's name in your sentence:
That the argument could be strengthened through empirical evidence is made clear (Andreessen 2001).
When you include the author's name in your sentence:
Andreessen argued this point (2001).
Two or three authors:
Others hold the opposite point of view (e.g., Schneider, Whitehead & Elliot 2013).
More than three authors:
…and therefore knowingness can be … (Belen et al. 2006).
No Author (Note: a shortened title is okay).
Experts agree that there are many ways to approach green energy (Guide to Wind Energy 2009).