The well-being of an animal, preservation of species and biological diversity is always given first priority when it comes to deciding upon the appropriateness of research to be undertaken (Lin, 2013).
It reaches a point in time when some animals have to be released to the wild from the zoos. This is normally conducted in accordance with IUCN/SSC/Reintroduction Specialist group guidelines. Before the animals are released to the wild, they normally undergo a thorough veterinary examination to ascertain if they are fit for such release. Their welfare after release is always taken into consideration. After their release, a thorough monitoring program ensues.
In case an animal dies while in care they are normally subjected to post-mortem examination where the cause of their death is ascertained. Animals that die while being released to the wild from the zoo are also normally taken for post-mortem examination.
Zoo keepers co-operate with government institutions and other development partners to improve the standards of animal welfare. They also co-operate with wildlife agencies, conservation organizations and research institutions to assist in maintaining global diversity.… [Read More]
Our survival, as well as the ecosystem of the planet, depends on our stewardship and that stewardship is the price of our research. One must finally wrestle with the issue of survival on a personal level in order to understand this issue. Coming down from the macrocosmic view, if it were a matter of your child having leukemia and suffering for years before dying or a laboratory rat suffering for a small fraction of that time and resulting in a cure, what would you do?
Animal Lab May Have Leaked Foot and Mouth." Sunday Mercury (Birmingham, England) 5 Aug. 2007: 2.
Eldridge, Jennifer J., and John P. Gluck. "Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Animal Research." Ethics & Behavior 6.3 (1996): 239-256.
Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Ed. Marc Bekoff and Carron a. Meaney. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Fujihara, Noboru, and Peggy Yoder. "Clones." World Watch July-Aug. 2007: 2.
Galvin, Shelley L., and Harold a. Herzog. "The Ethical Judgment of Animal Research." Ethics & Behavior 2.4 (1992): 263-286.
Gluck, John P. "Animals in Biomedical Research: the Undermining Effect of the Rhetoric of the Besieged." Ethics & Behavior 1.3 (1991): 157-173.
Herzog, Harold a. "Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom." Teaching of Psychology 17.2 (1990): 90-94.
Kistler, John M. People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Lansdell, H. "The Three RS: a Restrictive and Refutable Rigmarole." Ethics & Behavior 3.2 (1993): 177-185.
Levinson, Ralph, and Michael J. Reiss, eds. Key Issues in Bioethics: A Guide for Teachers. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003.
Monkeys Take Us a Step Closer to Human Cloning; Breakthrough: The Macaque Semos." The Daily Mail (London, England) 15 Nov. 2007: 44.
Novel Approaches to Enhance Animal Stem Cell Research." Environmental Health Perspectives 112.15 (2004): 901.
Pachana, Nancy a. "Developments in Clinical Interventions for Older Adults: A Review." New Zealand Journal of Psychology 28.2 (1999): 107.
Stem Cells from Mice Could Help Conquer Disease; Do They…… [Read More]
Imagine that you are in Japan after the recent, tragic earthquake. The rubble surrounds you and you see thousands of homeless people. If you look and listen closely, you also hear the sounds of suffering animals. They also have been impacted by this natural disaster. They also have lost their homes. They also are in danger. In some ways, animals react differently to natural disasters and, in other ways, they have similar trauma after an event like this. I will talk about animals in earthquakes and how we can help them.
The earthquake that struck Japan in March of this year damaged buildings and destroyed many homes. It affected not only the people of Japan, but its animals as well. Although many animals may have died during the natural disaster, a large number of animals may have escaped to safety. This is because many people believe that animals can sense earthquakes before they strike. According to National Geographic, there have been stories of animals acting strangely and fleeing their homes just before an earthquake for hundreds of years. In Japan, scientists are studying different species of animals to discover how they sense earthquakes before they happen.
Most animals that become trapped or injured during earthquakes are family pets. Because they are normally inside the house when an earthquake strikes, they can be trapped by collapsing buildings with no way to escape. Sadly for these animals, their plight is often overlooked as rescue workers concentrate their efforts on saving people. It can be many days before they are rescued. Many of the animals walk around the streets looking for food and this makes it harder for owners to find their pets. This information is from PSWLaw.net.
But it is not all bad news for pets. There are now many animal shelters that search and rescue trapped pets from earthquake rubble. In Japan, three different animal rescue teams have been saving dogs, cats and other animals trapped by the earthquake. When the animals are rescued, they are given a place to sleep in the animal shelters. They are given food and water and kept at the shelter until the family can be found. When no-one claims the animals, they stay in the shelters until new families can be found for them. Animal shelters also rescue animals that have been left by their owners or have…… [Read More]
The purpose of this paper is to present a persuasive argument against the practice of animal cruelty:
Animal cruelty activists state that when an individual is a witness to animal cruelty that the offense should be reported to the agency in the area in which they live. There are laws against cruelty to animals and the laws differ from state to state inside the United States. Many organizations have been formed for assisting the government in stopping the practice of animal cruelty by both individuals as well as that committed by businesses and larger corporate organizations.
Animal Cruelty Reported by News:
Recently reported is the fact that animals used by companies such as "Menu Foods" regularly treat animals with cruelty in regards to the research done by the companies in testing of dog and cat food before marketing it. According to one report an investigator from PETA
was witness for many dogs with "their legs caught in bars of slated steel cage floors."
Further the report stated that the investigator for PETA found that the cats were not receiving the proper care and that several had died from lack of treatment. According to the report the investigation was ongoing for a period of nine months and during that time not once did the investigator see anyone from Menu Foods check or observe the conditions of the animals.
Statistics and Other Information:
In a report entitled "Linking Animal Cruelty to Human Violence" performed by the FBI and Scotland Yard it was found that violence inflicted on animals is one of the key five indicators of whether a person has the capacity to commit violence against other human beings. The report stated that all of the states in the United States "have felony offenses for animal cruelty" in which a person may receive a prison sentence of up to ten years.
Further reported in the article was that in a U.S. Poll asking respondents if they supported the strengthening of animal cruelty laws that 81% supported the initiative with 71% in favor of making animal cruelty offenses felony charges, and 87% responding saying that wild animals as well as pets should be…… [Read More]
The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.
In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in the record, both genetic and archaeological. Therefore the study of how morphological changes occur, upon domestication requires a set of guidelines that can be judged through the process by archaeology and genetics to determine what occurred naturally and what occurred as a result of human and animal interaction. (Zeder 171) in short the archaeologist must look at many factors, some of which are no longer evident in the record but have to be mapped by some other aspect of the record, to determine if changes within the genetic makeup of the animal are as a result of environment, i.e. changes in weather food supplies water sources etc. exposure without true domestication i.e. animals coming in to contact with domesticated plants, changing patterns to avoid human populations, or even eating found scraps of human making, or actual domestication processes, shelter, domestic food or even active attempts by humans to select for certain traits in domesticated animals. (173) Another complication that can be found in the development of a set of rules, for judging the level of domestication of a species of animals has to do with the ample evidence that there is a great deal of diversity among wild populations in the same ecosystem and in different ecosystems, called phylogeographic discontinuities, that can potentially throw the researcher off the track of domestication. The difficulty then arises in that the…… [Read More]
Pycroft insists that because the human body is made up of "…trillions of cells, each containing billions of molecules, many of which are composed of tens of thousands of atoms" -- with these microscopic "machines" able to communicate with each other and function in a "stunningly interdependent environment" -- researchers in biomedical environments need tools that can at least "mimic" human biology (Pycroft, 2011, p. 1). And animals are the answer, Pycroft explains, since their cells, molecules and atoms work in similar patterns to humans' biological functions.
Pycroft points to the research by John C. Eccles, who used cats' spinal cords in his investigations, and it led to "the nature of synapse"; Eccles was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1963 for his discoveries (using cats in labs) (Prycroft, 1). Further, Prycroft mentions the fact that if scientists didn't have access to "live organisms, we would know far less about the function of the cardiovascular system, how digestion works, hormonal interactions," and more (Pycroft, 3).
In conclusion, this controversial debate is justified, given that humans need to address the way in which they interact with the natural world and the animals that live in the natural world. Meanwhile, an article in the Baltimore Sun explains that testing on animals "…could be phased out over the next couple decades," since new systems are being developed (Cohn, 2010). Dr. Thomas Hartung is the director of the Johns Hopkins University's Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; he asserts that there has been "…development of alternatives to animal research" involving the use of computers to simulate the biological components in animals and humans. There is a "collective recognition" that scientists need to "do better," said Robert J. Kavlock with the Environmental Protection Agency. It is a very hopeful sign for those who oppose using animals in research that there are processes underway that will leave animals out of the lab and stop causing pain to them.
Works… [Read More]
Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Sarah who lived in a small house with her parents. Close to her hut was a deep thick forest that was home to many animals including Sheeba, the deer, Reno, the hippopotamus, Tania the sheep and Bounty, the Lion. Sarah knew all of them since they were her only friends in the neighborhood. Everyone else was much older than herself. Sarah would wake up early each day to feed her friends some breadcrumbs, biscuits and water. Sheeba and Tania would spend the whole day with her. Life was merrier on this side of the forest. Everyone lived happily and people were kind and compassionate. They always treated animals benevolently and not even a single soul in the animal world had ever been hurt by humans. Their rights were respected wholeheartedly in fact animals took them for granted since they had never been robbed of what they considered their privileges by birth. Freedom, right to live and right to adequate food and water were things that no animals ever gave much thought to since they were granted these rights on a silver platter. Life for them was beautiful.
But on the other side of the forest, things were not so perfect. There was a large corporation, Total animals Inc. that was headed by a cruel man named Simon. Simon thought he was good to animals since he owned many himself but the treatment he meted out to them was awful. Very few people knew this but Simon had been in the business of exporting deer and sheep fur to wealthier countries. This business had turned him into an overnight success. By all means, Simon was a millionaire who apparently loved animals since he would always be on the lookout for innocent stranded animals. Just a few months back, Simon hit the jackpot when…… [Read More]
How would the ethical issues surrounding Harlow's experiment be changed if it were conducted on lesser species, such as rats
If Harlow conducted his experiments on lesser species that results would have varied dramatically. Although Harlow proved that animals can learn and think at a complex level, the cognitive attributes of those animals must be taken into account. In addition, rats particularly the popular experimental white rat, have differing habits as it relates to child rearing. Rats do not typically nurture their young as to monkeys. In addition, rats do not have the cognitive capacity as many more mature monkeys have.
In regards to ethics, popular opinion would therefore be swayed towards the diffence of monkeys rather than rats. Rats, in many instances are considered dispensible, and inconvieniences of life. Monkeys, as it relates to public perception are often considered close relatives to the human specices. It is likely therefore, that the public would hold the standard of care for monkeys higher than those of lesser species such as rates.
I also believe, the overall longevity and reproductivity capacity influences the ethical issues surrounding Harlow's experiment. Rats tend to live shorter lives, and reproduce a more rapid rate than monkeys. As such, many individuals place less value on the lives of rat than they would that of a monkey. Due to these reasons I believe, that the ethical issues surround rates would have changed significantly relative to monkeys
If Harlow, conducted his experiment in accordance with the law, I believe the public would not find ethical fault with his experiments.
2. Which aspects of Harlow's studies would be violating research guidelines if conducted today?
If conducted today I believe Harlow's studies would violate provisions that stipulate that amount of animal suffering induced by an experiment. Current law states that animals should not suffer in the event more animals are used than are necessary; or because less sentient animals could be substituted for more sentient ones. This is relevant to question 1, as it may be possible to substitute less sentient animals for those of the monkeys and still arrive at the same conclusion. Even more prevalent in the notion of computer or tissue modeling which can substitutfor animals experiments entirely.
In addition, I believe Harlow's experiments would violate provisions related to inappropriate animal handling, housing,…… [Read More]
The main side effect of colchicines on animals is nausea. The use of colchicines on animals has also generated numerous concerns regarding the toxicity of bone marrow because of the ability of these substances to interfere with cell division. Furthermore, these substances are also likely to cause urine dip stick to wrongly read positive for blood. Colchicines can not only enhance the level of alkaline phosphatase as recorded on a blood chemistry panel but also diminish the body of vitamin B-12 in certain cases.
Since cytochalasins bind actin monomers and prevents their congregation into microfilaments, the already formed microfilaments slowly depolymerize. The main effect of these substances on animal cell division is that they inhibit cytoplasmic division but do not interfere with nuclear division or DNA synthesis. As a result, these substances contribute to the accumulation of large multi-nucleate cells (Gurdon & Fairman, p. 78.). In addition to the probability of completely blocking adenosine-induced apoptotic body formation in cultured cells, these substances are also likely to lessen actin filaments through blocking the addition of monomer at the rapidly developing end of the polymer.
Cytochalasins also cause lack of normal adhesion between cells to an extent that they create a flattened heap. In this case, the cells in such a heap are seemingly large if they have not divided and are relatively healthy. However, some degree of adhesion is present between the animal cells in a cytochalasin conjugate because they cannot be divided with pipette. When handling cytochalasins, it's always advisable to minimize or avoid direct inhalation or body contact because they are probable teratogens and highly toxic.
Works… [Read More]
It also stands out from other leopard subspecies because of its fur that has large rosettes and a vibrant color and it can grow to approximately 7 cm long during the winter time.
Due to the fact that deer and other prey species have started to fall in numbers, the leopard and the tiger have began to search for prey inside villages and farms. This gave people another reason to intervene in the process of endangering the species as a farmer would care less of an endangered species than of his profit.
The Amur leopard's most important enemies are men, who take advantage of every chance they get of harming the animal through pollution, the cutting of forests and through poaching for fur and bones. A great mistake that people make while considering the issue of the Amur leopard as an endangered species is that they tend to compare it to other leopard subspecies which are very numerous.
On the other hand, the people trying to protect the species are attempting to convince others to finance the activity of protecting the Amur leopard, but despite the efforts of its supporters, little has been done concerning the issue and most people have preferred to pay no attention to the situation.
The Amur leopard individuals that live in captivity are not influencing the flourishing of the species because of improper breeding that often takes place. Because there are very little individuals left, breeding between close relatives tend to take place and from the approximately 150 leopards living in captivity, only as much as 12 animals are of pure breed.
In 1998, the Russian government adopted a strategy for the conservation of the Amur leopard."(Fomenko, Pavel) in recent years Amur leopard lovers have started to raise funds and to encourage others to support the cause. Several organizations have begun to support anti-poaching and to attempt to stop the trafficking of Amur leopard trophies. Efforts are also being made to increase the amount of prey the Amur leopard is usually feeding on in his natural environment.
The survival of the Amur leopard now depends on our efforts we are responsible for bringing the species to the verge of extinction. The main action that needs to be done concerning the issue is to make people…… [Read More]
Once upon a time in the great island kingdom of Anatole, a beautiful princess named Lisle enjoyed her leisurely life spent mostly in the natural surroundings of her family's castle. Set in a valley adorned with a friendly river and bountiful fruit trees, the Kettering Castle was by far the grandest in the world. The massive structure gleamed like gold in the sunlight and spread out over several acres of land. Moreover, because Anatole was located on a large but remote island in the center of what is now called the Atlantic Ocean, the kingdom bore a home for many exotic creatures, most of which the rest of the world had never before seen, even in pictures.
Princess Lisle loved the creatures of Anatole and kept many as pets. In fact, between her and her two brothers and one sister, the Anatole royal family had a true menagerie that included birds, reptiles, fish, and mammals. They even had many gigantic insects that were as visually stunning as flowers and not creepy in the least. The Anatole royal family took great pride in their menagerie and fed and housed the creatures very well, almost as if they were people. As a result, all the animals in the menagerie appeared happy and healthy and lived long lives.
One day the King from a land far, far away came ashore to Anatole to bid the royal family hello. It was the first time that King Hercule had set foot on the great island and he was promptly offered the royal treatment tour. Princess Lisle accompanied her brothers, Prince Yonick and Prince Darren, and her sister Princess Felina along with their parents, the King and the Queen. Together, the royal family of Anatole and King Hercule spent the entire day roaming about the grounds of the palace as well as the remote hinterlands of the island, visiting spots that even the Princess herself had never before gone.
One of these special, remote spots was Mount Lindenberg. Princess Lisle had always heard of Mount Lindenberg but because it was so steep and…… [Read More]
Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. 1998 292). Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Greenberg wanted to discover the facts about depth perception in two species of Asian rodents, the Mongolian Gerbil and two varieties of Spiny Mice.
The experiments run by Herman et al. involved a single dolphin, a female named Elele, and were designed to determine whether echolocation or visual cues were central to dolphin recognition of objects that appeared in their environment. The researchers were extremely rigorous in setting up each experiment, avoiding contamination between visual and echolocation fields; the objects used for the dolphin's recognition tests were never available for both visual and echoic inspection at the same time.
When the trials had begun, Elele chose correctly in 49 of the first 50 trials at recognizing the objects introduced. The researchers noted that their results demonstrated an "impressive capability for direct cross-modal shape recognition" (Herman et al. 1998 298).
These were simple trials, however, with the dolphin being allowed to make her identification of the object immediately upon experiencing it. More advanced tests involved delaying her decision; There too, however, Elele excelled, responding correctly 99.2% of the time in the delayed recognition trials.
The experiments were sufficiently sophisticated that the dolphins reaction/response times were also measured. From the dolphin's responses in this mode, the researchers concluded that the dolphin required a bit more time to reach a decision when the objects introduced were less familiar and more complex than the objects in the original tests.
The results of all the experiments, both the simple ones and the ones involving time delays, suggested to the researchers that "dolphins possess a fundamental ability for shape perception through their echolocation sense." (Herman et al. 1998 303). On the other hand, it also became clear that the dolphin employed her visual sense when needed, leading to the conclusion that dolphins view objects holistically.
This experiment sought, above all else, to avoid a Pavlovian response in the dogs. In short, when setting up the…… [Read More]
Animal Communication may be defined as the transmission of a signal from one animal to another such that the sender benefits, on average, from the response of the recipient (Pearce). According to Robert Mannell this definition allows for the inclusion of many types of behavior and permits communication to be applied to a great range of animals. Natural animal communication can include chemical signals, smell, movement, posture, facial gestures, visual signals and sound. The intent of these signals is to attract, repel, signal aggression or submission, advertise species, warn of predators, or communicate about the environment or the availability of food. These signals may be instinctive or learned from others.
Animals have many ways to communicate, whales song, wolves howl, frogs croak, and birds chirp. Honey bees wangle dance and dogs wag their tails. These are all ways animals transmit information to one another as well as other species. Animals often use verbal and nonverbal forms of communication including non-vocal auditory out bursts such as the slap of a dolphin's tail, bioluminescence, scent marking, chemical or tactile cues, visual cues, and postural gestures.
According to Jessika Toothman not every member of a species' acoustic communication are just alike. Animals in different regions are known to use different dialects. For example, one study found that blue whales produce different patterns of pulses, tones and pitches depending on where they're from. Some bird species are the same way. Interestingly, birds that on the border between territories of differing songsters often become 'bilingual' and are capable of able of communicating in the singing parlance favored by each of their groups of neighbors.
There is evidence of communication between species as well. One study suggested that the reason Madagascan spiny-tailed iguanas have well-developed ears is so they can hear the warning calls of the Madagascan paradise flycatcher. The two species have nothing in common except for the fact that they share a general habitat and raptors like to snack on them. When an iguana hears a bird raise the alarm among other birds, it likely knows to be on alert for incoming predators as well (Toothman).
Some linguists have argued that language is a unique human behavior and that animal communication falls short of human language in a number of important ways. Humans possess an innate universal grammar that is not possessed by other species. This is demonstrated by the universality of…… [Read More]
Siberian Huskies do not bark the way most other domestic canines do, but howl amongst their pack members much more the way wolves do.
As pets, they are known to vocalize by whining or yowling, which must be addressed through corrective training to avoid becoming a persistent behavioral annoyance. Because they do not bark, they are largely incapable of performing satisfactorily as watchdogs because they will not alert to the presence of strangers in the manner desirable for watchdogs (Coppinger 2001).
Similarly, Siberian Huskies are not as threatened by strangers as are many domestic dogs; therefore, even if they were able to bark, they are as likely to greet a stranger on the property with a sniff and a wag of the tail (or perhaps, more likely, with indifference) and will not perceive stranger as a danger to themselves or their families.
The Siberian Husky also exhibits a hunting prey drive that is more reminiscent of the wolf than many other domestic dogs and may be unpredictable around other household pets, particularly those that trigger its hunting instinct by their rapid movements. For this reason, Siberian Huskies must be introduced with caution to other pets such as cats, ferrets, Guinea pigs, and hamsters. As puppies, they will accept other pets more readily instead of considering them prey, but it is a considerable issue in the case of adult Siberian Huskies not raised with other pets..
On the other hand, Siberian Huskies are very good with children, tolerating their attention patiently. This may also have something to do with their closer similarity to the wolf, as wolves are particularly known for their extreme patience with cubs and for tolerating their trying behavior. It is not clear exactly how dogs know that human children are infants, but it is obvious that certain breeds, such as Siberian Huskies recognize that human children warrant the same treatment normally reserved for puppies, or in the case of wolves, cubs (Morris 1993) Training Siberian Huskies:
Siberian Huskies are not particularly easy to train for several reasons, also probably related to their closer similarity to the wolf than are other domestic dog breeds.…… [Read More]
Animal research is a necessity today, and has afforded us the opportunity to create lifesaving drugs and vaccines, new surgical procedures and improved diagnosis of disease. Despite the bad press animal activists have given, institutions are given guidelines that guarantee the safe and ethical treatment of research animals. Most scientists agree that continued animal testing is essential to develop new vaccines and medicines, and that computer and mathematical models are not adequate substitutes in all cases. Even so, they follow ethical and legal guidelines that minimize the use of animals and treat them as humanely as possible under the circumstances. Few of them follow the extremist position that animals are mere objects or things that exist only for the benefit of humanity and can be treated in any way humans see fit. In general, public opinion also supports this position, as well as the idea that unnecessary cruelty to animals should be avoided. Most humans do not share the view of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals or the Animal Liberation Front that animals have equal or superior rights to humans. Nor do they agree with their tactics of violence and death threats against individuals and companies involved in animal testing. Utilitarian philosophers are correct that animal research produces benefits for humanity, in the production of new vaccines, improved surgical procedures, pain relief and prosthetics. Without these experiments, human and animal suffering would be much greater, while alternative methods of research may never be available. In fact, use of animals in medical research should be increased to minimize experimentation on humans as much as possible. Moreover, animal rights advocates would be more consistent if they also supported vegetarianism, since treatment of animals in slaughterhouses was far harsher than in laboratories. No one could "coherently object to the killing of animals in biomedical investigations while continuing to eat them," and in fact far more animals were used to provide food and clothing than for medical…… [Read More]
Animal testing or animal experimentation is a necessary evil. At least that is what some say. Others believe animal testing should cease as society evolves past the need to experiment on living creatures. The topic remains a hot button issue.
It rings especially true for those who adopt a vegan lifestyle and believe animals should have the same rights as people in terms of value of life and so forth. Although animal testing has ceased in some cosmetic companies and label their goods as not animal tested, most companies, especially pharmaceutical companies, rely on animals to test drugs and vaccines in order to promote evolution of medicine but refrain from putting human lives at risk. This essay will show the pro and con sides of animal testing/animal experimentation. Does it remain as unavoidable or can society move past animal testing and find new ways to test products and medicines?
The current literature shows pros and cons to animal testing and perhaps helps illustrate the need or aversion to animal testing. For example, the pro-side argues animal testing helps avoid loss of human life by enabling experimentation and discovery of vaccines and medicines that could help cure alleviate disease and injury in humans. The con may argue animal experimentation promotes a negative society focused on brutality and violence. Animal experimentation became so reviled thanks to campaigns against the subject showing animals tested on, that companies have gone so far as to state they do not test on animals. The literature will present pros and cons and help deliver a conclusion and opinion on the topic.
In 2012, Michael Balls wrote an article discussing the new ways in which pharmaceutical companies could test drugs on human cells without hurting humans and eliminating entirely animal testing. Essentially people could donate cells to a clinic that then retains those cells, replicate them and provide them to pharma and researchers to test their theories and products.
Cells will be provided to academic researchers, private -- public partnerships, biotechs and pharma for research, early drug discovery and safety assessment. The aim of the iPS cell centre is, therefore, to respond to the current and rapidly increasing demand for efficacy and toxicity testing using iPS cells from disease relevant populations (Balls 191)
The innovation comes at the heels of a recent vegan movement championing the elimination of…… [Read More]
Science and the sub-science of chemistry has provided some significant advances to society and the health and welfare of society. Throughout this history, animals have been used as components of these chemical tests and there is much debate about the ethics and effectiveness of this practice. The purpose of this essay is to describe how animal testing is no longer a viable option in many cases of scientific experiment and should be used sparingly if at all. This argument will incorporate differing attitudes about the complex nature of this problem and synthesize these ideas with a relevant link towards further understanding of science and chemistry.
History of Animal Testing
The problem can be difficult because it appears that throughout the history of animal testing, great advances were made in chemistry and other sciences. Scutti (2013) added that "n ancient times, scientists made use of animals principally to satisfy anatomical curiosity. Early Greek physician-scientists performed experiments on living animals. Herophilus and Erasistratus, for example, examined sensory nerves, motor nerves, and tendons in order to understand their functional differences." Only recently in the 20th century has society seen a drift away from animal testing. This new philosophy is firmly rooted in the ideals of consideration for other living things and denotes a new chapter in human history. A new paradigm is set that sets to reduce the number of animals used in experiments, refine the experiment to reducing suffering, and in as many cases as possible, replace experiments on animals with better substitutes.
Animal Testing is not Viable
Before examining the ethical aspects of the argument it is important to help determine of animal testing is actually providing any net benefit to science or humanity. PETA suggested the animal testing is not worth the time or effort. Their organization wrote "Most animal experiments are not relevant to human health, they do not contribute meaningfully to medical advances and many are undertaken simply of out curiosity and do not even pretend to hold promise for curing illnesses. The only reason people are under the misconception that animal experiments help humans is because the media, experimenters, universities and lobbying groups exaggerate the potential of animal experiments to lead to new cures and the role they have played in past medical advances."[footnoteRef:2] [2: PETA (nd). "Animal Testing is Bad Science: Point/Counterpoint]
This is a strong argument…… [Read More]
Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.
Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:
These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design made from wood as well as the quick wear and tear on the material over a shorter period of time.
There have also been considerable important in the foundation of journal bearings. Journal bearings are fundamental engineering component that supports and positions an object while allowing that object to rotate.
Bearings made of wood have long been used in cartwheels, windmills, lathes, and other technical devices Archeological evidence shows that wooden wheels and bearings were first used in the Tigris- Euphrates valley circa 3500 BC These solid cart wheels were crafted of flat planks and rotated on fixed wooden poles. (Sathre & Gorman 48)
Slowly evolving to lighter spooked wheels and the use of bearing lubricants which have been document to the thirteenth century BC, journal bearing have evolved even further in the current epoch. Leonardo da Vinci studied the friction and wear of bearings in the 15th and the recent industrial revolution sparked great advances in bearing Technology. (Sathre & Gorman 41)
Sather and Gorman decided to research improving existing…… [Read More]
There are a number of physical responses that occur in the a mammal's body when it is exposed to heat. It is important to not only understand what thermoregulation is, but the physiological and/or anatomical thermoregulatory responses that allow sustained exercise in horses.
Thermoregulation is the control of body temperature within certain limits even when the surrounding temperature is very different. This enables the body to function effectively and is known as maintaining homeostasis, which is a dynamic state of stability between an animal's internal environment and its external environment.
A relatively constant body temperature is necessary for the efficient functioning of the complicated brain of higher animals. Extreme temperatures alter biological molecules and disrupt body functions resulting in illness such as hyperthermia or hypothermia, which if not treated can lead to death. Mechanisms have subsequently evolved in mammals to enable body temperatures to stay within certain limits.
All mammals are endothermic meaning they maintain and regulate their own body temperature. Mammals and birds maintain a constant body temperature which is usually above the environmental temperature, known as homeothermic.
Adapting to the Environment
Mammals live in a number of widespread environments around the world, forcing them to face daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperatures. Some mammals live in harsh environments, such as arctic or tropical regions, and must withstand extreme cold and heat. In order to maintain its correct body temperature, a mammal must be able to produce and conserve body heat in colder temperatures, as well as dissipate excess body heat in warmer temperatures. Some mammals have adapted to their environment by increasing their surface area in the extremities, such as large ears on the Zebou cattle.
Animals that are exposed to the cold have heavier organs, and their skin color is dependent upon the amount of radiation they are exposed to. In colder climates, fat under the skin provides mammals with necessary insulation. Due the to surface to volume ratio, a large animal has the advantage over smaller animals since less skin is exposed to the elements.
Surviving the Heat
While fat is necessary in colder temperatures, it is also crucial for mammals living in warmer climates. The Zebra cattle deposit…… [Read More]
Animal Welfare Assurance Programs
Temple Grandin's program concerning livestock behavior, design of facilities and humane slaughter is present in a series of meat plants across the American continent, Europe, Australia, and in several other locations from around the world. Her objectives are also related to the welfare of animals as they are transported, prepared for slaughter, and as they are treated in general. Grandin's involvement the well-being of animals is most certainly worthy of being praised because of the contribution that she brought to making society more humane. Similar to Grandin's plan, animalhandling.org's approach at reducing stress in animals as they are raised, transported, and prepared to be turned into food is surely laudable, especially given that the website's promoters are focused on ensuring that animals are managed with increased understanding of their needs. These Connecticut-based animal supporters are principally concerned about having the masses, meat consumers, and the meat industry comprehend that animals need to be treated in a particular way before being put to death.
Grandin has developed many regulations that meat-producers need to take into consideration in order to safely and legally have success in their enterprise. Ranging from corrals designed to have animals experience reduced stress while heading toward slaughter houses to loading ramps made so as for animals to experience little to no difficulty while being loaded and unloaded from transport means, Grandin made sure that animals would experience no problems as they are turned into raw meat. The transportation and slaughter guidelines highlighted by AMI Foundation address several complex points that animal handlers have to respect in order for them to guarantee overall effectiveness of the industry.
Both Grandin's program and the program issued by animalhandling.org insist that the meat industry has to acknowledge the fact that animals are beings before they are actually murdered and that…… [Read More]