It also stands out from other leopard subspecies because of its fur that has large rosettes and a vibrant color and it can grow to approximately 7 cm long during the winter time.
Due to the fact that deer and other prey species have started to fall in numbers, the leopard and the tiger have began to search for prey inside villages and farms. This gave people another reason to intervene in the process of endangering the species as a farmer would care less of an endangered species than of his profit.
The Amur leopard's most important enemies are men, who take advantage of every chance they get of harming the animal through pollution, the cutting of forests and through poaching for fur and bones. A great mistake that people make while considering the issue of the Amur leopard as an endangered species is that they tend to compare it to other leopard subspecies which are very numerous.
On the other hand, the people trying to protect the species are attempting to convince others to finance the activity of protecting the Amur leopard, but despite the efforts of its supporters, little has been done concerning the issue and most people have preferred to pay no attention to the situation.
The Amur leopard individuals that live in captivity are not influencing the flourishing of the species because of improper breeding that often takes place. Because there are very little individuals left, breeding between close relatives tend to take place and from the approximately 150 leopards living in captivity, only as much as 12 animals are of pure breed.
In 1998, the Russian government adopted a strategy for the conservation of the Amur leopard."(Fomenko, Pavel) in recent years Amur leopard lovers have started to raise funds and to encourage others to support the cause. Several organizations have begun to support anti-poaching and to attempt to stop the trafficking of Amur leopard trophies. Efforts are also being made to increase the amount of prey the Amur leopard is usually feeding on in his natural environment.
The survival of the Amur leopard now depends on our efforts we are responsible…… [Read More]
Animal Communication may be defined as the transmission of a signal from one animal to another such that the sender benefits, on average, from the response of the recipient (Pearce). According to Robert Mannell this definition allows for the inclusion of many types of behavior and permits communication to be applied to a great range of animals. Natural animal communication can include chemical signals, smell, movement, posture, facial gestures, visual signals and sound. The intent of these signals is to attract, repel, signal aggression or submission, advertise species, warn of predators, or communicate about the environment or the availability of food. These signals may be instinctive or learned from others.
Animals have many ways to communicate, whales song, wolves howl, frogs croak, and birds chirp. Honey bees wangle dance and dogs wag their tails. These are all ways animals transmit information to one another as well as other species. Animals often use verbal and nonverbal forms of communication including non-vocal auditory out bursts such as the slap of a dolphin's tail, bioluminescence, scent marking, chemical or tactile cues, visual cues, and postural gestures.
According to Jessika Toothman not every member of a species' acoustic communication are just alike. Animals in different regions are known to use different dialects. For example, one study found that blue whales produce different patterns of pulses, tones and pitches depending on where they're from. Some bird species are the same way. Interestingly, birds that on the border between territories of differing songsters often become 'bilingual' and are capable of able of communicating in the singing parlance favored by each of their groups of neighbors.
There is evidence of communication between species as well. One study suggested that the reason Madagascan spiny-tailed iguanas have well-developed ears is so they can hear the warning calls of the Madagascan paradise flycatcher. The two species have nothing in common except for the fact that they share a general habitat and raptors like to snack on them. When an iguana hears a bird raise the alarm among other birds, it likely knows to be on alert for incoming predators as well (Toothman).
Language…… [Read More]
Siberian Huskies do not bark the way most other domestic canines do, but howl amongst their pack members much more the way wolves do.
As pets, they are known to vocalize by whining or yowling, which must be addressed through corrective training to avoid becoming a persistent behavioral annoyance. Because they do not bark, they are largely incapable of performing satisfactorily as watchdogs because they will not alert to the presence of strangers in the manner desirable for watchdogs (Coppinger 2001).
Similarly, Siberian Huskies are not as threatened by strangers as are many domestic dogs; therefore, even if they were able to bark, they are as likely to greet a stranger on the property with a sniff and a wag of the tail (or perhaps, more likely, with indifference) and will not perceive stranger as a danger to themselves or their families.
The Siberian Husky also exhibits a hunting prey drive that is more reminiscent of the wolf than many other domestic dogs and may be unpredictable around other household pets, particularly those that trigger its hunting instinct by their rapid movements. For this reason, Siberian Huskies must be introduced with caution to other pets such as cats, ferrets, Guinea pigs, and hamsters. As puppies, they will accept other pets more readily instead of considering them prey, but it is a considerable issue in the case of adult Siberian Huskies not raised with other pets..
On the other hand, Siberian Huskies are very good with children, tolerating their attention patiently. This may also have something to do with their closer similarity to the wolf, as wolves are particularly known for their extreme patience with cubs and for tolerating their trying behavior. It is not clear exactly how dogs know that human children are infants, but it is obvious that certain breeds, such as Siberian Huskies recognize that human children warrant the same treatment normally reserved for puppies, or in the case of wolves, cubs (Morris 1993) Training Siberian Huskies:
Siberian Huskies are not particularly easy to train for several reasons, also probably related to their closer similarity to the wolf…… [Read More]
There are a number of physical responses that occur in the a mammal's body when it is exposed to heat. It is important to not only understand what thermoregulation is, but the physiological and/or anatomical thermoregulatory responses that allow sustained exercise in horses.
Thermoregulation is the control of body temperature within certain limits even when the surrounding temperature is very different. This enables the body to function effectively and is known as maintaining homeostasis, which is a dynamic state of stability between an animal's internal environment and its external environment.
A relatively constant body temperature is necessary for the efficient functioning of the complicated brain of higher animals. Extreme temperatures alter biological molecules and disrupt body functions resulting in illness such as hyperthermia or hypothermia, which if not treated can lead to death. Mechanisms have subsequently evolved in mammals to enable body temperatures to stay within certain limits.
All mammals are endothermic meaning they maintain and regulate their own body temperature. Mammals and birds maintain a constant body temperature which is usually above the environmental temperature, known as homeothermic.
Adapting to the Environment
Mammals live in a number of widespread environments around the world, forcing them to face daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperatures. Some mammals live in harsh environments, such as arctic or tropical regions, and must withstand extreme cold and heat. In order to maintain its correct body temperature, a mammal must be able to produce and conserve body heat in colder temperatures, as well as dissipate excess body heat in warmer temperatures. Some mammals have adapted to their environment by increasing their surface area in the extremities, such as large ears on the Zebou cattle.
Animals that are exposed to the cold have heavier organs, and their skin color is dependent upon the amount of radiation they are exposed to. In colder climates, fat under the skin provides mammals with necessary insulation. Due the to surface to volume ratio, a large animal has the advantage over smaller animals since less skin is exposed to the elements.
Surviving the Heat
While fat is necessary in colder temperatures, it is also crucial for mammals living in warmer climates. The Zebra cattle deposit fat deep in the body to aid greater heat tolerance, while camels…… [Read More]
Animals & Their Place Inside the Fast Food Nation
Animals and Their Place inside the Fast Food Nation
The 1950's were a time of elegance, charm, and were truly the apex of American power. When one listens to music from this era or looks at photographs, one can almost feel the happiness that people felt during that time, especially after the war-torn decade preceding the 1950's. However, when looking at old photographs of family, one will also notice very thin, even fit young men and women laying on beaches and smiling up at the sun without, seemingly, a care in the world. Now, however, when on a beach in the United States, most often, one will notice the contentment of people all around, but will also see quite a few sunbathers who are not at all fit, and perhaps a small percentage of overweight beach-goers. This is an independent statement, of course, but it is made after years of observation, and the statistics presented below will agree with this simple truth. Our nation and many other nations in the developed world are experiencing a phenomenon that has heretofore been unknown to humankind: obesity due to over abundance of food, which is often chemically treated and cheaply produced.
The Creation of the Fast Food Nation
One could say that the 1950's, a decade of such glamour, started the obesity craze, for this is when restaurants that served 'fast food,' as we know it today, became widely known. This is, in part, correct. However, fast food started way back in Greek and Roman times, but for the purposes of this paper, the focus will start with White Castle, a restaurant that survives today and one that opened in1921 in Kansas, according to the History of Fast Food. Before White Castle, people considered burgers to be of inferior quality, as many thought that hamburgers came from meat that was spoiled and hard, according to this source. It was due to this concept that While Castle founders decided to change the public perception of burgers. In fact, they went so far as to let the public see how their hamburgers were being prepared. To add to this, they painted all their buildings white, which suggested cleanliness.
However, White Castle did not have something a future competitor would have: assembly-line systems of making food. McDonald's, according to the history,…… [Read More]
In another instance, scientist and primate researcher Anne Engh collected fecal samples from baboons in the African country of Botswana; Engh gathered those fecal samples following the killing of a baboon by a predator (Moss, p. 2).
Those samples were tested for "…increased levels of glucocorticoid (GC) stress markers" and Engh discovered that the stress in those baboons was elevated for nearly a month after the one baboon had been brutally attacked and killed (Moss, p. 2). The baboon feces that tested out for the highest amount of stress were from those baboons that had either family or other close ties to the baboon that had been killed. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that the baboons were hurt emotionally by the killing and they showed that through their stress following the death.
Meanwhile there is a growing movement of citizens worldwide who believe that animals have feelings and that they should not be abused especially when it comes to the entertainment and amusement of the public. There are ongoing protests about zoos and about displaying wild animals in public places; for example students at Somerville College, Oxford, are planning to boycott a college party / ball if the plans go ahead to display "…a live shark in a tank as entertainment" (Rustin, 2013). The event is billed as "…one night of decadence, debauchery and indulgence," and history graduate Matthew Hawkins objects to having a huge tank at a ball with a shark in it for entertainment (Rustin, p. 2).
"It's worrying that a leading educational institution such as Oxford college would allow that view of nature to be perpetuated, of animals as an extravagant, gaudy show." He went on to say that many students are trying in their everyday lives to "…do our little bit to save the planet" and meanwhile the college they attend is "…going in the opposite direction" (Rustin, p. 2).
The PETA group (People for the Ethical Treatment of…… [Read More]
In addition, the practice of testing cosmetics and other personal items on animals was accepted practice for many years. For example, countless rabbits were blinded to test the safety of mascaras and eye products (Carbone 24) before animal rights activists spoke up and asked the haunting question, "How many rabbits does Revlon blind for the sake of beauty?'" (Carbone 24). This use of animals for vanity seems unusually cruel and needless, and it seems there must be some other way to test new ideas, drugs, and treatments without wasting the lives of innocent animals.
Many scientists and health care professionals argue that medical research with animals is absolutely necessary to cure disease and make human life better and healthier. They maintain that animal research is absolutely necessary because in the end it saves human lives. Clearly, researchers have learned much from animal research, and have made great strides in science and medicine because of this research. DeGrazia notes "the advancement of basic biological knowledge -- proponents cite progress in the areas of Alzheimer's disease, AIDS, basic genetics, cancer, cardiovascular disease, haemophilia, malaria, organ transplantation, treatment of spinal cord injuries, and countless others" (DeGrazia 103). How many countless humans would have died from these diseases and afflictions if serious animal research had not been done?
This is one of the thorniest issues of the animal rights movement. When does the end justify the means? Often, as in the case of these serious diseases, it seems the end does justify the means. Numerous lives have been saved or made better because of the sacrifice of animals. However, the question remains. How much of this research could have been accomplished in some other way, without harming animals? As it has been shown, there are often other ways to accomplish even the most demanding research, and simply using animals may be the accepted practice…… [Read More]
Animals Have Rights?" Tabor R. Machan concludes that animals do not deserve the same consideration as human beings because they are incapable of making moral decisions themselves. Machan argues that animals are distinct beings and it is a mistake to categorize them as being equal to humans. In fact, Machan states that animals should be exploited in some cases, if to do so will improve human quality of life. The author unabashedly places human beings at the top of the life spectrum, asserting that human beings are more important than animals because of our moral faculties. However, Machan does feel that animals should be treated judiciously and not cruelly.
Machan is largely utilitarian in his approach to the animal rights issue. The author argues that because animals can be used to benefit human beings, that they should not be "liberated," or protected. The author also argues that the rights conferred on human beings are not shared by animals because those creatures are fundamentally different from human beings. Namely, animals have no capacity for moral or ethical understanding. In fact, Machan argues that this is one of the weaknesses in the animal rights ideology. Human beings must make the moral decision to protect animals, proving that animals don't have that capacity themselves. Machan also asserts that human beings can and should be considered as superior to other animals.
Machan's argument against the liberation or protection of animals is largely logical, but the author fails to account for the "ethics of care." While it is easy to condone the exploitation of animals on the basis of it being a logical practice, Machan fails to account for the emotionally based arguments raised by animal rights activists. Although Machan's argument is solid on paper, he does not take into consideration other types of ethical…… [Read More]
This was inexcusable. He got his rifle, and he began to shoot them, one by one. Somehow, though, he couldn't hit the last woodchuck, the wiley one. That night, he dreamed about that woodchuck, the one that got away. He dreamed he shot that woodchuck. Blaming the whole debacle on the woodchucks, he told himself, "If only they'd all consented to die unseen, gassed underground the quiet Nazi way." (Kumin, poemhunter.com)
Non-animal testing methods that are more reliable than animal testing and a lot cheaper have been developed. Some are computer and mathematical models. Others use cell and skin tissue or corneas from eye banks -- providing information from human genes. Some companies simply avoid testing by using all non-toxic ingredients or ingredients that the Cosrmetics, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association has already approved as safe.
According to groups on both sides of the argument, the American public -- particularly the young people -- are becoming more and more opposed to biomedical testing as they learn about it and its abuses to animals. But the proponents are trying to fight back. Recently, a billboard appeared in Inman Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts, that read "GOT LEPROSY? -- a scare tactic. Leprosy is a deadly disease that everyone has heard about, usually from stories of outcast leper colonies, but no one knows anyone who has had it. Leprosy is gone, and the message on the billboard is clear it is gone thanks to animal testing. It made a splash, but didn't get as many converts as hoped.
The big news is that on April 6, 2010, United States and the United Kingdom sued the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in federal court. They accused the FDA of failing to act on the 2007 petition they had submitted. Its purpose was to require the use of scientifically-sound alternatives. This would…… [Read More]
Since animals do not have a large brain capacity to accommodate such acts, normally the types of behaviors taught to these animals are usually simple and straightforward to master (Heyes, 1996).
Use of teaching as a mode of behavioral transmission among animals is where an animal trainer takes time with the animal showing them how things are done such as requesting of food or even developing routes or ways to obtain the food among other trainings. As mentioned earlier, learning is somehow restrictive towards a given group of animal species, those with a higher capacity to master what they are taught. Some of these cultures are self-taught as a survival tactic, they are usually passed from the parent to the sibling. For instance, siblings of the killer whales are taught to fend for their food through pushing of the Pinnipeds to the shore intentionally for them to be able to easily catch and eat them (Laland, 2009).
When you compare all these transmission modes, language is specifically used on animals with a high potential of developing a culture. Though the mastery of language use among animals requires lengthy training, many have achieved to train these animals to communicate. Language has some relation to imitation because for the animal to master how to talk, it should also have the capability to imitate things done by the trainer such as talking. The most common development done in this area entails, training of parrots and dogs to speak.
All in all, culture can be developed in animals, but there are some factors which may hinder their adoption and conservation of those behaviors, these include; the inhibition of adoptive behavior because of cultural conformism, development of culturally isolated sympatric groups and the evolution of maladaptive behavior among animals. These factors can affect habitat suitability, movement, genetic structures and animal reaction to anthropogenic effects, which in turn have an important role in developing of animal culture (Whitehead, 2010).
Works… [Read More]
Referring to the fact that signing children acquire a lexicon first, it is argued that grammar in its largest sense is the latest acquisition in communication. The whole process is based on an underlying cognitive structure (so-called semantic memory) that is already in place. Grammar is responsible for two domains of representation: propositional and discourse pragmatics. The priority of the lexicon is also sustained by so-called pregrammatical communication as it is found, for example, in child pidgin and agrammatical aphasia. "
Human language is distinguished by these factors, however only time will tell if other animal communication evolves to math the abilty that humans currently have. While it has not happened yet, it is believed that some animals have highly advanced communication abilities as compared to other animals. Dolphins and primates both come to mind in the discussion of advanced animal communication abilities. Without being able to study the beginning it is impossible to know if their language ability has always been what it is today or if it is an advancing ability based on an evolutionary process, much like the human language.
Humans are not the only animals with the ability to communicate. One only has to watch herds of buffalo, flocks of geese, and schools of fish to understand that many animals on earth have the ability to do so. Human linguistics have proven thus far to be the most complicated and mutli-dimensional with an evolving level of sophistication. The only real distinguishable difference between human linguistics and animal communication at this point is the fact that humans can hear a series of words strung together for the first time and instantly understand their meaning.… [Read More]
animals -- whether they are carnivorous, omnivorous, or herbivorous -- depend upon the mechanisms of photosynthesis as a source of food. Carnivorous and omnivorous animals eat other animals as a source of food, but prey animals such as herbivores consume plants as a source of energy. And oxygen, the by-product of plant photosynthesis, enables all animal life on land and in the water to breathe. The chlorophylls and carotenoids, the pigments present in the plant's cellular structure, absorb sunlight and convert it into energy, producing oxygen as a byproduct. Sunlight is transformed into ATP in plants. ATP enables the synthesizing of glucose from carbon dioxide and water within the plant's cellular membranes. "Glucose subunits are joined together, forming starch and other molecules," and producing oxygen for animal life as a by-product (Photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, 2010, Aquarium project website). Depending on where the plants are located, the oxygen is released into either the atmosphere or the water.
In aerobic respiration in animals, or respiration in the presence of oxygen, energy is released through the breakdown of glucose and other organic compounds. "Aerobic respiration produces the most ATP for each glucose molecule…In-between are three stages of reactions. The first stage is glycolysis, the second [is] the Krebs cycle, and the third [stage] is the electron transport phosphorylation reactions" (Photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, 2010, Aquarium project website). Through aerobic respiration, released energy in the form of ATP then becomes available within the animal's body for a variety of cellular tasks. Carbon dioxide and water are released as by-products, which are then used by plants in the processes of photosynthesis. The cycle of respiration between animals and plants is thus symbiotic and balanced, as one form of life produces the necessary products to sustain the other life form's respiratory and essential life activities.
Q2. Anaerobic respiration takes place in the absence of oxygen. Fermentation is a type of anaerobic respiration. The anaerobic respiration pathway breaks glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, a three-carbon compound. The process of breaking down glucose into pyurvate is called glycolosis. Pyruvate molecules can be converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide or into lactic acid, the substance that is also used to make yogurt. Animals' muscles, including human animals, also manufacture lactic acid during periods of "prolonged exercise" (Fermentation and anaerobic respiration, 2010,…… [Read More]
Pulling in for gas it seems like the prices jumped from Sunday too. Gas prices are higher most often on Mondays (Davis, 113) which just make this day one of the most disliked of the week.
Everyone should go on a vacation occasionally.
I love to travel and take vacations, and my family does too. We scour the Internet for travel deals and have found hotel rooms in very nice resorts for 30% to 50% off and been able to go on some very nice vacations as a result. In fact, since 2009 the discount travel sites have seen a major increase in discounted hotel rates at major resorts (Tegmeyer, et.al.). While on vacation I like to go exploring around the coastlines and rivers, often on day tours with smaller cruise operations. This form of vacation has also been increasing in recent years (Pasquariello, et.al.). I like to explore the coastlines of where we are vacation and learn about historic sites, and have fun visiting new cities as well.… [Read More]
There is therefore little doubt that animals, particularly mammals, are conscious.
Despite all of the preceding evidence, it is necessary to analyze it in the terms of one of the principle dissenters regarding the notion of animal consciousness, Dennett, who claims that true consciousness is "a certain sort of informational organization that endows" creatures "with a wide set of cognitive powers (such as the powers of reflection and re-representation)" (Dennett 0). Although Dennett believes that this sort of organizational capacity only exists within people, it is important to point out the numerous examples in the animal kingdom that adhere to the author's definition. Griffin's detailing of a chimpanzee remembering the specific type of rock necessary to crack a tough nut which it used "several days earlier" implies reflection and recollection on the part of the chimpanzee (Griffin 10). The systems of communication used by the monkeys in Asia who founded a culture that involved a preference for washing off food with sea salt definitely suggests a degree of organization that is a part of any sort of culture. The cognitive powers of the chimpanzee that were involved in remembering the location of the rock used to crack a particular type of nut days earlier is fairly evident, and is also suggested by the baiting of minnows of herons, as well as by the usage of any sort of tool on the part of other animals.
Works… [Read More]
Yet, the studies on animal consciousness show that they are conscious, and they are capable of thought, and so, whatever they feel, they are feeling something and reacting to that feeling. Their brains are involved, and brains involve thought, in addition to mere stimulus. As author Saigel says about petting his cat, "Certainly, it seems that my rubbing my cat's head has no advantage to it other than the way it might make her feel. She may not recognize this, she may not be able to think about it, but surely, the purr is evidence that there is some phenomenal experience the cat is having, whether she is aware of it or not" (Saigel). Animals may not be capable of higher-order thought as humans are, and make intelligent decisions based on that thought, but evidence does indicate they are capable of thought, and use thought processes throughout their lives.
Author Eric Saigel notes, "I argue that an organism (a cat, say) might be conscious without being able to reflect upon or represent its conscious states. This would limit its ability to reason about its conscious states, but while such reasoning is emblematic of human consciousness, it need not be present for consciousness to be present" (Saigel). In addition, Saidel discusses phenomenal consciousness as opposed to simple consciousness. Phenomenal consciousness includes more than mere consciousness that something is happening around an animal, but that they have thoughts about what is happening.
Nagel notes that we must also create alternate ways of thinking and describing things in objective terms in order to understand the experiences of others. He writes, "We must consider whether any method will permit us to extrapolate to the inner life of the bat from our own case, and if not, what alternative methods there may be for understanding the notion" (Nagel). If we do not have that method, as we do not now, we must derive other methods of expression and thought that can help us describe experiences more objectively and yet with more detail. Near the end of his essay, he uses the example of explaining the color red to a blind person, and coming up with descriptions that match sounds the blind…… [Read More]
ANIMAL RIGHTS- SHOULD ANIMALS BE TREATED WITH MORE KINDNESS?
Animal rights or animal-human relationship is as controversial a subject as abortion and genetic research. This is because despite endless debates, several philosophical theories, numerous viewpoints and research findings, there appears to be no end in sight for this issue. How should be treat animals? Do they deserve our love and mercy? Can they be used for human consumption and benefit? How legal or morally justified is the use of animals in medical and cosmetic research? These are just some of the questions that arise when we discuss the ever-controversial subject of animal rights. The emergence of animal rights movement in late twentieth century sparked a huge controversy about treatment of animals and whether or not they deserved to be treated with the same respect we assign a human being.
We condemn totally the infliction of suffering upon our brother animals, and the curtailment of their enjoyment, unless it be necessary for their own individual benefit. We declare our belief that all sentient creatures have rights to life, liberty, and the quest for happiness."('A Declaration Against Speciesism', Cambridge University, 1977) See Reference 1
Many philosophers and their writings were then discussed and their point-of-view on animals scanned carefully to reach some conclusive answer to the many important questions that this movement gave birth to. In this paper, we shall discuss some philosophical viewpoints and see how people have discussed the issue so far to understand why it is important to treat animals more humanely even if they are not granted the same rights as human beings.
It might sound strange to some, but few aggressive proponents of humane treatment of animals believe that human beings are also animals even if they fall higher on the specie ladder and therefore if they are treated with respect and kindness, non-human animals must also be accorded the same respect and must be treated with dignity. To say that animals should be given similar rights as human beings is a taking the discussion a little too far where it almost becomes unreasonable and impractical. So we need to establish some ground for this discussion. Before we start…… [Read More]
Scientists should not perform testing of drugs, chemicals and cosmetics on animals. No matter how many animals they use, they cannot prove the new substances are perfectly safe and effective. If the substances pass animal testing and don't show any ill effects on animals, it doesn't mean the substances are a hundred percent safe for humans. Terrifyingly, the substances can cause serious side effects in humans. Because the physical structures between humans and animals are different, the result from the animal testing does not always apply to humans. This fact indicates that animal testing is not reliable, and not useful; it is only a way of slaughtering animals. In addition, the experimentation methods are immoral and inhumane even in the few instances where they are actually useful. A human also belongs to the animal kingdom and is a kind of animal. Accordingly, a human is not in a position to take away an animal's right to live. Scientists should reconsider animal testing, and switch to alternative toxicity testing methods in place of laboratory animals. These new methods can help to reduce the number of laboratory animals.
Works… [Read More]
service animals (guide dogs, therapy dogs, etc.) are discriminated against by businesses, housing authorities, and public policy. Service animals perform a vital and emotional service to thousands of individuals in this country. They are the eyes, ears, and lips of many disabled people who could not exist on their own without them. Unfortunately, many people and businesses still do not understand the critical need for service animals, and so, they discriminate against the animals and their owners.
Service animals perform a wide variety of services and tasks for people with disabilities, and many disabled people would not be able to function effectively without their animals. Initially, service animals were trained to help lead their blind owners through everyday tasks, from walking to work to negotiating around their homes. Called "guide dogs," many were trained by "Seeing Eye," Inc., and those dogs were known as "seeing-eye" dogs. Today, animals, not just dogs, provide a variety of services for the disabled and elderly. Guide dogs still help the blind, and service animals also are trained to help the deaf "hear," and aid wheelchair bound individuals by leading or pulling them, or helping them with balance and movement. They can also pick up and carry items, notify others if their owner is having a seizure, and even act as companions and therapy dogs for people with severe disorders such as autism. One expert writes, "Service dogs perform tasks such as operating light switches, retrieving items, pulling wheelchairs, and opening doors. Hearing dogs assist people who are deaf or hearing impaired by alerting them to sounds such as telephone rings, crying infants, alarms, and people calling them by name" (Henderson). Service animals are not pets, they are highly trained assistants who can make the difference between a disabled person living on their own or living in a group home or other assisted-living situation. Today, they are more than dogs. A variety of animals have been trained to assist the disabled, from miniature horses to pot-bellied pigs and beyond. The use of service animals is not a new idea. One researcher notes, "The use of animals to assist their ailing human counterparts dates to the early Greeks who gave horseback rides to raise the spirits of people who were incurably ill, and documentation from the seventeenth century makes medical reference to horseback riding as treatment for gout, neurological disorders, and low morale" (Henderson). Today, service…… [Read More]
European Images Animals
Some of the practical reasons Europeans may have had for paying attention to the animals of the New Word may have been, first of all, so that they could get an idea about what kind of place they were traveling to and, second, that they maybe could have gotten an idea about the type of people inhabiting the land by looking at the animals. It can be argued that people associate if a place is going to be brutal or wild by the types of animals living in an environment. For example, when one thinks about Africa they may think of lions, jaguars and alligators -- among other more vicious types of animals. They may look at the terrain and think that an animal must be powerful in order to survive in a certain environment. If the Europeans looked at pictures of the animals in the New World and saw horses, cattle, and ducks, they may have been more likely to think that the New World was suitable for civilization or that, based on the animal life, it would be easier to civilize or tame the land. If they were familiar with the types of animals they may see the New World as not being quite so foreign and may view it more like their own home (i.e. friendly).
If the Europeans were to look at the pictures of animals and see brutal and ferocious images, they may have associated the people with these characteristics as well. They might have believed that in order for people to live in a land with those types of creatures the people themselves would have to be ferocious. On the other hand, if they were to see images of farm animals and peaceful forest animals they might think that man living among these animals were also of a peaceful nature.
The Europeans' perceptions of animals may have affected their interest in colonizing a particular…… [Read More]
Guns: Artistotle's History Of Animals
Aside from philosophy and the more psychological arts, Aristotle's greatest contribution to modern science is probably his writings on zoology. Indeed, the philosopher's powers of observation were keen and in many cases startlingly accurate when the knowledge base of the time is considered. Many of his conclusions regarding the nature, habits and evolution of animals were indeed conducive to the conclusions that led to the science we know today.
In the nine books of his History of Animals then, Aristotle observes animals in their habitat, and uses dissection to discover the mysteries inside the animal body as well. He begins his description in Book I of the physical properties of the animal body, and distinguishes various genera of animals. These are the main types of animals, such as fish, birds, etc. He furthermore goes on to describe the habits, habitat and social structure of groups of animals. This is also described in terms of food processing, reproduction and the senses that animals possess.
Throughout his work, Aristotle takes considerable time to distinguish between animals and human beings. Human beings for example experience the faculty of memory differently and in a much more complex manner than do animals. Aristotle explains that animals do not recall the past at will, but assimilate their experiences to make them part of instinct. A similarity between human beings and animals is however how the sense of touch is experienced.
Aristotle was then the first to classify groups of animals into genera, although he did so in a much broader way than scientists of today. He further classifies the animals within the genera into types with and without "blood," which in the philosopher's time referred to red blood. These types were then divided according to their various species. Again, the classification according to blood is reminiscent of today's distinction between vertebrates and invertebrates. Blooded animals include five of the previously defined genera, which are viviparous quadrupeds (mammals), birds, oviparous quadrupeds (reptiles and amphibians), fishes, and whales. Aristotle did not at the time realize that whales were mammals, but did make this distinction for dolphins. Bloodless animals included cephalopods (such as the octopus); crustaceans; insects, shelled animals, and what Aristotle calls "zoophytes," or "plant-animals."
In his scientific research, Aristotle established scientific methodology today. He for example used dialectical (based on logical deduction) and empirical…… [Read More]