Anne Frank Essays

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Frank Lloyd Wright Design Theory Frank Lloyd Essay

Words: 1756 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33304275

Frank Lloyd Wright Design Theory

Frank Lloyd Wright is one of the most well-known architects in United States history. The buildings he created have a distinctive flow, both inside and out, which either draws or distracts the viewer. His most famous project is probably Fallingwater, a house he built for Edgar Kaufman and his wife just outside of Pittsburgh. This home is built with an incorporated waterfall that was supposed to bring the occupants closer to nature, and showed off an element of design that was a hallmark of Wright's work. This essay looks at two Frank Lloyd Wright houses, and the design concept that made him the country's most famous architect.

It is important to understand, briefly, who Frank Lloyd Wright was and how he developed his distinctive style. He was born in Wisconsin in a small town to unassuming parents. At 15, he went to the University of Wisconsin at Madison to become an engineer because "they had no school of architecture" (Hurder, 2001). When he left the university at 20, he apprenticed to several small architectural firms in Chicago as a drafter before he landed a job with Louis Sullivan, who at the time was the most prominent architect in the Midwest. Quickly, he became Sullivan's chief assistant, but he was too much of a free spirit to remain very long the lackey of someone else, so he left and started his own firm (Hurder, 2011).

His style was developing as he passed through his architectural growing pains, but he was forging a style that would become world famous. Wright lived in a suburb of Chicago with his wife and rapidly expanding family and his growing architectural firm housed in the same building. From 1889, when he started his firm, until 1900 he designed more than 60 homes in and around Chicago that were taking on the shapes that would become known as the Prairie style (Hurder, 2011). "Houses with low-pitched roofs and extended lines that blend into the landscape typify his style of "organic architecture" (Hurder, 2011), were to be his life's work. He wanted to build houses that became a part of the landscape they inhabited.


It is, from very first glance, easy to see the design scheme of Wright worked in this piece. It is a piece of art that not only does not detract from the surrounding area, but seems…… [Read More]

Aikens, J. (2009). Fallingwater: The story of a country house. AIArchitect, 16.

Hurder, S. (2001). Brief biography of Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved from 
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Anne's Foil Anne's Main Foil Essay

Words: 455 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59837890

All of the residents of the attic live with the constant fear of discovery, and death looms over the Secret Annex.

However, although Anne and Peter are more grown-up in many ways than adolescents who lead a more normal childhood, they also are far more under the watchful eyes of their parents, almost as if they are small children. The growing restlessness of Anne and Peter, combined with the closeness of the environment exacerbates the normal tensions that always exist between the parents and children. The divisions between the married couples, the Franks and the Van Daans, are also amplified because of the tensions of the war, the small living quarters, and the lack of privacy.

Q4) Give an example of anti-Semitism.

Anti-Semitism is manifest in the fact that Anne and her family had wear yellow stars, to identify them as Jews, and were denied basic rights (such as the ability to eat in certain places and associate with gentiles) before they went into hiding. They were forced to hide to escape deportation to concentration camps, and could only pray that the war would end and Hitler would lose. Tragically, although the Allies emerged as the victors of World War II, Anne was never able to live to enjoy…… [Read More]

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Anne Hutchinson as the Foundress Essay

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96020795

The Widow and Miss Watson see nothing wrong with slavery in modern society, while Huck actually takes actions to end slavery by leading Jim to freedom and treating Jim like a human being.

6. "To be or not to be, that is the bare bodkin."

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Signet, 2002, p. 143.

The Shakespearean 'actors' Jim and Huck befriend are really charlatans, despite their pretence of learning. They cannot even quote William Shakespeare's Hamlet in his "To be or not to be" soliloquy correctly.

7. "He says anyone who doesn't understand the theorems of Euclid is an idiot."

McCourt, Frank. Angela's Ashes. New York: Scribner, 1999, p.151.

The references to Euclid show the disparity between what is taught in Frank's school by an ambitious teacher and the poverty and ignorance of the rest of the boy's life. It also shows the narrow-mindedness of the principal, who is horrified that young boys are learning Euclid out of synch with the school's strict curriculum.

8. "The ship pulled away from the dock…'That's the Statue of Liberty.'"

McCourt, Frank. Angela's Ashes. New York: Scribner, 1999, p.45.

Unlike most immigrants, who see the Statue of Liberty as they come to America as a sign of hope that they are entering a new and better world, Frank's family sees the Statue of Liberty receding, as they are forced to return to the misery of Ireland.

9. "The notorious and legendary Lev of the Brooklyn crucifixions…"

Potok, Chaim. My Name is Asher Lev. Anchor, p.3.

Asher Lev, an artist raised in a Hasidic society, defends his right to express himself artistically, even though this means using Christian symbolism. His family, who views is artistic gift and intellectual independence with suspicion, is horrified.

10. "My dearest companions were Eberhard and Crayola."

Potok, Chaim. My Name is Asher Lev. Anchor, p.6.

Unlike his religious parents, Asher is a gifted and innately talented artist. He draws almost as soon as he is out of his cradle and…… [Read More]

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Sociology Frank Mccourt's Family Background Essay

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89759671

"Worse than the ordinary miserable childhood is the miserable Irish childhood, and worse yet is the miserable Irish Catholic childhood." In how Frank McCourt writes that "nothing can compare with the Irish version," this demonstrates an isolated regard and illuminates his drive to move back to the United States. Moreover, Angela's overpowering molestation parallels Frank's social injustice (oppression) throughout.

In terms of the Spiritual, namely, St. Francis of Assisi, "the pious defeated mother moaning by the fire; pompous priests; bullying schoolmasters; the English and the terrible things they did to us for eight hundred long years": Frank apparently factors all these together (the oppressive Irish Catholic childhood and the oppression of the "eight hundred long years" of English oppression). Spirituality, thus, was only another restraint, an overbearing tyrannical oppressor.

As for the Mental/cognitive concern, McCourt's memoir lets on to many of these thematics (of Devol's "eleven resources"). As a narrator, McCourt (as an adult) expresses his rounded or contrived opinion in a strong and clear manner. This is necessary for the reader to carefully follow throughout, as the narration preservers through the Franks viewpoint as a child. Thus, the reader gets to objectively conclude with his in her own judgment (though in the rational mind, no interpretation could be too far a reach from most others, though the details individualize these oppressive situations entirely).

As per the Formal register of language, as noted, this equates in a big way through the limitations imposed by social class. Regardless, Frank eventually sees the United States as a place where social class holds no bearing. Even though he is of such a low social class, though, he can still formulate thoughts, build personal ideals, and dream. The Formal register of language, therefore, typecast Irish citizens, in Frank's view, whereas within the social regime of the U.S. It did not.

The Physical: details almost…… [Read More]

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Literary Comparison Essay

Words: 1445 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42370828

Strength of the Human Spirit know why the Caged Bird Sings is an autobiography by Maya Angelou. It is the first book of the five volumes of the author's autobiography covering her life from the early 1930s up till 1970. This particular volume "I know why the Caged Bird Sings" is one of the most popular of the five volumes as it talks about her initial years as a child up to the time when she turns sixteen. The autobiography is based on her life as a black child, teenager and woman; it covers all elements of her family and their trials and tribulations.

Although the book is based on Angelous' life, it basically talks about the development of the human self and the impact of various experiences in life on the strength of the human spirit. As Angelou herself describes the reason for writing this book "somebody needs to tell young people, listen, I did this and I did that. You may encounter many defeats, but you must not be defeated."

The main character of this book is obviously Maya Angelou herself who spent her early years living with her grandmother Momma Henderson in a small in Arkansas. She owns a store in Arkansas. Other characters include her father Bailey Senior, her mother Vivian Baxter, her brother Bailey, her grandmother's crippled son Willie, the town pastor Reverend Thomas, Sister Monroe, Grandmother Baxter, Freeman who is her mother's boyfriend, her uncles and many more.

The core theme of the book is to highlight the difficulties faced by women especially a black woman in the American Society. It talks about the difficulties which Angelou and her family faced being black and highlights the extreme prejudice which prevailed during that time. The existence of racial prejudice was so intense that Maya as a child grew up thinking that beauty is only defined by the color "white" and that she was an ugly thing because of the fact that she was black. Her bitterness at being black is further strengthened by the various experiences she goes through over the years. She sees her Uncle Willie being ridiculed because he is not only black, but also crippled. She sees him enduring even more hardship than the rest of her family. She sees that prejudice is not only against race but against any form of appearance which does not suit the white…… [Read More]

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Overlap of History and Literature Essay

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39072748

In Wiesel, we find a great deal more will power and individuality. Yet, we find that the historical circumstances for the subject and his family are yet that much more irresistible. A victim of the German-perpetrated Holocaust, Wiesel describes the experience of being moved by history as one which came about quite unexpectedly. Their subterfuge, Wiesel shows in his text, would be a valuable tactic for the Nazis as they gradually entrenched themselves, in preparation for the eventual deportation and wholesale murder of the Jews. As Wiesel explains it, "the Germans were already in town, the Fascists were already in power, the verdict had already been pronounced, yet the Jews of Sighet continued to smile." (Wiesel, 7-8) His family and his neighbors were ultimately vulnerable to the mass herding and encampment of the Jews because they, like millions of others, doubted that the power afforded to the Nazi government could possibly become engorged to the extent and to the severity that it would. A great feat of illusion often perpetrated on the behalf of totalitarian governments, allowing proud families like the Wiesels to become victims of history.

Though as Wiesel writes it, so too do contemporaries such as Anne Frank, the latter of which was only survived by her diary of events. Interestingly, Anne Frank's diary underscores a third dimension of history and literature's overlap. While the character of Ono is moved by history because of his weaknesses, and Wiesel is moved by history because of the evil visited upon him, Frank is moved by history because she reports it without bias as it occurs around her. In many ways, this dimension makes her work as accurate a document to the events of World War II as any photograph or non-fiction text.

Works… [Read More]

Wiesel, Elie. (1982). Night. Bantam Reissue Edition

Ishiguro, K. (1986). An Artist in the Floating World. Faber and Faber.
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Contest Enter Entering Who Bravely Opposed Adolf Essay

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82754329

Contest, enter, entering. Who bravely opposed Adolf Hitler Holocaust? Use 3 simple sentence: bold, 3 complex sentences: italicize, 3 complex sentences: underline, proposal.

White Rose Essay Contest Proposal

A true heroine: Miep Gies

Miep Gies is one of the great heroines of World War II. During World War II, Jewish people living in the Nazi-occupied nations lived in fear. The Nazis rounded up Jews and sent their prisoners to concentration camps. All Jews were forced to wear a yellow Star of David to identify them as Jewish. The Nazis were relentless, and there was only so much even good gentiles could do to help their fellow Jewish citizens. But the Dutch woman Miep Gies did more than the average person to help the Jewish people of Amsterdam.

The definition of a hero is someone who goes above and beyond what is expected of an average person to help others. The Frank family was a Jewish family who decided to go into hiding after their oldest daughter Margot was ordered to report to a work camp. The Frank family fled their home with only the clothes they could wear on their backs, and hid in what they called 'The Secret Annex,' a hidden room in which they hoped to hide from the Nazis until their city was liberated.

The Frank family could not have lived in the Attic without help from people in the outside world. Miep Gies was a gentile. She was a former employee of Otto Frank, the father of the Frank family. Miep was one of the few people trusted with the knowledge of the Frank's hiding place. She brought the Franks food, medicine, and other necessities. She also gave them things to amuse themselves during their long, lonely days. The Franks, and the other Jewish people…… [Read More]

Even out of the ashes, hope remained alive. Anne's diary lives on. Miep Gies found the diary in the Annex. The Diary of a Young Girl keeps Anne's memory alive. It is a memorial of all of the people who risked their lives to save the Jewish people during the Holocaust. Although Anne did not survive, at least her diary is still read today, and without Miep Gies Anne's dream of being a great writer would never have been possible.


Frank, Anne. The Diary of a Young Girl. New York: Bantam, 1993.
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Life Is Gerda Weissmann's Account Essay

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5653364

One play especially gives her renewed hope in the possibility of liberation and she describes the experience as "greatest thing I have done in my life" (p. 142)?

Her meeting with Kurt Klein, a young American GI, was probably the most uplifting part of the book. The faith that had sustained her throughout the terrible ordeal was justified when she met this young man and fell in love. Soon after her liberation in 1945, she got married to Kurt and proved to the world that despite brutality and violence, it is faith and love that keep the world going on. It was definitely one of the most well written accounts of holocaust even though most people would find Diary of Anne Frank more emotionally stirring. The reason being that we all know that Anne Frank did not have the good luck of Gerda and thus while she was also full of hope; she sadly couldn't survive the holocaust and died at a very young age while still hoping of a better future.

Gerda on the other hand was the lucky one. She not only managed to find her freedom but also got married and lived a happy and peaceful life. But she was unable to free herself completely of the burden of her painful past as she writes in the book, "Survival is both an exalted privilege and a painful burden" (p. 247)

But writing this memoir helped her relief that burden to some extent as she admits in the preface of the book. The novel revolves around excruciatingly painful experiences of slave labor during Nazi occupation but throughout all this, there is still a glimpse of faith and hope that shines through and makes it a much better reading than many other accounts of the holocaust.


Klein, GW. All but my…… [Read More]

Klein, GW. All but my Life. Hill and Wang; Expanded edition (March 31, 1995)
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Personal Reflections on Learning and Essay

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17424650

My attention was first drawn to Mrs. Goldstein when I overheard her telling her grandchildren that had she not been sheltered by a Christian family in the Netherlands, she would have suffered the exact same fate as all of the corpses in the display about the Anne Frank and the extermination of the rest of Jews in the Netherlands during the war. Mrs. Goldstein must have recognized the surprised look on my face because it almost seemed as though she had read my mind. She looked right at me and said, "Yes, it's true…I was there." She asked me whether I was surprised to learn that anybody who actually experienced the Holocaust was still alive and I admitted that I was surprised. She said that she was 80 years old and that she was only 14 when the Nazis began transporting all of the remaining Jews in the Netherlands to the death camps.

Mrs. Goldstein explained that she was originally from Germany and that she and her family had managed to escape Nazi Germany in 1939 aboard a ship called the MS St. Louis. After two weeks at sea, they arrived to the shores of Cuba and Florida but the authorities refused to permit the ship to enter any port. They were eventually escorted back out to sea by the U.S. Coast Guard. Most of the Jewish German refugees were eventually allowed to enter Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. However, nearly all of them were later killed by the Nazis after all of those countries were occupied. Mrs. Goldstein and her family ended up in Amsterdam. She told us the story of how she and her younger brother hid under the floorboards beneath their toilet when the Nazis came to their home. Her parents and older brother had no time to hide and were taken away at gunpoint; it was the last time she ever saw any of them. She described being sheltered by a Christian family who risked their own lives to help them escape and then allowed them to live in their grain cellar…… [Read More]

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Jerzy Kosinski Who Was Born on June Essay

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89497321

Jerzy Kosinski, who was born on June 18, 1933 and who died on May e, 1991, was a novelist born in Lodz, Poland (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1996. Although born to a Jewish family, a sympathetic Catholic priest provided a forged baptismal certificate at the onsent of World War II so he would be safe from the Holocaust (Wikipedia, 2005). His family hid in the countryside and were not discovered by the Nazis (Wikipedia, 2005). Kosinski paid a high price, because he learned at an early age that he could survive by pretending he was someone he was not (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1996.

After emigrating to the United States in 1957, Kosinski began telling an embellished story of how he survived World War II to those he met (Phillips, 2001). Eventually he wrote a novel, The Painted Bird, widely believed to be an autobiographical story of how he survived the Nazi occupation of Poland (Phillips, 2001). The book describes years of horrific experiences, including sexual perversion, violence and cruelty. The experiences are so severe that the protagonist, a child, becomes mute, and does not speak again until reunited with his parents (Behrens, 1996). Some critics saw The Painted Bird as a Holocaust document, comparable to The Diary of Anne Frank. In 1965 it received the Prix du Meilleur Livre Etranger, the French award for the best foreign book of the year (Behrens, 1996).

The reality was that Kosinski had spent the war with a Polish Catholic family that hid his true identity (Wikipedia, 2005), and that they sheltered his family as well (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1996. He had never been mistreated and had never been separated from his parents. However, in interviews and through other forums, when interviewers represented the book as autobiographical he did not correct them, and even had his childhood picture put on the cover of one of the editions (Phillips, 2001). The book was celebrated as a report of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Behrens, Roy R. 1996. "Introspectives (Jewish novelist Jerzy Kosinski)." Print, November.

Phillips, Aliza. 2001. "Reimagining Jerzy Kosinski, Author and Survivor Who Rewrote His Own Life Story." Forward, Feb. 9.

St. Louis Post-Dispartch. 1996. "Novelist Jerzy Kosinski: Virtuoso at Pretending" (book review). March 17.
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Ewish Survivors- Experience of Hiding Essay

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42234211

The principle differences in the selected group pertain to the method and the effects of hiding. Cornelia Aaron recollected the fact that approximately 20 times her mother and her hid in a folding bed when Nazis would enter looking for Jews. The most psychologically traumatic occurrence for her, however, was when -- as a young girl -- her parents chose to hide in one location while she elected to go to a shelter for harboring children. The emotional currents of her memory of the last time seeing her parents, as they cried and she was led away from them never to see them again, was heart-wrenching and makes viewers wondering about the efficacy of hiding. This doubt as to the use of hiding (when there are really no other options) emerges more fully when one realizes that Frieda Aaron's cousins hid in the Soviet Union, only to be killed when the pact between Germany and the Soviet Union dissolved. The trauma the young woman endured after having lost her two favorite cousins was apparent on camera

In this respect, the futility of hiding (for most people) underscores the lack of options and the desolation that the Nazi's extermination wrought. The inadequacies of hiding merely reinforce how bleak a situation those in hiding actually were. It was difficult not to watch these testimonies without being emotionally affected by them. Seeing the women cry while recounting these various episodes of their childhood hammered home the loss and the magnitude of the travesty that was incurred by the Nazis. It also made the stories of the holocaust real -- as opposed to seemingly distant historical memories.

Zelizer's text directly relates to the testimonies I watched for this paper because it discusses how memories can be colored, distorted and altered over the ravages of time. In particular, his text applies to some of the recollections of Frieda Aaron. It was clear from hearing her speak about her father that she was fond of him. Yet as she did so, the woman herself was aware of the fact that she was unabashedly romanticizing him. She even mentioned that she did not want to "deify" him by remembering him as…… [Read More]

Zelizer, Barbie. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory Through the Camera's Eye. University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Frank, Anne. Anne Frank: the Diary of a Young Girl, The Definitive Edition (NY: Bantam, 1997).
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Down These Mean Streets Essay

Words: 6074 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42314847

Down These Mean Streets believe that every child is born a poet, and every poet is a child. Poetry to me was always a very sacred form of expression. (qtd. In Fisher 2003)

Introduction / Background History

Born Juan Pedro Tomas, of Puerto Rican and Cuban parents in New York City's Spanish Harlem in 1928, Piri Thomas began his struggle for survival, identity, and recognition at an early age. The vicious street environment of poverty, racism, and street crime took its toll and he served seven years of nightmarish incarceration at hard labor. But, with the knowledge that he had not been born a criminal, he rose above his violent background of drugs and gang warfare, and he vowed to use his street and prison know-how to reach hard-core youth and turn them away from a life of crime.

Thirty years ago Piri Thomas made literary history with this lacerating, lyrical memoir of his coming of age on the streets of Spanish Harlem. Here was the testament of a born outsider: a Puerto Rican in English-speaking America; a dark-skinned morenito in a family that refused to acknowledge its African blood. Here was an unsparing document of Thomas's plunge into the deadly consolations of drugs, street fighting, and armed robbery - a descent that ended when the twenty-two-year-old Piri was sent to prison for shooting a cop.

As he recounts the journey that took him from adolescence in El Barrio to a lock-up in Sing to the freedom that comes of self-acceptance, faith, and inner confidence, Piri Thomas gives us a book that is as exultant as it is harrowing and whose every page bears the irrepressible rhythm of its author's voice. Thirty years after its first appearance, this classic of manhood, marginalization, survival, and transcendence continues to touch the souls of all who read Down These Mean Streets.…… [Read More]

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Wag the Dog Essay

Words: 2055 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6808025

Wag the Dog

The Public Relations Society of America espouses a code of ethics that includes protecting and advancing the free flow of "accurate and truthful" information ("Ethics"). Likewise, the Public Relations Society of America advocates honesty and accuracy in its core practice guidelines for professionals. In Wage the Dog, Conrad Bream (Robert DeNiro) deliberately machinates a plan to divert the public's attention away from a presidential sex scandal by hiring movie producer Stanley Motss (Dustin Hoffman) to manufacture multimedia images for the media. The fake war is an outright, deliberate, and overt affront to the first ethical tenet of the Public Relations Society of America, which would never admit Bream as one of its members. Interestingly, though, Bream does not try to lie about the sex scandal, but only wants to create a lie that will prove more sensational in the media.

Every other example of how Bream violates the core tenet of accuracy and truth follows from this first ethical infraction. For instance, a fake war can dupe the public but not the Pentagon. When senior military officials and members of the Central Intelligence Agency discover the Armenian conflict is a sham, they order full disclosure. Here, Bream is being as honest as he ever could be. He convinces the CIA to compromise, by not revealing the full truth about the public relations scam. However, the CIA has to cover its tracks and decides that it will be fine to tell the public the war with Albania "has been resolved." Thus, Bream engages government complicity with his plan and follows the second major ethical tenet of the Public Relations Society of America, which is "informed decision making through open communication." By informing the CIA, Bream encouraged open communication. He likewise remains relatively open with his colleagues and with Stanley Motss.

As the President's senior public relations advisor, Bream is entrusted with the fulfillment of the third ethical tenet of the Public Relations Society of America, which is to "protect confidential and private information." Bream in fact accomplishes this goal with aplomb, as the sex scandal with Firefly Girl is never made public. The President's confidential and private information is allowed to remain that way. He also covers his own tracks, thus protecting confidential and private information. It is, however, uncertain whether Bream promotes "healthy and fair competition…… [Read More]

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Race Ethnicity and Cultural Diversity Essay

Words: 2018 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12382376

And there are always a few racists in any town. But I believe we have a great, open, accepting community. We entertain tourists from all over the planet, and many of them are from ethnic cultures different from ours. They say they feel welcomed here.

Q: What use does the community foundation make of the local AM station KMHS-AM?

M: I'm glad you asked. We have learning programs for parents and students. And students make up their own little reports and broadcasts. Topics range from the environment, world news, California news and Coos Bay news.

Q: Typically what news items from Coos Bay do you use on KMHS?

M: We interview people who are doing interesting things in town and with businesses. Biologists from the college and local fishermen. The news in this town isn't really very earth shaking. Look at the list of news items on the World's Website today: "Wheel falls off vehicle," "Gun is found in dead man's abandoned van," and "Sex offender."

Q: I understand there are about 16% of people in Coos Bay living below the poverty line. Are the schools involved helping these people at all?

M: We have Head Start for low-income children, and school lunches are free for kids under the poverty line. Also, our college students reach out to those in need, not just at Christmas time but year around. I'm proud of the caring side of our community.

Q: There are several registered sex offenders in Coos Bay. Does that concern the schools?

M: Certainly it does, but their address are published and we make them public. All of our parents have been notified in writing of the exact addresses of these offenders. Good communication is so important in matters like this.

Q: What changes would you make to this town to improve it culturally or in any other way?

M: I like it just the way it is. We do have problems, mainly due to the economy, but the city council and other leaders -- clergy…… [Read More]

City of Coos Bay, Oregon. (2010). Welcome to Coos Bay. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from (2010). Coos Bay, Oregon. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from .