Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in America to identifying with national pride. To Levine (2002), artists follow the traditions of public art where it holds the highest moral, aesthetic value, and satisfied the interest of the mass (52). In this context, public art becomes a nuisance is if is deliberately ignores public approval. This policy creates a paradox in the art world, since the art world resists the need to create art that meets the tastes and preferences of states and majority. However, democracies require public art to meet the tastes and preferences of the ruling power and the majority (Levine 53). In this light, public art in public spaces raises controversy in the public because institutional artists defy the majority. Public art that disrupts and reviews the social status, and prevents the community the right to move and inhabit public space is often rejected (Lewis and Lewis 68). This critique uses the example of the "Tilted Arc" in showing how institutional artists defy public sphere, the interests of majority, and creates art that is rejected.
The "Tilted Arc" is an outdoor sculpture commissioned by the General Services Administration, through its program "Art in Architecture Program." The commissioning of this public piece was an attempt by the GSA to reinvent itself, and "rethink of public art as a subsection of the art world" (Fleming 58). The GSA commissioned Serra to create an artwork in the form of a cor-ten steel wall that…… [Read More]
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (Brotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations regarding Christian theology. The medieval ages, a period in European history dated from the 5th to the 15th century preceded the dawn of the early modern era, and was considered a deviation from classical learning but later reemerged with its connectivity to scholarship in the Renaissance (Stokstad 1986, p. 3).
During the high medieval period (1000-1300), architecture and art based on religion is said to have flourished and the art reflected a move toward international Christianity (Renaissance Art, web). Purportedly, there was an attempt to integrate reason with faith. However, interest grew in the values of ancient Rome and Greece, and the Renaissance began to emerge. During the Renaissance, there was a shift in the focus of art from medieval religion-based artistic style towards a humanistic art interpretation because of the emphasis on individuality as opposed to powerful figures such as the gods and political leaders.
Renaissance and the influence on Art
There were many notable artists during the Renaissance period that earmarked the transition from the medieval era. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (1452-1519) was an Italian renaissance painter, scientist, musician, sculptor, mathematician, engineer and inventor. His work…… [Read More]
This work of art depicts a struggle between two ancestors, the Bungalung man and a Tingari man, the latter of whom was trespassing on sacred land (No author). The copious quantity of dots, particularly the white ones, evinces the full force of the elements invoked by the Bungalung Man to beat his opponent into submission. The power of the Bungalung man is evinced by the fact that he leaves tracks in his wake when walks, which record permanent imprints on the earth. The setting in which this painting takes place, Tjikarri, is a common location in the artist's paintings.
Aboriginal art reflects the sacred elements of the stories of creation for these people. It incorporates a variety of symbolism that is representative of dreaming, which is a means of ascertaining power and hearkens back to dreamtime, in which Aboriginals believe the world and all of its creations were made. Many of the symbols used to reflect the myths regarding creation seem ambiguous to untrained westerners, since they vary according to the context of the work in which they are employed. The explanations themselves either account for observable, physical phenomena or more esoteric sources of power and hegemony, such as found within "Bungalung Men Dreaming."
Works… [Read More]
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and Rome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and Rome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the Roman Empire. The arts of the Renaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in Renaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and Rome are not as obvious as they would be in the Renaissance ("Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," n.d.). "Interest in the classical past never totally disappeared in the Middle Ages but the 15th century saw the emergence of a different attitude to it in Europe: growing admiration for ancient texts and antiquities was reflected in…the commissioning of art which demonstrated their knowledge of the art of Greece and Rome," (Castelijn, 2012). However, it was not until the 18th century and 19th centuries that neoclassicism as a distinct aesthetic would flourish in earnest. This era of neoclassicism combined the Romantic sentiments extant in contemporary literature and music, with the period of High Renaissance allusions to ancient Greek and Roman media. The era of Neoclassicism in the 18th century is the historic counterpart to classical Greco-Roman antiquity.
Ancient Greece evolved an aesthetic that would be enduring, persistently haunting the consciousness and culture of Europe. Much of the art produced in ancient Greece idealized the human form, making it the first time in Europe that conscientious analysis of anatomy, physiology, and form was executed in sculpture. The Charioteer of Delphi is a bronze sculpture that many art historians believe marked the transition from earlier, less sophisticated renditions of human bodies and movement, toward a more fully realized understanding of physics and…… [Read More]
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art has experienced a resurgence in recent years, due in large part to comprehensive exhibitions of period art sponsored by organizations such as The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Denver Art Museum. The research also showed that authorities such as Gauvin Alexander Bailey maintain that colonial Latin American art is more relevant today than ever before, and that the artwork that emerged during this turbulent and frequently violent period in Mexico's history should be appreciated for its creativity rather than attempting to associate specific styles and motifs with their individual artists. Rather, Bailey believes that a more holistic view of the art from this period is in order to help avoid the same type of social engineering mentality that pervaded the first half of the 20th century and which may continue to adversely affect the human condition. In the final analysis, an exhibition of any type can only accomplish so much, and the…… [Read More]
What inspiration and creativity will the next generation of artists utilize in forming their great works and how will the world perceive their masterpieces.
Art Compilation Book Conclusion
After completing this course I can honestly say that my educational horizon has been expanded. Exploring the vast world of modern art and observing the strange yet innovative techniques used by modern artists has only inspired my personal pursuits and desires to implement such forms within my own art.
As this collection is concluded, I cannot help but think back on Janine Antoni's "Tightrope." This incredible image captures the true heart of modern artwork. Taken directly from Jeanine's imagination and desires to touch the horizon, she transformed this desire into a physical form by spreading out a tightrope across the horizon. She then proceeded to walk across the rope and at times her feet dip from the ocean and then rise to the sky. Then, in just one moment, her movement captures the impossible, walking on the horizon.
Another piece that will remain with me after this course's completion is Wolfgang Laib's ritualistic work. After viewing "Pollen from Hazelnut" and "Milk Stones" it made me appreciate the simplicity of art. Art does not need to be a decade long pursuit requiring years of care pored into one single piece. Rather, art is an outward expression from the imagination. It can be done and left in a static form, or it can be ritualistically performed in order to present the artist's imaginary intent.
I also enjoyed Wolfgang Laib, Janine Antoni, and Tom Friedman's use of traditional materials when making their masterpieces. Who would have ever considered items like chocolate, milk, pollen, and sugar cubes to be capable of anything but their common purpose. Instead, these modern artists took the works to the next level and transformed the items as needed to portray their message. Even more, it can be made into what one considers a masterpiece and then further changed by the artist to make their ritualistic point, such as in "Lick and Lather."
Finally, I found it very fascinating how so much of modern life is seeping into artwork and the reactions that modern artists give to this issue. There are some…… [Read More]
Art can come in many shapes, sizes, and mediums, yet one thing that all art has in common is its ability to connect to individuals and enable them to experience catharsis, that is illicit an emotional response. Some of the most awe-inspiring works of art are architectural such as the Lincoln Memorial, which bookmarks the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln Memorial is impressive and its sheer magnitude and size was unexpected. Walking up to the memorial, I realized that it was much larger than I had anticipated and that much like a temple, the actual memorial is located at the top of a series of steps. It was nothing like looking at the back of a penny or a five-dollar bill. The Lincoln Memorial successfully combining the concepts of form and function through its structure (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 164). The memorial itself was designed by Henry Bacon, a noted Beaux-Art architect, and was designed to look like a Greek temple. In a combination of form and function, the memorial is surrounded by 36 white Doric columns that are representative of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death. Also, the Lincoln Memorial has carved into its outside border the names of all the states in the United States. Like many ancient Greek temples, the Lincoln Memorial is constructed to "worship" and honor President Abraham Lincoln for his contributions to the country and society during his time in office. Bacon intentionally modeled the memorial after the Parthenon and maintained that it would be fitting to model the memorial after Greek architecture, as Greece was the birthplace of democracy (National Park Service, 2012). This contention is sound as the memorial overlooks the National Mall, which terminates at the Capitol, where Senators, Congressmen, and Congresswomen work to ensure that democracy lives on. Additionally, Bacon insisted that stones from all over the United States be used in the construction of the memorial building, which further symbolically ties the monument to the country and its people. Although the stones come from different parts of the United States, it is difficult to pick out which stones came from where as they seamlessly come together in this grand monument.
While Bacon designed the temple, Daniel Chester French is responsible for…… [Read More]
Along with Georges Braque, Fernand Leger and Pablo Picasso were firmly at the forefront of the cubist movement in modern art. Cubism sprouted from Picasso's experimentations with collage, along with Braque, but later morphed into an interpretive and expressive style of painting that heralded many related movements in abstract modern art including futurism. As Fitz puts it, Picasso used the cubist style to express the things he could not see, but which he knew were there; the things that everybody is "certain of seeing," but which are not depicted on a traditional canvas (228). As a result, Picasso reinvented painting, and reinterpreted what the function of painting was. Leger deserves credit also, for he too pursued the " quest for a means by which to accurately describe three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional canvas," (Spector). Leger and Picasso developed totally unique and distinct brands of cubism, even if their formative influences were similar. For example, Spector notes that both Picasso and Leger built on the work of Paul Cezanne, who began to deconstruct shapes and forms for more probing insights into how objects can be represented on a two-dimensional plane. Paintings like Picasso's 1908 and 1910 versions of Femme a la mandolin and Leger's 1912 Le modele nu dans l'atelier reveal the similarities and the differences, the convergences and divergences, between the styles and techniques of these two cubists.
Comparing these paintings directly, it is apparent that Picasso and Leger used differing degrees of abstraction. Picasso's 1908 Femme a la mandolin is clearly cubist, but it is far from being a fully abstract work of art. Likewise, the 1910 version of the woman with a mandolin is still representational, even if it is creeping towards eventual abstraction. The paintings depict a woman playing a mandolin quite clearly. Although Picasso chooses to depict the woman without facial features, and the mandolin without strings, both subjects are clearly discernable. There is also part of a piano keyboard in the background of the 1908 version, contributing to the overall composition. Picasso did include more purely abstract paintings in his portfolio, but Femme a la mandolin is not one of them.
Leger's 1912 Le modele nu dans l'atelier, on the other hand, is purely abstract. Were it not for the title of the painting, the viewer would have no idea…… [Read More]
Art History: The Impressionists
The word baroque has no clear origin. Some says that it came from a medieval philosophical word connoting the strange or the ridiculous, some consider it as derived from the Spanish barueco or Portuguese referring to an irregular shaped pearl. As 18th century was coming to an end baroque find its way to art criticism terminology in form of epithet leveled against art of the 17th century, though it later faced criticism that it was too strange or bizarre to merit serious study. Some of the baroque images can be viewed through this link, http://loki.stockton.edu/~fergusoc/lesson7/lect7.htm
Jakob Burckhardt among other 19th century Swiss cultural historian had a view that baroque was the decadent end of the Renaissance, and so was his student Heinrich who identified the essential differences between the art of 16th and 17th century describing baroque as a fully distinct art but not a decline or a rise from classic. Art of baroque captures a wide range of regional distinctions. Sometimes it becomes challenging when somebody wants to label any related two distinct artists such as Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Rembrandt as baroque, however despite such differences most of them have common themes as well as stylistic preoccupations that each artist have handled in his own way.
For a deep understanding of the different forms of existing baroque art, knowledge of their historical context will be of great importance. The first modern age has been linked to 17th century. This was when there was a continuous expansion of the world's human awareness. Art became more influenced by numerous scientific discoveries, for instance investigations of the planets by Galileo accounted for astronomical accuracy within most of the then paintings. (Thames & Hudson, 1985). Revelation that showed the earth to never exist at the center of the universe went altogether with the crop up of pure…… [Read More]
ART CRITICISM AND THEORY: Question: How constraints practices artists/designers/architects influence make? Make reference TWO response: - Site - Views art critics historians - Historical precedents - Materials technologies - Time - Audience expectations.
Post-modern art and theory
Artists in the post-modern era realized that they dealt with a lot of pressure coming from the public and that it was important for them to employ attitudes that would reflect positively on their works. Even with this, people need to understand that artists have always been constrained and that being limited actually had a constructive effect on most individuals. Chaos is difficult to discuss when regarding things from an artistic point-of-view, as while some people consider it to be an important asset, others believe that it is better for an artist to work with a limited amount of tools because this makes it possible for him or her to actually demonstrate that he or she is different.
Bill Viola's 'painting' Silent Mountain is one of the most intriguing artworks in recent years. The fact that this paper relates to the video as being a painting is largely owed to the feelings that it triggers as the storyline progresses. Its silence dominates the whole motion picture and makes it possible for viewers to consider that they are practically watching a painting come to life and that they actually understand what the actors are going through as their facial expression changes and as they appear to become consumed by their thoughts.
Painters are limited by their impossibility to make use of concepts like time, movement, and sound in their works and Viola apparently wanted to create art that would change people's understanding of paintings. The artist's work virtually pervaded the world of painters and succeeded in providing viewers with unique feelings as they realized that they could appreciate both the beauty of a painting and a storyline accompanying the respective artwork. Silent Mountain is inspired from Dieric Bouts' painting "The Anonciation," an artwork portraying the Archangel Gabriel while he delivers the news to Mary.
Viola appears to be dedicated at creating videos that are focused on the relationship between past and present. The artist's "Ocean without a shore" is probably one of the…… [Read More]
Art Therapy a form of psychotherapy?
Since the middle of the twentieth century, artistic expression and creation have been seen as valuable assets in the context of therapy and rehabilitation. The impact that art therapy has had on the field of psychology is undeniable, and its influence has contributed to the development of various diagnostic tools and interventions used in psychotherapy. The practice of art therapy involves the process of image making and its resulting products, as well as the relationship dynamic between the client and the therapist in relation to the image and/or each other (Edwards, 2004). Specific definitions of the term 'art therapy' are conflicting and numerous (Edwards, 2004). Currently, the British Association of Art Therapists perceives art therapy as process of practitioners enabling psychological and emotional growth and change in clients through artistic creation, and the relationship between the client and the therapist is viewed as integral to the therapeutic success of art therapy (Karkou & Sanderson, 2006). Several debates exist with the art therapy profession regarding its own identity (Karkou & Sanderson, 2006). In particular there is some disagreement among art therapists in regard to whether art therapy is a form of psychotherapy. The following discussion explores this conflict through an examination of the theoretical contributions of a few prominent figures in the field of art therapy.
There is concern surrounding where art therapy fits in as a therapeutic modality, and whether it could be considered a form of psychotherapy. Misconception exists among many art therapists that the origins of art therapy exist solely in the domain of psychoanalysis. The term 'art therapy' was actually coined in 1942 by Adrian Hill, an artist, who pioneered the use of art as a therapeutic modality (Hogan, 2001). Hill was a landscape and impressionistic painter and taught life and anatomy drawing classes at Westminster School of Art until he became ill with tuberculosis in 1938. While he was in a sanitorium being rehabilitated for tuberculosis, Hill became interested in the use of art as therapy. He observed improved his own psychological, physical, and emotional healing as a result of creating art, and became a proponent for this process, influencing other patients to draw and paint as part of their treatments (Hogan, 2001). Hill purported that art therapy acted…… [Read More]
(Mulcahy and Wyszomirski 139)
However, this is not art for art's sake; it is art for our children's sake. If one has to put on the back burner that Picasso was a cubist for the sake of challenging a child to look at a painting and just experience it, than so be it. The very act of simply experiencing the art of an artist can have profound effects on the thought process of children as well as adults. They may think it is profound or they may think it is a piece of trash, but at least they are thinking.
Art outreach programs have become the sole window into the art world for some schools. Since funding for school programs has been so drastically reduced, these outreach programs have become absolute necessities for many communities. These programs also introduce not only children to art, but adults are benefiting from these programs as well. Exposure to art at any age can bring about a transformation in an individual, giving them a window into a different world and perhaps a new window into themselves they may have never seen before. Outreach programs have the ability to touch entire communities and should be supported and encouraged as much as possible for their positive and long-term effect on us all.
Works… [Read More]
People not only make art, but also choose which objects should be called art" (Art Pp).
Art critics refer to the work of Bulgarian-born Christo and American Robert Smithson as land art and earthworks (Art Pp). In February 2005, Christo and his wife, Jeanne-Claude, fulfilled a twenty-six-year-old dream art project when 7,500 saffron colored drapes hanging from 16-foot-high steel frames were unfurled as they wound their way through twenty-three miles of footpaths through Central Park (Sanders Pp). During a recent visit to New York City, reporter Bob Ray Sanders made a special stop to the park to witness "The Gates" for himself (Sanders Pp). His describes the contrast of the bright orange colors with the "grayness of stark barren trees and shrubbery did give the appearance of what the artists called a 'visual golden river' with many tributaries meandering through the park' (Sanders Pp). Sanders said that the bursts of color and the sheer size of the project left him awed, however, his Pakistani taxi driver merely uttered, "What is that," to which Sanders replied, "that's art" (Sanders Pp). The taxi driver gasped and said, "And that's art." when Sanders told him that the project cost $21 million (Sanders Pp). "That's not art," said the taxi driver, "That's crazy...$21 million for this...." (Sanders Pp). The taxi driver clearly did not appreciate "The Gates" as art or anything else and believed that the $21 million could have been given to people who need it, like the tsunami victims (Sanders Pp). When Sanders told him that people from all of the world were coming to New York City to see "The Gates," the driver retorted, "From all over the world? I wouldn't come from Queens to see this" (Sanders Pp). Sanders found the project magnificent and definitely art, for "It has a way of evoking emotion - positive or negative - and when it speaks, it can speak to the senses as well as the soul" (Sanders Pp).
People are drawn to art because it moves them, inspires them, stirs something deep inside. Certainly, there are those who will view "The Gates" and feel awed,…… [Read More]
It would have been as ridiculous for a working class man or woman to make art as it would have for that same person to become an accountant. Still, artists throughout time have snuck in their personal values in their paintings. Hieronymous Bosch is one of the artists I believe to have inserted personal values into Church-commissioned art.
Even in the modern era, art is still entwined with money. The artist needs to live, sure. But that is not the only connection between art and money. Art galleries exist because art has become big money. Art symbolizes wealth. No ordinary person can afford "real" art. Ordinary people purchase prints and reproductions, not original pieces by known or up-and-coming artists.
Art is like any other commodity now, for better or for worse. Artists have a greater chance than ever of making a viable living, given the plethora of opportunities in graphic art and design. At the same time, artists must also be adept at marketing. This is why artists themselves might find themselves in need of an accountant who understand the intricacies of working with a creative freelancer. Similarly, an accountant might work with an art collector or a gallery. The art collector is typically a wealthy person who views art as an investment. No longer the domain of the art patron, art is now a fiscal investment like bonds or futures.
This is why I do not view art and accounting, my field of interest, as incompatible. As an accountant, I will be working with clients both wealthy and not. My clients will have varying talents and varying interests in art. Those who are art investors might be happy to know that with my knowledge, I understand their interest in investing in art and maintaining that investment.… [Read More]
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, Warhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy Warhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the objects he makes, forcing us to see them within a different frame of reference ("Teaching Art Since 1950" NGA, p. 39).
Warhol's work and other artists involved in the Pop Art movement underlined artists' dissatisfaction with the commercialism endemic to American culture of the prosperous Eisenhower era. The encroachment of standardized visual images because of the rise of television in American households, the prosperity of the postwar era coupled with the fear of the looming specter of the Cold War and the atomic bomb, plus the conformity of the era, caused artists to parody aspirations to permanence. The disposable nature of popular culture was explored through the venue of performance art. This art seemed to celebrate what it parodied, while also embracing its media by elevating it to the status of art.
Works… [Read More]
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the Renaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the Renaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in fact only fairly recently in history that perspective has been seen to be an important part of the picture space of the artwork. Furthermore, it is also mainly a Western artistic convention and formal conventions of perspective are not found in many artistic traditions, such as in Eastern art. Perspective then can be seen as a culturally specific and learned artistic method. It has also been deeply questioned by artists in the 19th and 20th centuries and its dominance in terms of composition of pictorial space in painting has been denied by many modern and postmodern artists.
The following discussion will look at the history of perspective from the Early Renaissance and also discuss both its acceptance and rejection as an as important component of the picture space by modern artists. .
Historical Background and Overview
Perspective has been challenged by other views and representations of reality in the history of art. As one study notes, "In very early times, most art was depicted with a flat picture plane. While this art was meaningful and symbolic, it was not very visually accurate (Reverspective).
Edgerton ( 2006) points out the before the Renaissance, linear perspective was not the norm. This view is also supported by many other studies on the subject.
The system of perspective we take for granted today is a relatively…… [Read More]
French Romantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the Romantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were killed by Turks on the island of Chios. He showcased the underdogs, though painting detail on the fancy uniform of the Turk militiaman who is intermixed with overlapping figures of traumatized victims.
These artworks by Vermeer, Canaletto and Delacroix were described, because they clearly demonstrate the changing periods of outlook from the age of Enlightenment to that of Romanticism.
In the period of Realism during the late 1700s and into the 1800s, imagination was put aside for a view of the world as it actually existed. Physical detail was emphasized by writers and artists. People and scenes were described and painted in greater detail than ever before, and the depictions included very trivial and irrelevant information. The detail was not only visual but often appealed to all five senses. Ordinary characters were displayed. Unusual characters or heroic characters, or characters that stood out in some way, were not as common as in previous literature and art. Ordinary people doing ordinary things, such as businessmen, janitors, nurses and street vendors were most important (Art: A World History, 458).
Artists saw themselves as a product of the times. Changes in artistic style, subject, composition, technique, and movement are a result in the main of changes in the social and economic environment in which the artist lives. Gustave Courbet was born in Ornans…… [Read More]
Roy Lichtenstein -- Stepping Out is a painting done in oil and magna on canvas by Roy Lichtenstein. (Magna is a plastic painting product made of permanent pigment ground in acrylic resen with solvents and plasticizer. This material mixes with turpentine and mineral spirits and dries rapidly with a mat finish) (www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html).Painted in 1978, this work is 85 inches in heighth and 70 inches in width, 218.4 cm by 177.8 cm. This work of art, accession number 1980,420, is located at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (5th Avenue and 82nd Street). It was purchased in 1980 as a Lila Acheson Wallace Gift with additional funding through the Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund, the Arthur Lejwa Fund, in honor of Jean Arp; the Bernhill Fund, the Joseph H. Hazen Foundation Inc., the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation Inc., and gifts fromWalter Bareiss, Marie Bannon McHenry, Louise Smith, and Stephen C. Swid.
The painting is signed on the reverse with the signature of the painter, R. Lichtenstein, dated 1978. The Metropolitan Museum of Art also owns and displays Lichtenstein's Study for Stepping Out, 4 inches x 3 3/8 inches, done in pencil in 1978.
A chose to explore this particular work because it appealed to my sense of humor as an example of a revered and popular work that makes fun of itself as well as its environment and the artistic milieu that fosters its fashionableness. This work by Lichtenstein symbolizes for me the central theme Jonathan Fineberg's book, Art Since 1940, Strategies of Being. As he discusses twentieth century art, Fineberg admirably displays what he terms in his introduction the "tension between the inner self and the world" that creates a "happening of truth" in a work of art. If, as Fineberg further proposes, artworks represents "the spiritual concerns of the individual as the origin and defining rule for the forms" (Fineberg 18), then Lichtensteins use of comic book style represents both what modern humanity looks like on the outside as well as our empty inner hollowness. As shallow throwaway creations of the media, we lack inner substance as well. An artist, like Lichtenstein, who recognizes this, puts his own inner concerns onto canvas and through his "mechanical and removed" (Fineberg 261) style, mirrors his…… [Read More]
Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.
The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the amazing progress that could be achieved with machines and yet being tied down and entrapped in new ways by the industrialization of the workforce.
Criticism and artistic evaluation necessarily requires some level of subjectivity on the part of the critic, yet value-based judgments can be extremely limiting. Determining the worth or aesthetic promise of a piece of art based on personal ethical values or cultural beliefs leads to the raising up of only a specific type of art, and essentially equates to perpetuating what is known as the confirmation bias: good art becomes defined by what is already liked and approved of, making it harder for new ideas and modes of expression to emerge…… [Read More]
La Berceuse (Woman Rocking
Pellicot Roulin, 1851-1930), 1889.
Vincent van Gogh
Dutch, 1853-1890). Oil on canvas. The Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg Collection,
Partial Gift of Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg, 1996
The world of art is diverse and rich coming together for appreciation overcoming all cultural barriers. The story of Van Gogh and his astounding genius while creating canvases has captivated the interest and attention of millions around the world. Even when people cannot afford art they appreciated the creativity and charm that each of his pictures brings forth. Each of his strokes has a life of its own and the lifelike creation gives an illusion of perfection that is hard to imitate.
The Metropolitan Museum boasts one of his best creative efforts done late in his artistic life. Very near the time of his breakdown at Arles.
La Berceuse or a Woman Rocking a Cradle as it is commonly known as was painted around 1889 and suggests the intensity of his emotions when drawing.
Van Gogh was a master painter whose impact on both Impressionism and Expressionism cannot be undermined. As an Impressionist he made use of dark motifs and bright colors that gave his pictures a distinct style as can be seen in "La Berceuse (Woman Rocking a Cradle)," picture that has proven elusive. Yet, the Expressionism style can be seen in the turbulent emotions so obvious in every stroke.
In La Berceuse we see a woman sitting in a chair with a forbidding expression on her face. She is wearing a dress that is outlined in dark tones. The green hues contrast with the red brown carpet and do not allow a very soothing integration of colors. The wall paper that can be seen in the background further grates on the eye as we see another shade of green with white flowers seeming to float around. Van Gogh has drawn a picture where the colors have been used to strike the viewer's eye. No one seeing…… [Read More]