Communication is a course of action in which the information, ideas, thoughts, feelings, emotions, opinions and knowledge are exchanged between two or more people. This meaningful interaction can be in the form of speech, signals, writing, or behavior. This two-way interaction is an integral process not only in the on a daily basis but is equally significant at the workplace, as it helps elevating the communication gap (Wood 2011).
However, effective communication is essential in order to have successful exchange of clear ideas and information between the parties. Indeed, the individuals at the workplace must possess the ability to effective communication. This is vital as it leads to planning, organizing, leading and controlling in a successful and effectual manner. Moreover, poor communication amongst the workforce and the management would be a huge loss to the organization and in achieving overall aims and objectives (Wood 2011).
There are many styles of communication that a person can exercise while interacting with others in various aspects of life. In this regard, considering the communication styles, assertive, aggressive, passive and passive-aggressive are the four primary types used in general.
Aggressive communicator is a manipulator by nature that simply focuses on strategies (that include intimidation, coercion, hurting, anger, and so on) to make others execute the things that wish for with core focus on accomplishment of their needs and ideas only. This means that the feelings of empathy and respect for others do not exists in them due to which they often converse in loud tones. They have poor listening skills, as they regularly butt in when others speak as they are unwilling to listen to others. The aggressive communicator emasculates trust, healthy relationship and mutual respect with others (Davis, Fanning & McKay 2009).
While on the other hand, passive communicators are quite opposite to aggressive communicators, as they are soft…… [Read More]
Here, people always attribute causes to actions and happenings, with the belief that everything has an explanation only if we could look deeper enough (Changing Minds, 2011). This theory serves to show how people have very different perspectives to happenings or events in the daily lives, and these varying views can easily stray into power imbalance, prejudice and such like vices ultimately affecting the communication process.
Under attribution theory, there exist two possible justifications or explanations that are normally forwarded concerning a behavior hence acting as noise to communication. The first is the intrinsic or internal justification; this gives explanation for an event as having been internally motivated. The internal motivations include personality, abilities, and traits that are displayed or observed in the individual. For instance, in our scenario above, I blamed the character of the partner, the jealousy within her, for the lack of consideration for my request. As a result, that also built a grudge within me that never allowed me to be keen on any communication between her and I.
On the other hand, in a case where the environment, other situations or extrinsic factors are believed to be behind the actions (or lack of action) by an individual, then this is referred to as the external attribution. In our scenario above, the lack of effective relaying of communication between the administration and me was based on the grudge held between my colleague and I, which is purely an external force taking into account the administration has nothing to do with our grudges down here.
Therefore, the attribution error is the tendency for the observer of a behavior to attribute the cause of the behaviors of an individual to an internal factor and in the process downplay the real causes of the behavior or the situational causes and affect communication or understanding of the message as intended by the parties within the communication cycle (Gilbert T. & Melone P., 1995). Attribution error can also be said to be the exaggeration of the influence of personality traits, motives and behavior and in the process underrate the power of the extrinsic forces in a particular situation.
The lack of effective communication above and the attribution factor can be said to be the major factor in hindering communication process. There are other factors that can be observed to have intervened in…… [Read More]
Verbal communication includes the words that are physically spoken, as well as factors, according to the video, such as tone of voice, rhythm of speaking, word choice, and emphasis. Experts and researchers in the field of communication assert that nonverbal communication composes more than half of the communication among people. Nonverbal communication has a variety of factors such as eye contact, gestures, body language, the setting, and even the dress of the person speaking. The paper explores principles of effective verbal and nonverbal communication and considers how they relate to or affect professionals in health care.
Communication of all kinds is particularly critical in the field of health. A key principle to effective communication is that all forms of communication are contextual, that is, they derive their meaning(s) from the context within which the communication was done. Context, which is directly related to the video's concept of paralanguage, is yet another dense and layered aspect of communication.
Context and paralanguage may include the environment of the communication. They absolutely have to do with how the verbal communication is delivered and the environment or setting in communication is key, as Marshall McLuhan wrote, "the medium is the message." How the communication is delivered is a part of the message itself. Proposing marriage behind a junk yard and proposing marriage on an exotic beach at sunset are two messages delivered in different ways. Context may additionally include the time of day, the country, the culture, the gender of the communicator and the receiver as well as the sex, and many other factors as the video suggests. Communication that may be successful and effective in one context may be horribly ineffective and disastrous in another, even when the communication is delivered in relatively the same way. People who have professions that require them to speak in front of groups or crowds can attest to the power of context with respect to communication.
Empathy and active listening seem to be some of the most significant aspects to effective communication. Empathy and active listening are things that can be expressed verbally and non-verbally. Ears are the primary instruments by which humans listen, but it is hard to prove a person is listening just by the ears, after all,…… [Read More]
Communication Skills Self-Assessment
Speech and language pathologists are considered to be experts in the field of interpersonal communication. Yet these professionals readily agree that although they may be experts in disorders of communication, they "are not experts in 'communication,' particularly that of interpersonal communication" (Montgomery, 2006). A fundamental reason that someone might not be skilled in interpersonal communication is that they have difficulty attending to and processing all of the unpredictable things that happen during interpersonal transactions (Montgomery, 2006). One factor that underlays successful interpersonal communication is the ability to make others feel comfortable and engaged as communication partners (Montgomery, 2006).
(a) Consideration of communication partners. I believe that my interpersonal communication skills are strong, and I base this belief on the following ideas. The place to begin in communication is with clear articulation and complete thoughts. It is frustrating to be a communication partner with someone who does not speak clearly or who does not provide enough information -- in the form of both verbal and nonverbal language -- to be understood without expending considerable effort. An important consideration is that interpersonal communication in many contemporary settings takes place with people for whom English may be a second language. This fact underscores the importance of speaking clearly, something that I believe that I do reasonably well. I am generally a poised and confident communication partner and tend not to get ruffled in conversations. I strive to present a serene exterior, yet all the while convey that I am interested in what my communication partner has to say. In other words, I work at being an active listener, too. Should my position or stand that I have expressed be questioned or challenged, I strive to remain calm and collected. I remind myself to smile, but am careful not to have my smile come across mockingly or disparagingly. Mentally,…… [Read More]
Communications Training Program
Kudler Fine Foods & Wine
The objective of this work in writing is to develop a communications-training plan for Kudler Fine Foods & Wine. The communication-training plan will improve the virtual organization's communication process.
Communication Training Program Objectives
The communication-training program that is effective is one that is well planned and one that understands the objectives of the training program. The first step in an effective communication-training program is being clear about the company's overall communication objectives and understanding what the company wants to achieve, when they want to achieve and why they want to achieve. (Mindtools, 2012, paraphrased) The second step in an effective communication-training program is understanding the audience therefore, the audience should be identified, and various audiences listed. Audience groups include any groups that the company needs to communicate with. (Mindtools, 2012, paraphrased) The third step in an effective communication-training program is that of drilling down into the company's communication objectives and state clear objectives for each audience. This includes what each audience needs, what each audience needs and what each audience wants to know from the company. (Mindtools, 2012, paraphrased)
II. Communication Channels
The next step is to identify the various communication channels that can be utilized. Some of these include: (1) email; (2) newsletter; (3) teleconference; (4) notice boards; (5) CEO briefing; (6) posters; (7) lunchtime meeting; (8) intranet article; (9) launch event; (10) team meeting; and (11) podcast on intranet. (Mindtools, 2012, paraphrased)
III. Planning the Messages
It is reported that the next step is to plan the message for each audience and that the place to start is "by thinking about the broadest audience groups first." (Mindtools, 2012, p. 1) The following questions should be asked:
( 1) What does the audience…… [Read More]
The unique part of the human mind is that it requires two distinct yet complementary sides that work in concert to bring about reality. In most cases the right side of the mind or brain is the more abstract and artistic component. The left side would therefore be a modeling or constructionist component. Using this framework, it is necessary for both components to come together and bring that's side influence to the total picture.
Littlejohn and Foss use these two distinctions as a meta- model and bases the rest of their arguments and these two methods of deciphering communication. While this argument spans the area covered by many academic disciplines, this appears to be an ontological problem for these authors. Being, existence and becoming are too subtle and complicated to be addressed solely by words and models. The basic set up of the mind is what brings things into being, requiring both constructionists and abstractions to make living in this world tolerable and smoothly.
Cooperation entails consent. Everything, besides life and death should be considered consensual activity. Any verbal discussion requires both a speaker and a receiver both actively communicating with one another. Cooperation merely means working together with another person and not necessarily in perfect harmony. The act of discussion or argument alone signifies that there is some level of cooperation being used, whether we are consciously aware of this act or not.
Accommodation theory and interpersonal deception theories, two ideas introduced by Littlejohn and Foss demonstrate how cooperation is at the heart of most communication understandings. Accommodation theory suggests that when people talk with one another they subconsciously adjust their vocal and speech patterns signifying cooperation. With interpersonal deception theory, the idea of cooperation insists that the process is…… [Read More]
Communication Channels Presentation
Recently, we received a donation of a state-of-the-art resonance imaging machine from a local organization impressed with our stellar performance. It is the only machine of its kind in the area. As the project manager, my responsibility in this case includes educating members of staff on the use of the imaging machine. I will also be required to inform the public of the availability of this new technology.
Communication Channels to be Utilized
To increase my chances of success in this case, I will ensure that I select the most productive and effective communication channel. In seeking to train employees on how to utilize the new device, I will largely be relying on informal communication. This could be through scheduling meetings, organizing training sessions, or sending out memos. It is however important to note that although I will largely be relying on formal communication, my success will also be determined by how well I manage the grapevine. Failure to effectively manage informal communication could create uncertainty or confusion regarding the new device.
Communication Obstacles that Could Arise
There are several communication barriers that I could face in this endeavor. One of the said barriers in this case has got to do with language and perceptual differences. We operate in an interconnected world. For this reason, the audience -- i.e. members of staff and the public could be drawn from diverse cultures. People from different cultures have different ways of interpreting issues. This increases the likelihood of misunderstandings. Information overload is yet another communication obstacle that could arise in this particular case. For instance, supplying more information than is required about the new technology could lead to misinterpretation. The said information could also end up being overlooked or forgotten. An inappropriate organizational climate is the other communication barrier that could arise. For example, as Means (2009) points out, in a "closed" climate, the input of employees in regard to decision…… [Read More]
Communications skills test I took was from MindTools.com. I scored a 33 on this test. This level says that I need to work on my communications skills (36 is the threshold for the next level up, and 75 is the maximum score). The assessment was further detailed on different elements of communication. On the element of planning the message, I scored 7 out of 15. The second element is encoding, where the score was 8 out of 25. This part of the assessment seems to contradict itself, however, so cannot be taken too seriously. The implication here is that I should have a clear, well-crafted message but that I would need to consider how the receiver will perceive the message. It is impossible to present a clear message when you are guessing at how the receiver will perceive the message. Clarity is not achieved through guesswork and then rambling to cover all the potential interpretations. Clarity is presenting a clear message. So this part of the assessment makes no sense at all.
Further, this section argues that charts and graphs help with communication. That is categorically untrue, which is why I don't use them. A person needs to be a visual person in order to get anything out of charts and graphs. Trying to convey an idea to me with a picture is useless. This is the author of the test putting their own preferences into the assessment.
For choosing the right channel I scored 5 out of 15, not exactly an inspiring score. The main complaint here is not considering what the appropriate channel for communicating might be. Granted, this might be true, but when one communicates most effectively in writing that is the most logical means by which to do it. The assessment argues that for emotional subjects it is better to do this face-to-face, which might work well for some people but other…… [Read More]
What is the communication problem?
When two cultures meet, both are likely to be ethnocentric. Those from the United States, try to find similarities in the other cultures with that of their own. Brazil as a country is unique in many ways. It is stated that what was considered non-fashionable in U.S. -- for example being fat is taken as natural in Brazil. (Palka, 2006) Thus in that culture messages regarding body fitness may have a different meaning than in the weight and figure conscious U.S.. The culture of the U.S. will enter into all communications that emanates from the country. As a result it is possible that the communication development as seen from the U.S. angle may not match those that are at the receiving end in Brazil and vice versa. The historical reason is that Brazil is yet to develop its economy. There is a lot of social inequality, with a small privileged class, well educated and in charge of resources. This socio-economic pyramid, has given access to a very few elite to communication channels including the cyber culture. Though there are many telecommunication centers, IT structures, and computer programs in schools, the communication infrastructure is still not developed for all and even the internet is limited to the affluent. (Pretto; Bailey, 2010)
The communication channels in other media like TV are also limited to lesser persons, as compared to radio, and the means of information still remains the radio and TV. (Pretto; Bailey, 2010) Mass communication thus is restricted on account of infrastructure, language and expression differences and understanding between the cultures of both countries. The verbal and visual communication to Brazil, if it is to be effective has to be in these common media. Likewise person to person communication may have its own setbacks on account of the language barrier and the ensuing cultural differences and understanding. The nonverbal communication thus also plays a very crucial role.
There can be factors that affect communication other than verbal communication. For example Gestures that the Americans use may have different significance in Brazil. The custom of…… [Read More]
Communications as a Discipline
By its very definition, "communication is a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in the environment." ("SPC 3210, Chapter 1") But it is more than just a social process, there are a number of other aspects involved in communication. Whether it is thought of in terms of one of the three models: linear, interaction, or transactional, communication involves many other facets than just the transmission of information from one person to another. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 1") There are psychological aspects of communication, as well as semantic, physical, and physiological ones. Therefore, Communication is a discipline which crosses over into a number of other disciplines such as psychology, sociology, physiology, politics, ethics, and many others.
While the study of communication shares aspects with many other disciplines, none of them can alone encompass all that communication means. Because communication involves interaction between two or more people, sociology is a major component, but while communication is a major part of sociology, it is not the entire discipline. Another example is semiotics, or "the study of signs." ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") Signs are an important part of communication which could involve the laughter of children, a ring on a finger, or a person crying. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") These kinds of signs can act as a means of communication, while other signs can be used for other actions. The same applies for psychology, politics, and all the other disciplines that involve communication; it plays an important role but is not the entire subject.
While many characteristics of the field of communications are shared by other disciplines, communications must be considered a discipline of it own. Just because it involves rhetoric, semiotics, philosophy, psychology, and sociology, etc., it is not simply an aspect of any single one. Communications is a wide-ranging discipline, and if anything, sociology and other disciplines should be considered to be part…… [Read More]
Mental Health Nursing
Communication plays an imperative role in building and maintaining any relationship. However, a positive and safe environment is essential to obtain the real benefits of communication. This refers to an environment where people communicate for positive goals and aims. Besides this, people in this environment feel free to communicate with others and share their views. This type of environment always results in achieving goals, making appropriate decisions, understanding the ideas of others etc. In contrast to this, an environment where people do not feel free to communicate always results in misunderstanding and conflicts (Thayer, pg. 20, 2009). A safe and positive communication environment is always good for individuals as well as for the society.
As far as the professional relationships are concerned, they cannot be maintained without effective communication between the service provider and the client. It is because of the fact that the service provider will only let its customers know about its services with communication. Without communication, customers cannot reach the service provider. In addition to this, communication is equally important in family relations. For instance, without communicating, a son cannot take permission from his father for going on an excursion trip. Similarly, father cannot give permission to his son without communication. Communication is also essential in academics because teachers cannot teach without communication and likewise students cannot ask queries without communicating with their teachers.
Some personal development issues may arise in communication due to diversity in thoughts, feelings, culture, religion, educational background etc. For instance, a native English speaking service provider will find difficulty in communicating with the French client. Apart from this, two members of the same family may have different thoughts on the same topic and in order to take a similar decision, one has to understand the thoughts of the other person (Thayer, pg. 56, 2009). A Chinese teacher may also face difficulty in teaching the Indian students due to the difference in culture which results in difference of language and thoughts.
Some of the important terms related to communication in mental health nursing are described below:
It refers to a feeling of…… [Read More]
Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.
Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a casualty.
Team and Group Communication Processes in the Casualty Section:
Communication processes play an integral role in the development of strategic and effective communication that enhances the possibility of an organization to achieve its strategic goals and objectives. The other significant role of the communication process is that it facilitates the sharing of a common meaning between senders and receivers. While the communication process begins with sender and concludes with the receiver, it consists of several important components. These important components of the communication process include encoding of the message, transmission channel, decoding, and response or feedback.
Within the casualty section, team and group communication processes basically involve the opening of a file, retrieving information within the record of emergency data, and identifying members to be notified once a casualty call has been received. The encoding process in the organization involves the development of a personnel casualty report, which is submitted to the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer. This is followed by coordination between the CACO and the headquarters of the casualty section to choose the appropriate medium of transmission. The CACO also identifies the Primary Next of Kin (PNOK) and Secondary Next of Kin (SNOK) during the process.
As the sender of the message, the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer decides the message to be transmitted based on the personnel casualty report. This officer selects an appropriate transmission medium or channel that will enable notifications to the PNOK and SNOK to…… [Read More]
Personal Account upon Communication
Communication is an everyday necessity that is additionally a challenging endeavor. Though most everyone engages in communication, very few people are effective communicators. In reflecting on my on communication skills, I understand the necessity of adapting some of my communication methods to meet another individual's communications needs, wishes, and preferences. In a nursing home, I have had to speak louder or slower than my usual communications with others. I have also had to explain something repeatedly or in several ways because of some of the health conditions of the residents in the facility.
When it is evident that I am having problems in communication, I seek advice about it. I also seek advice about communication when I am about to enter into a new situation, such as beginning college, graduate school, a new job, or a new type of job environment, such as the corporate world and the non-profit sector. In a nursing home, I have sought advice when dealing with particularly difficult or challenging residents. I do have limited experience in nursing homes -- visiting relatives and out of professional curiousity, I sought advice about communication, especially about communication among the nursing staff. I asked some of the staff and other health care professionals, and even some residents and relatives who have spent time in homes on the other side of the coin.
There are a number of steps or precautions one can take to identify and reduce the barriers to communication. Language is an obvious barrier and source of confusion. Nursing homes often have staff who speak other languages besides the primary language of the country the facility is in. There are also literary resources available as well as instructors who will come to nursing homes to instruct those seniors who need linguistic assistance.
Identifying more subtle or complex barriers to communication may require specialized training. Staff of…… [Read More]
Communication competency: Self-analysis
Communication competency is defined as "the degree to which a communicator's goals are achieved through effective and appropriate interaction" (Lane 2000). Whether we are aware of it or not, we are always communicating. But our intentions are not necessarily transmitted in an effective fashion to those whom we would like to receive our messages. Because "the goal of communication is shared meaning" self-awareness of how a message is received by others is a critical component of good communication (Lane 2000). Competent communicators understand explicitly what their goals are and the mentality of the person on whom they are using their persuasive skills. Communication competency is always situational. Competency involves "using knowledge of self, other, context, and communication theory to generate adaptive communication performances" (Lane 2000).
For example, speaking to an audience of my peers requires a level of conversational informality vs. speaking to a professor. Speaking to a general audience on a technical subject requires careful explanation of unfamiliar terms audience members likely do not know, versus addressing an audience of experts. And speaking in public to a large group demands more distance and formality than speaking informally to a small group or to individuals. Using the techniques that would work in one setting would not work in another. No one enjoys being lectured to during what should be a friendly dialogue; on the other hand, if a lecturer is overly informal, the audience may not respect his or her words. Yoking style to substance is thus a very important part of good communication. Communication goals can take a number of forms. Some may be relational, affirming our connections with others; some may be instrumental and goal-directed, while still others might relate to creating a particular image of ourselves. More often than not, these motivations may be mixed together (Lane 2000).
The Communication Competence Scale (CCS) was…… [Read More]
Communication and Perception Processes
Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions
Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Barriers / Noise
Environmental noise- physical noise
Semantic noise- noise in encoding process
Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages
Physical context- environmental factors
Psychological context- mental and emotional factors
Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
Simultaneous sending and receiving of messages
Social context -- the norms that guide communication
Relational context- the personal history between the communicators
Cultural context- race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, class, ability and other cultural factors
Summary: Communication as Culture
James Carey discusses John Dewey's work on communication and looks at its complexity
Communication has two contrasting definitions in Western thought:
Transmission- communication is a process whereby messages are transmitted and distributed in space for the control of distance and people
Dominant since the 1920s
Ritual- directed not toward the extension of messages in space but toward the maintenance of society in time; not the act of imparting information but the representation of shared beliefs
Transmission forms of communication can be linked to religious teachings and conversion
Transportation- a form of communication with religious implications
The ritual view of communication is dependent upon culture
Not well established in American scholarship
News is a historic reality, which makes it a form of culture
People both produce their reality and live within the reality that they produce
To study communication is to examine the actual social process wherein significant symbolic forms are created, apprehended, and used
Models of communication are both representations of and representations for communication
Recasting the study of communication in terms of a ritual model will…… [Read More]
Communication is defined as both, the imparting or exchanging of information or news, and it is the successful conveying or sharing of ideas and feelings. The methods of communication can be verbal or non-verbal. In particular, the latter is known as demonstrative communication, which includes, the use of facial expression, body language, appearance, and various gestures to convey how he or she feels.
Non-verbal communication is might be used to reinforce verbal communication or as a form of communication on its own. For example, when introducing oneself to other, it might not be enough to just say hello but he or she may add to it a facial expression like a smile or a certain positive and friendly demeanor. As a sender of such demonstrative manner, the receiver will then be able to gauge how to react, which in such situation is positive. In addition, the way a person looks and presents him or herself is another method of non-verbal communication. For example, the way an individual puts his or her hair, or whether they are wearing a power suit or stiletto heels vs. someone who is in relaxed jeans and sneakers. The former individual is sending out a message of dominance and authority while the latter is communicating to the receiver or onlookers a sense of ease.
Aside from facial expressions, body language is important, too, especially when the sender is interested in someone and wants the receiver to acknowledge such romantic notion. For example, the sender may want to be close to the receiver and the latter, if interested, may respond in the same positive way. The way the sender tilts his or her head means she or he is interested, especially when smiling so the receiver may take notice. Eye contact is significant since if the receiver is interested in the sender, he or she will stare back but if he or she is shy, the individual may look away. However, should the…… [Read More]
Communication is a necessity for any relationship -- whether personal or professional; without communication there is not a relationship. Though communication is the basis of every relationship, there are good forms of communication as well as not-so-good forms of communication (which we are all probably very aware of). Good communication is imperative in the professional sphere because communication in the workplace is synonymous with information (Dainton & Zelley 2010, p. 2). Good communication, however, is a rather uncertain term or idea because of the fact that what one considers good communication may not necessarily be understood by another depending on that person's culture and/or gender -- thus making it "bad communication." This causes misunderstandings and frustration within individuals, perhaps blaming themselves or the other person for not "getting through."
Men and women see the world very differently because their individual experiences are vastly different. Not only that, but communication is largely biased towards the male population because of men's dominance in our society. What seems pretty clear is that language is not neutral, whether it is because of gender differences or cultural differences. Communication is subjective and axiological as well (Mulvaney 2011) and once we know this, we can therefore understand that everything we say carries an attitude with it and attitudes precede acts (2011). What this means is that there is a moral accountability that goes along with communication.
Communicating in groups can be a difficult task because there are many different individuals with different genders and cultural backgrounds that have to come to agreements on various decisions. This means that everyone in the group has to understand the problem, but how often do people understand problems in the same way? Critical thinking skills as well as specific procedures are just a couple of the approaches that can go into helping groups communicate and coming to decisions as a whole unit.
Communicating in groups where there are both men and women can be a challenge. Lind (2010) suggests that the "communication channel usage differs by gender" (p. 234). Lind found that women value connection and cooperation more than men, but at the same time, women tend to want to continue conversations longer than men, which is evidence of insecurity (2010, p. 234). Lind also claims that there is evidence to support the idea that women do…… [Read More]
The Application of Five Communication Theories
There are countless communication theories, with each one looking at a different aspect of communication or looking at communication in a new way. The number of theories that exist raises the question of how they can be used to understand communication. The answer is that every communication is complicated, with one single theory not being enough to understand every communication completely. For this reason, various theories can be applied to various situations, with each one helping us to understand something about the communication. To consider how real situations can be analyzed, five communication theories will be described. Each one will then be applied to a real situation to show how the theory helps create understanding of the communication events and processes that make up human life.
Theory of Feminine Style
The theory of feminine style argues that the difference in the way that men and women communicate is linked to the traditional roles that they play in society. The theory describes how women have been confined to private roles, such as within the home and the family. In contrast, men have held public roles and been seen as more important in society. This has created a difference where women's communication styles have developed to suit their private environment. In contrast, men's communication styles have developed to suit their public lives.
The theory of feminine style focuses especially on rhetoric and the use of public speeches. The main features that characterize the feminine style are (Dow & Tonn:
a tendency to use concrete examples use of a personal tone a tendency to rely on personal experience a tendency to apply inductive reasoning the use of audience participation
Each of these features are linked to the woman's private role and the communication style that developed on account of the private life. For example, a personal tone is used because women's communication has developed based mainly on one-on-one personal communications. As another example, audience participation is used because women are accustomed to gaining feedback from the person they are speaking to.
The theory of feminine style also shows how men communicate differently, especially in public situations. The masculine style is based on being aggressive, debating others, and using logical…… [Read More]
Communication in a Nursing Environment
This research paper deals with the subject of ensuring effective communication between nursing staff, their patients, and the patient's family. It is proposed that understanding and utilizing body language would be an effective way for a nurse to improve communication.
The nature of communication and of the importance of body language in the communication process was researched, with a focus on how this can be used to assist in communication. Based on the research, it is seen that body language can be used by nursing staff to ensure they send the right message to patients and their families and also to ensure the real message and the real state of patients can be understood.
From the research and its application to nursing and the environment of nursing, it can be seen that body language could be an effective tool in improving communication processes. In turn, this improvement in communication processes improves the quality of care given to both patients and their families.
One of the problems a nurse must deal with is how to communicate effectively with patients. Making this more difficult is the fact that in a hospital situation patients are often agitated or distressed. This type of strain means that their communication may not always be effective. There is a need here for a nurse to be empathetic to the patient and to take extra care in understanding how they are feeling, what they are needing and what they are saying. Under pressure and in a hospital environment it is recognized that patients may not always say what they mean, the nurse must look beyond the words to ascertain the real meaning and the real state of the patient. This can also be related not only to speaking with the patient but also with speaking to the patient's relatives who may be distressed and uncertain…… [Read More]
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al. (2006) revealed that the four problem categories can create barriers to a team's success including "1. direct vs. indirect communication, 2. trouble with accents and fluency, 3. differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority, and 4. conflicting norms for decision making." Just as a lack of directness can be perceived as weakness in a woman (while similar behavior in a male may go unnoticed) in U.S. firms, indirect communication by males or females can be seen as weak, depending on the culture of the hearer -- likewise directness may seem brusque to individuals from a high-context culture. Some cultures may value conciliation and agreement more than competitiveness. The research suggests, although there may be no single, inherently male or female communication style, or American or Chinese way of speaking, expectations of how it is 'correct' for an individual to behave can impact the speaker's reception.
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