Communication is a course of action in which the information, ideas, thoughts, feelings, emotions, opinions and knowledge are exchanged between two or more people. This meaningful interaction can be in the form of speech, signals, writing, or behavior. This two-way interaction is an integral process not only in the on a daily basis but is equally significant at the workplace, as it helps elevating the communication gap (Wood 2011).
However, effective communication is essential in order to have successful exchange of clear ideas and information between the parties. Indeed, the individuals at the workplace must possess the ability to effective communication. This is vital as it leads to planning, organizing, leading and controlling in a successful and effectual manner. Moreover, poor communication amongst the workforce and the management would be a huge loss to the organization and in achieving overall aims and objectives (Wood 2011).
There are many styles of communication that a person can exercise while interacting with others in various aspects of life. In this regard, considering the communication styles, assertive, aggressive, passive and passive-aggressive are the four primary types used in general.
Aggressive communicator is a manipulator by nature that simply focuses on strategies (that include intimidation, coercion, hurting, anger, and so on) to make others execute the things that wish for with core focus on accomplishment of their needs and ideas only. This means that the feelings of empathy and respect for others do not exists in them due to which they often converse in loud tones. They have poor listening skills, as they regularly butt in when others speak as they are unwilling to listen to others. The aggressive communicator emasculates trust, healthy relationship and mutual respect with others (Davis, Fanning & McKay 2009).
While on the other hand, passive communicators are quite opposite to aggressive communicators, as they are soft spoken people. Furthermore, passive communicators evade expressing their ideas, emotions and thoughts by normally speaking very less and attempt to stay away from all sorts of arguments, disagreements and conflicts. Other people can easily violate and breach the right of passive communicators due to which their needs remain unfulfilled, and as a consequence, they tend to have resentful feeling and develop low self-esteem (Masters & Wallace 2010).
The third type of communicator, passive-aggressive communicator usually…… [Read More]
Communication Skills Self-Assessment
Speech and language pathologists are considered to be experts in the field of interpersonal communication. Yet these professionals readily agree that although they may be experts in disorders of communication, they "are not experts in 'communication,' particularly that of interpersonal communication" (Montgomery, 2006). A fundamental reason that someone might not be skilled in interpersonal communication is that they have difficulty attending to and processing all of the unpredictable things that happen during interpersonal transactions (Montgomery, 2006). One factor that underlays successful interpersonal communication is the ability to make others feel comfortable and engaged as communication partners (Montgomery, 2006).
(a) Consideration of communication partners. I believe that my interpersonal communication skills are strong, and I base this belief on the following ideas. The place to begin in communication is with clear articulation and complete thoughts. It is frustrating to be a communication partner with someone who does not speak clearly or who does not provide enough information -- in the form of both verbal and nonverbal language -- to be understood without expending considerable effort. An important consideration is that interpersonal communication in many contemporary settings takes place with people for whom English may be a second language. This fact underscores the importance of speaking clearly, something that I believe that I do reasonably well. I am generally a poised and confident communication partner and tend not to get ruffled in conversations. I strive to present a serene exterior, yet all the while convey that I am interested in what my communication partner has to say. In other words, I work at being an active listener, too. Should my position or stand that I have expressed be questioned or challenged, I strive to remain calm and collected. I remind myself to smile, but am careful not to have my smile come across mockingly or disparagingly. Mentally, I think to myself, "Be kind" and find that this mantra smooths my communication -- and my brow. On those occasions when I don't know how to answer a question, I am quick to say that is the case. The important thing is to…… [Read More]
Here, people always attribute causes to actions and happenings, with the belief that everything has an explanation only if we could look deeper enough (Changing Minds, 2011). This theory serves to show how people have very different perspectives to happenings or events in the daily lives, and these varying views can easily stray into power imbalance, prejudice and such like vices ultimately affecting the communication process.
Under attribution theory, there exist two possible justifications or explanations that are normally forwarded concerning a behavior hence acting as noise to communication. The first is the intrinsic or internal justification; this gives explanation for an event as having been internally motivated. The internal motivations include personality, abilities, and traits that are displayed or observed in the individual. For instance, in our scenario above, I blamed the character of the partner, the jealousy within her, for the lack of consideration for my request. As a result, that also built a grudge within me that never allowed me to be keen on any communication between her and I.
On the other hand, in a case where the environment, other situations or extrinsic factors are believed to be behind the actions (or lack of action) by an individual, then this is referred to as the external attribution. In our scenario above, the lack of effective relaying of communication between the administration and me was based on the grudge held between my colleague and I, which is purely an external force taking into account the administration has nothing to do with our grudges down here.
Therefore, the attribution error is the tendency for the observer of a behavior to attribute the cause of the behaviors of an individual to an internal factor and in the process downplay the real causes of the behavior or the situational causes and affect communication or understanding of the message as intended by the parties within…… [Read More]
Verbal communication includes the words that are physically spoken, as well as factors, according to the video, such as tone of voice, rhythm of speaking, word choice, and emphasis. Experts and researchers in the field of communication assert that nonverbal communication composes more than half of the communication among people. Nonverbal communication has a variety of factors such as eye contact, gestures, body language, the setting, and even the dress of the person speaking. The paper explores principles of effective verbal and nonverbal communication and considers how they relate to or affect professionals in health care.
Communication of all kinds is particularly critical in the field of health. A key principle to effective communication is that all forms of communication are contextual, that is, they derive their meaning(s) from the context within which the communication was done. Context, which is directly related to the video's concept of paralanguage, is yet another dense and layered aspect of communication.
Context and paralanguage may include the environment of the communication. They absolutely have to do with how the verbal communication is delivered and the environment or setting in communication is key, as Marshall McLuhan wrote, "the medium is the message." How the communication is delivered is a part of the message itself. Proposing marriage behind a junk yard and proposing marriage on an exotic beach at sunset are two messages delivered in different ways. Context may additionally include the time of day, the country, the culture, the gender of the communicator and the receiver as well as the sex, and many other factors as the video suggests. Communication that may be successful and effective in one context may be horribly ineffective and disastrous in another, even when the communication is delivered in relatively the same way. People who have professions that require them to speak in front of groups or crowds can attest to the power of context with respect to communication.
Empathy and active listening seem to be some of the most significant aspects to effective communication. Empathy and active listening…… [Read More]
Communications Training Program
Kudler Fine Foods & Wine
The objective of this work in writing is to develop a communications-training plan for Kudler Fine Foods & Wine. The communication-training plan will improve the virtual organization's communication process.
Communication Training Program Objectives
The communication-training program that is effective is one that is well planned and one that understands the objectives of the training program. The first step in an effective communication-training program is being clear about the company's overall communication objectives and understanding what the company wants to achieve, when they want to achieve and why they want to achieve. (Mindtools, 2012, paraphrased) The second step in an effective communication-training program is understanding the audience therefore, the audience should be identified, and various audiences listed. Audience groups include any groups that the company needs to communicate with. (Mindtools, 2012, paraphrased) The third step in an effective communication-training program is that of drilling down into the company's communication objectives and state clear objectives for each audience. This includes what each audience needs, what each audience needs and what each audience wants to know from the company. (Mindtools, 2012, paraphrased)
II. Communication Channels
The next step is to identify the various communication channels that can be utilized. Some of these include: (1) email; (2) newsletter; (3) teleconference; (4) notice boards; (5) CEO briefing; (6) posters; (7) lunchtime meeting; (8) intranet article; (9) launch event; (10) team meeting; and (11) podcast on intranet. (Mindtools, 2012, paraphrased)
III. Planning the Messages
It is reported that the next step is to plan the message for each audience and that the place to start is "by thinking about the broadest audience groups first." (Mindtools, 2012, p. 1) The following questions should be asked:
( 1) What does the audience…… [Read More]
The unique part of the human mind is that it requires two distinct yet complementary sides that work in concert to bring about reality. In most cases the right side of the mind or brain is the more abstract and artistic component. The left side would therefore be a modeling or constructionist component. Using this framework, it is necessary for both components to come together and bring that's side influence to the total picture.
Littlejohn and Foss use these two distinctions as a meta- model and bases the rest of their arguments and these two methods of deciphering communication. While this argument spans the area covered by many academic disciplines, this appears to be an ontological problem for these authors. Being, existence and becoming are too subtle and complicated to be addressed solely by words and models. The basic set up of the mind is what brings things into being, requiring both constructionists and abstractions to make living in this world tolerable and smoothly.
Cooperation entails consent. Everything, besides life and death should be considered consensual activity. Any verbal discussion requires both a speaker and a receiver both actively communicating with one another. Cooperation merely means working together with another person and not necessarily in perfect harmony. The act of discussion or argument alone signifies that there is some level of cooperation being used, whether we are consciously aware of this act or not.
Accommodation theory and interpersonal deception theories, two ideas introduced by Littlejohn and Foss demonstrate how cooperation is at the heart of most communication understandings. Accommodation theory suggests that when people talk with one another they subconsciously adjust their vocal and speech patterns signifying cooperation. With interpersonal deception theory, the idea of cooperation insists that the process is…… [Read More]
Communication Channels Presentation
Recently, we received a donation of a state-of-the-art resonance imaging machine from a local organization impressed with our stellar performance. It is the only machine of its kind in the area. As the project manager, my responsibility in this case includes educating members of staff on the use of the imaging machine. I will also be required to inform the public of the availability of this new technology.
Communication Channels to be Utilized
To increase my chances of success in this case, I will ensure that I select the most productive and effective communication channel. In seeking to train employees on how to utilize the new device, I will largely be relying on informal communication. This could be through scheduling meetings, organizing training sessions, or sending out memos. It is however important to note that although I will largely be relying on formal communication, my success will also be determined by how well I manage the grapevine. Failure to effectively manage informal communication could create uncertainty or confusion regarding the new device.
Communication Obstacles that Could Arise
There are several communication barriers that I could face in this endeavor. One of the said barriers in this case has got to do with language and perceptual differences. We operate in an interconnected world. For this reason, the audience -- i.e. members of staff and the public could be drawn from diverse cultures. People from different cultures have different ways of interpreting issues. This increases the likelihood of misunderstandings. Information overload is yet another communication obstacle that could arise in this particular case. For instance, supplying more information than is required about the new technology could lead to misinterpretation. The said information could also end up being overlooked or forgotten. An inappropriate organizational climate is the other communication barrier that could arise. For example, as Means (2009) points out, in a "closed" climate, the input of employees in regard to decision making is often ignored. This according to the author could lead to a situation whereby employees simply refuse to give suggestions or feedback. Feedback is an important…… [Read More]
Communications skills test I took was from MindTools.com. I scored a 33 on this test. This level says that I need to work on my communications skills (36 is the threshold for the next level up, and 75 is the maximum score). The assessment was further detailed on different elements of communication. On the element of planning the message, I scored 7 out of 15. The second element is encoding, where the score was 8 out of 25. This part of the assessment seems to contradict itself, however, so cannot be taken too seriously. The implication here is that I should have a clear, well-crafted message but that I would need to consider how the receiver will perceive the message. It is impossible to present a clear message when you are guessing at how the receiver will perceive the message. Clarity is not achieved through guesswork and then rambling to cover all the potential interpretations. Clarity is presenting a clear message. So this part of the assessment makes no sense at all.
Further, this section argues that charts and graphs help with communication. That is categorically untrue, which is why I don't use them. A person needs to be a visual person in order to get anything out of charts and graphs. Trying to convey an idea to me with a picture is useless. This is the author of the test putting their own preferences into the assessment.
For choosing the right channel I scored 5 out of 15, not exactly an inspiring score. The main complaint here is not considering what the appropriate channel for communicating might be. Granted, this might be true, but when one communicates most effectively in writing that is the most logical means by which to do it. The assessment argues that for emotional subjects it is better to do this face-to-face, which might work well for some people but other people do not handle strong emotional reactions well and need to keep their distance from such reactions.
For decoding I scored 13…… [Read More]
What is the communication problem?
When two cultures meet, both are likely to be ethnocentric. Those from the United States, try to find similarities in the other cultures with that of their own. Brazil as a country is unique in many ways. It is stated that what was considered non-fashionable in U.S. -- for example being fat is taken as natural in Brazil. (Palka, 2006) Thus in that culture messages regarding body fitness may have a different meaning than in the weight and figure conscious U.S.. The culture of the U.S. will enter into all communications that emanates from the country. As a result it is possible that the communication development as seen from the U.S. angle may not match those that are at the receiving end in Brazil and vice versa. The historical reason is that Brazil is yet to develop its economy. There is a lot of social inequality, with a small privileged class, well educated and in charge of resources. This socio-economic pyramid, has given access to a very few elite to communication channels including the cyber culture. Though there are many telecommunication centers, IT structures, and computer programs in schools, the communication infrastructure is still not developed for all and even the internet is limited to the affluent. (Pretto; Bailey, 2010)
The communication channels in other media like TV are also limited to lesser persons, as compared to radio, and the means of information still remains the radio and TV. (Pretto; Bailey, 2010) Mass communication thus is restricted on account of infrastructure, language and expression differences and understanding between the cultures of both countries. The verbal and visual communication to Brazil, if it is to be effective has to be in these common media. Likewise person to person communication may have its own setbacks on…… [Read More]
Mental Health Nursing
Communication plays an imperative role in building and maintaining any relationship. However, a positive and safe environment is essential to obtain the real benefits of communication. This refers to an environment where people communicate for positive goals and aims. Besides this, people in this environment feel free to communicate with others and share their views. This type of environment always results in achieving goals, making appropriate decisions, understanding the ideas of others etc. In contrast to this, an environment where people do not feel free to communicate always results in misunderstanding and conflicts (Thayer, pg. 20, 2009). A safe and positive communication environment is always good for individuals as well as for the society.
As far as the professional relationships are concerned, they cannot be maintained without effective communication between the service provider and the client. It is because of the fact that the service provider will only let its customers know about its services with communication. Without communication, customers cannot reach the service provider. In addition to this, communication is equally important in family relations. For instance, without communicating, a son cannot take permission from his father for going on an excursion trip. Similarly, father cannot give permission to his son without communication. Communication is also essential in academics because teachers cannot teach without communication and likewise students cannot ask queries without communicating with their teachers.
Some personal development issues may arise in communication due to diversity in thoughts, feelings, culture, religion, educational background etc. For instance, a native English speaking service provider will find difficulty in communicating with the French client. Apart from this, two members of the same family may have different thoughts on the same topic and in order to take a similar decision, one has to understand the thoughts of the other person (Thayer, pg. 56, 2009). A Chinese teacher may also face difficulty in teaching the Indian…… [Read More]
Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.
Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a casualty.
Team and Group Communication Processes in the Casualty Section:
Communication processes play an integral role in the development of strategic and effective communication that enhances the possibility of an organization to achieve its strategic goals and objectives. The other significant role of the communication process is that it facilitates the sharing of a common meaning between senders and receivers. While the communication process begins with sender and concludes with the receiver, it consists of several important components. These important components of the communication process include encoding of the message, transmission channel, decoding, and response or feedback.
Within the casualty section, team and group communication processes basically involve the opening of a file, retrieving information within the record of emergency data, and identifying members to be notified once a casualty call has been received. The encoding process in the organization involves the development of a personnel casualty report, which is submitted to…… [Read More]
Personal Account upon Communication
Communication is an everyday necessity that is additionally a challenging endeavor. Though most everyone engages in communication, very few people are effective communicators. In reflecting on my on communication skills, I understand the necessity of adapting some of my communication methods to meet another individual's communications needs, wishes, and preferences. In a nursing home, I have had to speak louder or slower than my usual communications with others. I have also had to explain something repeatedly or in several ways because of some of the health conditions of the residents in the facility.
When it is evident that I am having problems in communication, I seek advice about it. I also seek advice about communication when I am about to enter into a new situation, such as beginning college, graduate school, a new job, or a new type of job environment, such as the corporate world and the non-profit sector. In a nursing home, I have sought advice when dealing with particularly difficult or challenging residents. I do have limited experience in nursing homes -- visiting relatives and out of professional curiousity, I sought advice about communication, especially about communication among the nursing staff. I asked some of the staff and other health care professionals, and even some residents and relatives who have spent time in homes on the other side of the coin.
There are a number of steps or precautions one can take to identify and reduce the barriers to communication. Language is an obvious barrier and source of confusion. Nursing homes often have staff who speak other languages besides the primary language of the country the facility is in. There are also literary resources available as well as instructors who will come to nursing homes to instruct those seniors who need linguistic assistance.
Identifying more…… [Read More]
Communications as a Discipline
By its very definition, "communication is a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in the environment." ("SPC 3210, Chapter 1") But it is more than just a social process, there are a number of other aspects involved in communication. Whether it is thought of in terms of one of the three models: linear, interaction, or transactional, communication involves many other facets than just the transmission of information from one person to another. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 1") There are psychological aspects of communication, as well as semantic, physical, and physiological ones. Therefore, Communication is a discipline which crosses over into a number of other disciplines such as psychology, sociology, physiology, politics, ethics, and many others.
While the study of communication shares aspects with many other disciplines, none of them can alone encompass all that communication means. Because communication involves interaction between two or more people, sociology is a major component, but while communication is a major part of sociology, it is not the entire discipline. Another example is semiotics, or "the study of signs." ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") Signs are an important part of communication which could involve the laughter of children, a ring on a finger, or a person crying. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 2") These kinds of signs can act as a means of communication, while other signs can be used for other actions. The same applies for psychology, politics, and all the other disciplines that involve communication; it plays an important role but is not the entire subject.
While many characteristics of the field of communications are shared by other disciplines, communications must be considered a discipline of it own. Just because it involves rhetoric, semiotics, philosophy, psychology, and sociology, etc., it is not simply an aspect of any single one. Communications is a wide-ranging discipline, and if anything, sociology and other disciplines should be considered to be part…… [Read More]
Communication and Perception Processes
Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions
Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Barriers / Noise
Environmental noise- physical noise
Semantic noise- noise in encoding process
Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages
Participants- senders and receivers of messages
Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared
Encoding- turning thoughts into communication
Decoding- turning communication into thoughts
Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel
Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages
Physical context- environmental factors
Psychological context- mental and emotional factors
Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
Simultaneous sending and receiving of messages
Social context -- the norms that guide communication
Relational context- the personal history between the communicators
Cultural context- race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, class, ability and other cultural factors
Summary: Communication as Culture
James Carey discusses John Dewey's work on communication and looks at its complexity
Communication has two contrasting definitions in Western thought:
Transmission- communication is a process whereby messages are transmitted and distributed in space for the control of distance and people
Dominant since the 1920s
Ritual- directed not toward the extension of messages in space but toward the maintenance of society in time; not the act of imparting information but the representation of shared beliefs
Transmission forms of communication can be linked to religious teachings and conversion
Transportation- a form of communication with religious implications
The ritual view of communication is dependent upon culture
Not well established in American scholarship
News is a historic reality, which makes it a form of culture
People both produce their reality and live within the reality that they produce
To study communication is to examine the actual social…… [Read More]
Communication competency: Self-analysis
Communication competency is defined as "the degree to which a communicator's goals are achieved through effective and appropriate interaction" (Lane 2000). Whether we are aware of it or not, we are always communicating. But our intentions are not necessarily transmitted in an effective fashion to those whom we would like to receive our messages. Because "the goal of communication is shared meaning" self-awareness of how a message is received by others is a critical component of good communication (Lane 2000). Competent communicators understand explicitly what their goals are and the mentality of the person on whom they are using their persuasive skills. Communication competency is always situational. Competency involves "using knowledge of self, other, context, and communication theory to generate adaptive communication performances" (Lane 2000).
For example, speaking to an audience of my peers requires a level of conversational informality vs. speaking to a professor. Speaking to a general audience on a technical subject requires careful explanation of unfamiliar terms audience members likely do not know, versus addressing an audience of experts. And speaking in public to a large group demands more distance and formality than speaking informally to a small group or to individuals. Using the techniques that would work in one setting would not work in another. No one enjoys being lectured to during what should be a friendly dialogue; on the other hand, if a lecturer is overly informal, the audience may not respect his or her words. Yoking style to substance is thus a very important part of good communication. Communication goals can take a number of forms. Some may be relational, affirming our connections with others; some may be instrumental and goal-directed, while still others might relate to creating a particular image of ourselves. More often than not, these motivations may be mixed together (Lane 2000).
The Communication Competence Scale (CCS) was…… [Read More]
The Hunter-Worth situation is an interesting example of cultural communication breakdown. In this instance, the breakdown has led to several problems. There is conflict between Hunter-Worth and the Mexican plant, and there is a shortage of the toy. The problems are related. The communication breakdown has resulted in Hunter-Worth management not knowing what the problem with the toy is. While Moore might not think so, resolving the conflict is going to be critical to getting the toys, which is the ultimately objective.
The case can be analyzed in the context of the differences between communication styles and business cultures in the U.S. And Mexico. There are several issues. First, there is the issue of hierarchy and formality. In Mexican culture, hierarchy and formality are important. This means that communications are governed according to a set of rules. Vicente assumed, for some reason, that these same rules applied to the U.S., or that the U.S. management would be aware of the nuances of communication protocol. Conversely, Moore had no such knowledge. The result was that both sides are entirely unsatisfied with the communication in this case. Vicente feels that Moore is being harsh and should have known what to do -- Moore rightfully cannot understand this position. For his part, Moore has violated Mexican communications norms and this has caused an emotional outburst from Vicente.
The good news here is that Vicente's childish outburst will be forgive by Moore. The lack of formality in American culture means that such outbursts are usually forgivable, and in this case there is little doubt that if Vicente gets the job done, he will be forgiven. The bad news is that the communication gap still exists. Moore still feel disrespected on two fronts. The first is that Vicente had not been informing him of the supply problems -- Vicente was avoiding conflict where Moore sees this…… [Read More]
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al. (2006) revealed that the four problem categories can create barriers to a team's success including "1. direct vs. indirect communication, 2. trouble with accents and fluency, 3. differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority, and 4. conflicting norms for decision making." Just as a lack of directness can be perceived as weakness in a woman (while similar behavior in a male may go unnoticed) in U.S. firms, indirect communication by males or females can be seen as weak, depending on the culture of the hearer -- likewise directness may seem brusque to individuals from a high-context culture. Some cultures may value conciliation and agreement more than competitiveness. The research suggests, although there may be no single, inherently male or female communication style, or American or Chinese way of speaking, expectations of how it is 'correct' for an individual to behave can impact the speaker's reception.
Works… [Read More]
It will be important for me to recognize my own culture and the way it affects my interactions with others. I must understand how the culture I am familiar with differs from that of people I interact with daily. I have to work to understand or uncover any similarities that exist between cultures I interact with as well. This will make communication easier and assure it is based on "factual" information rather than stereotypes or ethnocentric behaviors (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006b).
When I spend time with people who have the same culture as I, then I am more likely to communicate with them openly and freely, without having to change my communication patterns or styling to adapt to a different belief system or communication style that may seem foreign.
In times of old, intercultural communication was not commonplace, therefore stereotyping was much less evident than it is today, because until recently, people had relatively little reason to stereotype people of different cultures (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006b). Stereotyping and ethnocentrism can seriously affect one's ability to establish rapport with members of another culture, in a negative manner. Samovar, Porter & McDaniel (2006b) note it is important people understand how relationships between "culture and perception" affect one's ability to establish a safe and open communication environment (p. 3). Communication between people of the same culture is often not difficult, and rapport is easily established (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a). However, if individuals from one culture learn to embrace the subtle differences involved with communicating with others, they are more likely to engage in meaningful and productive communication, rather than communication that is inefficient and of poor quality or intent.
To understand members of another culture, one must understand the ways in which people of one culture interact with each other, and what methods of communication are acceptable or unacceptable (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel, 2006a). They must also understand why people have ethnocentric beliefs and if they do, establish rules or tools for…… [Read More]
Since the show is filmed in a documentary or cinema verite style, characters often look at the camera, or even say their lines to the camera for added comedic effect. In this situation, Ann casts many uncomfortable looks at the camera as Leslie unloads all of the study materials, snacks, and energy drinks from the dolly she has loaded-up for Ann's all-night cram session. Ann looks at the camera in order to avoid actually telling Leslie that she is not as excited about the interview as her friend. Keeping the format of the show in mind, it is more complicated to determine whether or not the camera acts as an intermediary in the conversation, but since the camera offers no actual verbal input of its own, we will argue here that there is no intermediary in the conversation. Despite Ann's uncomfortable looks at the camera, she does actually communicate her concerns to Leslie, once she is finally done unloading the litany of study materials from the dolly. Leslie in turn responds to Ann and successfully convinces her to attend the interview after explaining the perks of the new job, that it would be a service to the community, and also that it would be less visually explicit and hands-on than nursing. These exchanges meet the criteria of immediate feedback, and because the two friends are facing each other in person, and even reach out to physically touch at one point, they are experiencing the maximum sensory input through sight, sound, and touch. Again, this conversation qualifies as an example of interpersonal communication from the situational perspective because the conversation involves two characters who are in close, physical proximity, without an intermediary, are giving immediate feedback to each other with the maximum sensory output.
When evaluated from the developmental perspective, this same conversation becomes more complicated, although it does qualify as an example of interpersonal communication.
Works… [Read More]
Third, I am of the opinion that communication is two-way. To be an effective communicator, one must be an effective listener as well. Interrupting others as they speak or being inattentive to what they have to say sends the wrong signal. Further, failure to be attentive to the message others are trying to put across could be constructed to mean one is disinterested in the whole conversation. Such a view in return makes others inattentive of what one has to say. In the light of that, I will strive to be an attentive listener so that others can be willing to listen to me as well.
Next, I am convinced that effective communication goes hand in hand with confidence. With that in mind, I will work on ways of enhancing my confidence. In this case, I will ensure that I develop the courage to say what is really on my mind. Personally, I tend to be hesitant to speak when in the company of people I am not well acquainted with. By opening up more to those around me, I will be able to shove up my confidence levels and in the process enhance my communication skills. Closely related to this is practice. In this case, I will ensure that I utilize all the opportunities accorded to me to further sharpen my communication skills. This will especially be essential as I seek to refine those skills learnt from several self-help articles and books including but not limited to the two I have identified above.
I remain convinced that should I embrace the strategies I have identified above in an attempt to enhance my communication skills, I will become a better and more effective communicator. Given that effective communication is a learned skill, I am certain of success in this worthy…… [Read More]