Mark Twain is undisputedly one of the most prolific writers of all times. With an uncanny inability to see things as they were combined with an exceptional sense of humor, Twain's popularity transcended time and space. While all his writings left some impression on the readers, his travel books were so outstanding that they created a genre of their own. "The Innocents Abroad" and "A tramp abroad" were two important books that belonged to this genre with "A Tramp Abroad" being the less popular of the two. If Tramp was less successful than Innocents, it was primarily due to Twain's setting of standards with his other travelogues.
If ever an attempt to compare and contrast the two books is made, it is highly recommended that we start with the Innocents. The reason for this is obvious. 'Innocents' came before Tramp made its appearance and was definitely the more celebrated of the two books. 'Innocents' was derived from Alta letters but significantly changes were made to mitigate traces of resemblance with the source. New sections appeared which included the one on Paris and Egypt and the Sphinx. Apart from that, in this book his audience was the more sophisticated people on the Eastern side which was one reason why Twain removed coarse phrases such as "slimy cesspool" and "bawdy house" that appeared all too often in Alta letters. In Innocents which, is actually about Twain's highly disappointing trip to Europe, the author also tried to use expressions and comments that would appear less harsh even if the intent was just as cunning. For example in talking about the pilgrimages and the Holy Land, Twain was more careful since he was hoping to reach an audience that preferred sophisticated commentary and did not appreciate religion being the target of humor or satire. The theme of the book was clear from its sub-title that read "The New Pilgrims' Progress."
Innocents' popularity is grounded in the structure of the book. The entire book has a sense of shape and…… [Read More]
Compare and contrast 2 different religions
World's Religions: Judaism and Buddhism
For over centuries, the term religion has been used interchangeably in close relations with faith, set of duties, system or set of beliefs. In 2012, a global poll reported that approximately 62% of the world's population relies on religious beliefs while 38% are not religious (does not belong to any religion), including 10% who are atheists. Religion is a collection of organized cultural systems, beliefs, and views of the contemporary world, which relate humanity to the order of existence. A number of religions encompass symbols, sacred histories and symbols, which intend to expound the meaning of life and/or clarify the origin of the Universe, as well as the existing life in it. Every religion may have an organized set of behaviors and clergy, as well as the description of what constitutes membership or adherence, the scriptures and holy places. According to the 2012 report on religion by the global poll, there are approximately 4,000 diverse religions on the entire globe. However, this paper explores two religions-Judaism and Buddhism. It covers the major concepts and aspects of these religions, possible differences, beliefs and life perception, as well as their historical contexts.
Judaism is one of the prehistoric religions that still exist today. This religion began as a religion of a small nation of Hebrews, and through centuries of suffering, dispersion, persecution, and occasional victories, it continue to be an influential and profound religion, as well as culture. Currently, approximately 15 million people who identify themselves as Jewish community, belong to this religion. The modern Judaism is a multifarious phenomenon, which incorporates both religion and nation and habitually combines stern adherence to the ritual laws, but with an attitude that is liberal towards religious beliefs. Van Voorst (2007) elicits that this religion is monotheistic, with its foundation strongly relying upon a foundational text known as the Torah; also widely recognized as the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. Religious Jews consider Judaism to be a covenantal expression of the relationship that God established with the descendants of Israel. Judaism encompasses a broad-based corpus of practices, texts, theological positions, as well as the varied forms of organization. There exists a diversity of…… [Read More]
Paiget and Vygotsky
Compare and Contrast Piagets and Vygotsky
Understanding is assumed to be the process which is involved when it comes to mental activity and thinking, for instance memory, problem solving and attention. In this paper which is basically on the cognitive development it will explore things by comparing and contrasting the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, both of whom were very influential in coming up with a more scientific method to analyzing the cognitive development procedure of the child active building of knowledge. (Dockrell, 2009)Then the paper then go onto assesses the practicality of these theories in grasping a child's development.
Each Piaget and Vygotsky has come to the agreement that children's cognitive development happens in various stages of their lives. (Foster, 2009)On the other hand they were differentiated by dissimilar methods of thinking. The first to show that children reason and think in a different way at diverse periods in their lives was Piaget. This man believed that all children evolve through four various and extremely different periods of cognitive development. Research shows that this theory is recognized as the Piaget's Stage Theory for the reason that it deals with four stages of growth, which are concrete, preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operational and operational. (Foster, 2009)
During the first phase called sensorimotor, which happens from the time the child is born all the way to the age of two is the time in a child's life when the child essentially handles with what is obtainable to him. During this period of their life they start to learn about physical objects and are disturbed with things such as their motor skills and the penalties of some of their deeds. (Mooney, 2008) For the duration of this stage children will learn the idea of object durability. During this period is where an object will persist to occur even if it is not in sight. (Foster, 2009).
The preoperational stage is the period that actually goes on from two to seven years. In this period it turns out to be likely to carry on a discussion with a child and they also learn to use the concept of numbers and count. This period…… [Read More]
SHAMANIC APPROACHES vs. ALTERED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Compare and contrast Eastern and shamanic approaches to altering consciousness
This paper focuses on the similarities and differences between eastern Shamanic practices and altered states of consciousness (ASC), and the significance of these practices in the today's urban society. Prior to going deep into the discussion, it is significance to define the terms; Shamanic and altered states of consciousness. As asserted by Oesterreich (1935:295), Shamanic illustrates what the Shamans do, while as Shamanic practices entails an intricate of belief, rituals and traditions huddled around the Shaman practices.
Some of the authors, for instance, Ashvind, (1999) relate Shaman to Siberian, Eurasian or sub-Arctic practitioners, while others extend the term Shaman to other practitioners, for example, any practitioner that interrelates with the spirit world through altered states of consciousness (ASC). Others extend the definition and define Shamans as medicine men or witch doctors. In essence, there is no clear definition of shamanism, and for this essay, I shall use Oesterreich (1935:295), definition. He defines Shaman as an individual (Man or woman) who enters an altered state of consciousness willingly with the purpose of contacting and using an ordinarily concealed reality (ASC) in order to attain knowledge, power and assist other individuals.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC) relates to any condition that differs from the normal state of mind. This state of mind in ASC differs from Shamanism in the sense that, the former may either be accidental. The first section explores the similarities between the two practices within key writings on this subject. The second section shall focus on the differences and briefly discuss the significance of shamanic and altered state of consciousness experiences in the modern society.
Even though, there is a slight difference between shamanism and altered state of consciousness, there is a similarity between them. Through this exploration, the identified key writings indicate a similarity between Shamanism and altered states of consciousness (ASC). The readings explored indicate that using altered states of consciousness (ASC) through shamanic practices is significant both to the welfare of an individual and the society. This is a very…… [Read More]
China Preventive Health Services and U.S. Preventive Health Services
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast China preventive health services and U.S. preventive health services.
The work of Clarke (2010) reports that prevention "was a prominent feature of the health care reforms that took place in the late 1960s through the early 1970s. During that time strategies such as universal vaccination, promotion f lifestyle changes, population screenings, and safety regulations were introduced and became widely accepted as means to improve public health while reducing health care expenditures." (p.3) The U.S. while one of the world's richest and most technologically advanced nations, is experiencing a severe lack in meeting expectations for health status and the costs are reported as "alarmingly high." (Clarke, 2011, p.3)
Specifically, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity in the United States in 2007-2008 is reported to have been 33.8% overall, 32.2% among men and 35.5% among women." (Clarke, 2011, p.3) In addition, 23.6 million Americans or 7.8% of the population are reported as having diabetes. More than 26 million Americans are reported to have chronic kidney disease with millions more reported to be at risk. The American Heart Association reports that 53.7% of men in the U.S. And 55.8% of women in the U.S. have developed hypertension by the time they are between 55 and 64 years of age.
In addition, at least fifty percent of cancer deaths "could be prevented by more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use, improve diet and physical activity, and expand the use of established screening tests." (Clarke, 2011, p.3) Preventive health care in China is reported as being a "40 billion yuan ($6.3 billion) annual industry in China…growing around 15% a year." (Aldred, 2012, p.1)
I. Description of Group
The population of China is reported in the CIA Factbook to be 1,343,239,923. Of these 17.4% are between…… [Read More]
Radiometric Dating and Relative Age Dating
It has been a kind of grey area for many how scientists and archeologists determine the age of recoveries they make from ancient sites. The moment this question is asked, it brings on board a number of processes among them radiometric dating and relative age dating. In the process of comparing and contrasting these two processes, this paper compares and contrasts these two processes as well as highlighting their strengths and weaknesses where applicable.
Radiometric dating which is commonly known as radioactive dating is a method used to estimate the age of materials like rocks mostly based on a contrast among the pragmatic profusion of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope as well as its putrefy products by the use of decompose rates. Radiometric dating relies on three fundamental rules in addition to a number of critical assumptions. It is important to note that all the rules are similar in every case while assumptions vary for every method. (Nic, M.; Jirat, J.; Kosata, B., eds, 2006). On the other hand, relative age dating has been largely defined as the science of shaping the comparative order of precedent events without inevitably determining their supreme age. Despite the fact that relative dating can simply determine the chronological order in which a number of proceedings occurred and not when they transpire, it still remains a valuable modus operandi particularly in materials missing radioactive.
In comparing and contrasting these two techniques, we find that radiometric is more precise as compared to relative dating in that in using radiometric dating you tend to get numeric outcome like finding a rock to be 240 million years while in relative dating, the use of clues to estimate the age of a particular material is evident. For example, you can assume that the rock is Jurassic when it comes to age if that particular rock is in a layer that is flanked by…… [Read More]
The title of Sherman Alexie's first novel, Reservation Blues, sums up the two central themes that reverberate throughout the story: reservation life and the particular, peculiar status of blues music in American history and identity. The novel follows the story of a Native American blues rock band based near Spokane, Washington, whose rise and fall is dictated, at least partially, by the cursed guitar of blues legend Robert Johnson. However, Alexie's use of the blues is not as strictly literal, because he uses the particular rhythms and identities of the blues in order to explore contemporary Native American life. By comparing and contrasting Alexie's presentation of the Native American history and culture with his use of the blues, it is possible to see how the novel argues for a kind of hybrid identity that is based in a pre-American culture but which nevertheless reconstitutes itself through distinctly American forms of representation and meaning. In particular, this analysis helps reveal how the novel uses its discussion of the Native American experience and the blues in order to simultaneously explore the symmetry between the Native American and African-American experience while highlighting the contrast between the Native American conception of place and history and those spaces and histories defined by a dominant, white America.
Before getting into the novel in detail, it will helpful to outline the primary metaphorical relationships that exist in the novel between three different ideas of culture, identity, and space. Reservation Blues can be seen as a study of the American melting pot, but one that specifically focuses on the categories of Native American or Indian, black, and white (there are further divisions between Native American tribes, but these distinctions are less relevant to the specific focus of this study). These categories are in flux throughout the novel, and the interactions and intersections are what make up the bulk of the story's deeper content.
On the one hand there is a natural convergence between the Native American and African-American experience, because in both instances a distinctly…… [Read More]
Antigone depicts the human stubbornness towards accepting what is supposed to be good for him and hence in the later part shows the pain and suffering man goes through by disobeying his Almighty which is the result of man refusing to accept destiny and circumstances. The counter side of human behavior shown in this dramatic poetry is that man, instead following his creator, listens to an inside character that is part of his conscious and gives in to his inner needs, desires and compulsions which leads to the ultimate and mysterious justification of man's actions, behavior and eventually his life.
Comparison and Contrast of the Two Antigones
Sophocles is known to create his work in a sense where the protagonist is often than not struggling through an important but moral war within, which always concludes itself to be tragic due to a very particular yet extreme quality. In his greatest work known to date "Antigone," he has executed the task of a poetic drama in a beautiful tragedy. In this drama the typical Sopholean theme is evident throughout, which has always been about the fate of man when he defies from the rules and destiny already put in places by God, it depicts the human stubbornness towards accepting what is supposed to be good for him and hence in the later part shows the pain and suffering man goes through by disobeying his Almighty which is the result of man refusing to accept destiny and circumstances. The counter side of human behavior shown in this dramatic poetry is that man, instead following his creator, listens to an inside character that is part of his conscious and gives in to his inner needs, desires and compulsions which leads to the ultimate and mysterious justification of man's actions, behavior and eventually his life. In Antigone, by Sophocles, Creon is used to describe the role of a hero who is met with tragedy in every path of his life and this tragic hero has a tragic flaw, hence we can see that…… [Read More]
Abraham Maslow and Sigmund Freud both shaped the science of human behavior, psychology. They were not contemporaries, though. Freud was born in 1856, and Maslow in 1908. By the time Maslow studied psychology, the discipline had already been firmly established partly because of the influence of Sigmund Freud. Both researchers established trends in how to conceptualize human psychology. Although Maslow was influenced by the trends that Freud established in the subject of psychology, Maslow developed his theories independently. Some of Maslow's theories are divergent and even contradictory from those of his forebear. Maslow and Freud are fun and easy to compare and contrast because they share enough in common with one another to recognize points of reference.
Sigmund Freud was born in Austria on May 6, 1856. He spent most of his life in Vienna. His father was a merchant. Freud initially studied neurology and intended to become a doctor. One day he was working with a patient diagnosed with what was then called "hysteria," and the experience sparked in Freud the urge to study the human mind ("Sigmund Freud"). At first, Freud learned about the art and techniques of hypnosis, before switching just to the use of talking to clients about their dreams and innermost thoughts. Freud developed controversial but comprehensive theories about the human mind, hinging on his theories of the unconscious mind. According to Freud, the human personality is divided into three main parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id represents our most basic childlike urges. The ego represents the complex of who we think we are and who we present to the world. The superego represents the social norms that govern human behavior and cause feelings like guilt. Freud remained obsessed with human pathology, and developed seemingly outlandish theories about the deepest…… [Read More]
Jungle and Fast Food Nation
The American meat industry has been a source of public contention ever since industrialization, periodically brought to the fore by investigations into and revelations of unsafe labor and food safety practices. In particular, Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle reveals the realities of the meat industry at the beginning of the twentieth century, and Eric Schlosser's book Fast Food Nation reexamines this same industry nearly a hundred years later, finding surprisingly little changed. By comparing and contrasting the two books, it will be possible to examine the evolution of the America food industry as well as how the same problems can reappear a hundred years later if the root cause is not dealt with.
In order to understand the relationship between The Jungle and Fast Food Nation, it will be useful to examine each book's investigation of the meat packing industry separately, before comparing the results of either investigation. The Jungle follows the story of Lithuanian immigrant Jurgis Rudkus and his family as they attempt to succeed in America, and Jurgis' work in slaughterhouses provides the opportunity for a description of workplace practices. Although The Jungle is fictional, and thus not a traditional work of journalism, its depiction of the conditions in slaughterhouses constituted an impactful form of muckraking, and thus may be examined in comparison to Fast Food Nation's more explicit reporting even though the former is filtered through the narrative of an immigrant family trying to succeed in turn of the century America.
In The Jungle, Sinclair describes the unsanitary, unethical, or unsafe conditions in the meat packing industry a number of times, and demonstrates how a variety of factors contribute to these conditions, from corporate complicity to governmental incompetence. The main character, Jurgis, notes "the sharp trick of the floor-bosses whenever there chanced a come a 'slunk' calf," that is, the sometimes result of "a cow that is about to calve, or has just calved," into the slaughterhouse (Sinclair 73). When any of these cows came along, "whoever noticed it would tell the boss, and the boss would start up a conversation with the government inspector, and the two would stroll away," leaving…… [Read More]
Tom Shulich ("Coltish Hum")
A Critical Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Rational-Emotive Therapy
In this paper, I consider the benefits and drawbacks of behavior therapy and the cognitive therapy. These are talking therapies that now have over a half-century of application in clinical settings and are still used today in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, drug treatments of psychological disorders. I conclude that these therapies are still useful, though each has its limitations.
Behavior therapy (BT) and rational-emotive therapy (RET) were developed in the mid 20th century as alternative psychotherapies to Freudian psychoanalysis. A key foundational text for BT is Joseph Wolpe's (1958) Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Rational-emotive therapy (originally called simply "rational therapy") was founded in 1955 by Albert Ellis (Ellis & Dryden 1987, p. 1). Ellis' RET incorporates aspects of learning theory, which is central to BT, but goes beyond BT to utilize the central concept of "cognition," which includes subjective beliefs, narratives, language, and the attendant feelings these internal thoughts invoke. Rational-emotive therapy is thus seen as an early form of "cognitive-behavioral therapy" (National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists [NABCT] 2010).
Wolpe's (1958) Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition grew out of findings from his laboratory experiments on cats. Wolpe was able to demonstrate that he could inhibit the animals' fear responses by feeding them while gradually introducing and intensifying stimuli that would previously have frightened them. Wolpe extended this technique to humans, treating phobias and inhibitions through gradual desensitization by getting the patients to physically relax while gradually introducing increasingly intense exposure to things that produced anxiety, within the safe, controlled context of a therapy session.
Wolpe based his BT on the experimental psychology of behaviorists. Behaviorism was pioneered in the early 20th century by the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov in his studies of the digestive system. Pavlov was interested in reflexive and involuntary reactions to anticipatory rewards. His experiments with dogs demonstrated the phenomenon of the "conditioned reflex."[footnoteRef:1] Pavlov demonstrated that an involuntary, instinctual behavior (such as salivating) could be activated by an artificial, environmental cue (such as the ringing a dinner bell). [1: In Russian, also translated as "conditional reflex."]
The idea of conditioning as a fundamental learning process was further developed in the United States by behaviorists, notably John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, who argued that the investigation into overt, observable behavior constituted a more scientific basis for psychology than investigation…… [Read More]
Rousseau and Tolstoy
A Comparison of Rousseau's Confessions and Tolstoy's Death of Ivan Ilych
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Confessions opens more brazenly than the other Confessions of antiquity (those belonging to Augustine); the latter were zealously religious in nature and humbling in tone; the former were proud in tone and primarily secular. If Rousseau's Confessions can be called a celebration of a life burnished in the fires of the Romantic/Enlightenment era, Tolstoy's Death of Ivan Ilych may be called a meditation on death -- or more accurately still it may be called a depiction of the spiritual conversion of the "natural" man, as embodied by Rousseau a century earlier. This paper will compare and contrast the two works and show how the Russian's serves as a kind of humbling argument against the self-serving ideals of the Frenchman.
The two characters present a similar outlook on life: both Rousseau in his Confessions and Ivan Ilych (at least initially) are extraordinarily boastful and filled with esteem for themselves. Yet while the fictional Russian undergoes a transformation of character, going from proud official to lamenting and selfless soul on the verge of death, the real-life Frenchman undergoes no such transformation -- but on the other hand stays cemented in his proud view of himself. (Of course, Rousseau is not given the opportunity to chronicle any such experience as the "deathbed conversion," an event that clearly distinguishes Tolstoy's novel from Rousseau's memoir.) Therefore, any comparison of the two men must at a certain point cease.
Up to that point, however, the men think in accordance with one another. Rousseau gives numerous examples of this thought, but none more eloquent than this: "I have begun on a work which is without precedent, whose accomplishment will have no imitator. I propose to set before my fellow-mortals a man in…… [Read More]
Treatment of Cancer
Cultural and Ethnical Related
Beliefs in the Treatment of Cancer
Healthcare disparities among cultural or ethnic lines have been shown to not be as totally unbalanced burdens from disease, disability or death. Particular populations or groups when compared to the majority of the population are at an obvious disadvantage but not as wide a gap as they would have you believe. "Racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care are not due to access-related factors or clinical needs, preferences and appropriateness of intervention." (Smedley, Stith, & Nelson, 2002) The true problem is that there are unique cultural and ethnic beliefs that could be affecting the overall care these groups receive. This report will attempt to compare and contrast at least five cultural or ethnic beliefs in the treatment of cancer to see if those beliefs do in fact affect the overall care received.
The treatment of cancer has various approaches and program objectives vary. There is no one system for the treatment of cancer that works every time. But, is there a clear distinction that there is a healthcare related disparity among segments or subpopulations of the total population? The treatment of cancer must take into consideration each individual case to ensure that the terminology, comparison population, health areas, and segments of the population are treated equally in the treatment of the disease as a whole.
The first cultural belief this report focuses on are the very successful results of clinical trials in the treatment of cancer that may never be applied to minority groups. Cultural and minority groups have been shown to not completely understand the significance of cancer related clinical trials and can even follow the belief that they would be guinea pigs if they participated even after it could be demonstrated that participants of clinical trials receive excellent medical care. Often, these cultural or minority groups are simply not aware that clinical trials are even an option in the treatment of cancer or they simply do not understand how a clinical trial works.
A second belief is that there is a huge disparity between the healthcare treatment defined by the socioeconomic status, age, geographic area, gender, race or ethnicity, language, customs and other cultural factors in the treatment of cancer. The report reviews…… [Read More]
strong work ethic is vital to the success of any firm. In recent years thee have been many comparisons made between the work ethic of American and Japanese employees. (Rhody 1995) The purpose of this discussion is to compare and contrast Japan's management theories and work ethics with that of the United States.
Japanese Management Theory and Work Ethic
Japanese workers are among the most productive workers in the world. (Rhody 1995) Much of this productivity has been attributed to a strong work ethic and the managerial structure of the Japanese Labor Force. (Rhody 1995) According to an article in the journal Public Personnel Management, the Japanese management style that is practiced contributes greatly to the productivity that exists throughout the country. The journal explains, "Japanese management deals with each employee as a person rather than a worker. This concern tends to go beyond the job and the paycheck." (Rhody 1995)
The management theories used by the Japanese have long been a topic of debate.
A prime example of the management style of the Japanese can be found in the various Japanese car companies including; Nissan, Toyota and Honda. According to SAM Advanced Management Journal,
The Japanese have introduced into the work environment a sense of community. Toyota, for example, has a day care center for young mothers who wish to work. Out of the 6,000 people employed at the plant, roughly 5,900 are Americans, mostly from Kentucky (Aaron, 1996). This sense of community tends to foster togetherness or rather a sense of fate: what happens to one will happen to all...By careful screening of their prospective employees, the Japanese have assembled a potent workforce committed to their families, jobs, and local environment. After the selection process, training and development of human resources, employee attitudes, job satisfaction, and the importance of quality and continuous improvement are also very critical in Japanese organizational culture. (Laws and Tang 1999)
As you can see Japanese managers care a great deal about their workers and go to great…… [Read More]
Everyman," and "The Song of Roland," both written by anonymous authors. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the two texts, illustrating their commonalities and distinct differences.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST
Both of these medieval manuscripts, written by people long gone and forgotten, are extremely important historically. They give the reader a deeper understanding of medieval times, from the chivalry and bravery in "The Song of Roland," to the moral condition of the time in "Everyman." They both use different forms of writing to get their significant messages across to readers, and they both have messages they hope the reader will learn from and act on in their own lives.
Everyman" is known as a "morality play." This genre of 15th century writing urged readers to examine their own morals and beliefs, and make sure they were aligned with those the church and state deemed were correct. As such, morality plays were often highly touted by church and state, but were still widely read by the population. These works certainly used heroic characters, but they also taught upright moral lessons, so the reader would come away with a better sense of some ethical dilemma that might be facing them. In the case of "Everyman," the lead character, Everyman, is a man facing death, which was so common in the 15th century from any number of sources, it is clear why the theme was used in this piece. How Everyman deals with mortality is the central theme of the work, and the message to readers was clear - death could come at any time, and they should live their lives accordingly.
The Song of Roland" is not a morality play, it is an "epic poem," but it also carries a message for its readers. While epics were not necessarily sanctioned by the church or state, they still advocated lofty and heroic ideals, and gave moral lessons to the readers. In Roland's case, the poem is a tragic rendition of the elimination of Charlemagne's forces by a group of Moslems in Spain. The poem glorifies the knights who went off to fight in the Crusades against Islam, along with Christianity, and hopes to teach the reader both the glories of chivalry and the glories of fighting for your religious beliefs. Both works rely strongly on religion as a basis for…… [Read More]
Vikram Pandit and Marissa Mayer Leadership Styles
The objective of this paper is to compare and contrast the leadership styles of Vikram Pandit (Citigroup) and Marissa Mayer (Yahoo) using Darling & Leffel's (2010) to construct different theoretical frameworks to discuss the reason the two leaders have been the successful leaders in the corporate world.
Theory of leadership
There are different theories of leadership to demonstrate the strategies leaders employ in achieving organizational goals, however, all the theoretical frameworks agree that leadership is a process where an individual with leadership acumen influences the subordinates to achieve a common goal. Rowe, & Guerrero (2014) define leadership as the process of influencing the subordinates and facilitating individuals to achieve goal objectives. However, Northouse, (2010) defines the concept leadership as a process where a leader influences a group of individuals in order to achieve a common goal. Darling, & Leffel, (2010) argue that the articulate leadership is essential in the contemporary business environment. However, different leaders use different styles to influence the entrepreneurial spirit among the subordinates.
Thus, leadership is how an individual influences others and theories agree that leadership is more articulate than management. (Darling, et al. 2007). Typically, great leaders possess articulated and dazzling intelligence that assist them to zest for changes through a coherent vision. For example, transformational leadership uses the vision and intellectual stimulation to achieve changes and organizational outcomes. (Rubin, Munz, & Bommer, 2005).
However, transactional leadership uses rewards and punishment to accomplish the desired goal. Contrary to the transactional leadership style that uses punishment and reward, the transformational leaders inspire the team through vision and coaching. In a contemporary business environment, the vision set priorities and provide directions to achieve goal objective. To create a vision, the leader uses management tools such as Core Competence Analysis, SWOT Analysis, Personal Learning Plan, Porter's Five Forces, and Core Competence Analysis to achieve organization strength.
The transformational leadership theory is one of the most effective leadership approaches that creates positive changes in the subordinates through motivation. Bass, & Avolio, (1994) argue that transformational leadership uses the intellectual stimulation encourages and stimulates creativity in followers. Moreover, transformational leadership uses individual consideration by listening to individual needs and concerns, which assist them to give support and empathy as well as keeping communication open. Transformation leadership also encompasses a respect of individual consideration and uses the inspiration motivation…… [Read More]
Piaget and Vygotsky
Compare and Contrast Piaget and Vygotsky Ideas of math in common core
Numerous educators, parents, and students are not happy with the Common Core curriculum in math. One of the key disagreements against Common Core is that the standards are not developmentally suitable for students that are younger. Two of the most recognized cognitive psychologists, Lev Vygotsky, and Jean Piaget developed theories that spoke to cognitive development and learning among teenagers and children in regards to the common core. Even though there are similarities among the two theories, dissimilarities occur, and those dissimilarities are significant to the application and understanding of the theories in educational backgrounds. This paper will highlight those major differences in mathematics. With that said, this essay will discuss the comparison and contrast of Piaget and Vygotsky ideas of math in common core.
Common Core Standards in Math
The Common Core concentrates on a clear set of math skills and concepts. The skills and knowledge students need to be equipped for mathematics in college, vocation, and life are interlaced during the course of the mathematics standards. A lot of the Common Core questions, mainly in math, necessitate higher level and theoretical thought manners. Jean Piaget was able to bring understanding and clarity to the knowledge of children's cognitive developmental stages. In given some background, the research showed that Piaget was one of the utmost early year's psychologists of all time. Piaget wisely calculated the cognitive development of children. Before him, a lot of people expected that even though children were not as skilled as adults, their thought developments were alike. Piaget would argue that the Common Core standards are not developmentally correct when it comes to math. Piaget would point out that all students in a class are not essentially working at the same level. He would go to make the point that Teachers could benefit from understanding the levels at which their students are working and should try to determine their students' cognitive levels to alter their teaching for that reason instead of using the common core.
All through the standards there are elements that can connect to numerous learning theories, for example most of the effort completed by Lev Vygotsky in his social theories. As the foundation of contemporary Constructivism, Vygotsky's thoughts are equivalent to those transliterated in the Common…… [Read More]
Christianity and Islam: Comparison and Contrast
In the world today, religion is one of the most divisive and persistent elements of human life. While many are leaving the traditional format of organized religion, these age old traditions remain as the most prevalent of spiritual paths throughout the world. Particularly, Christianity and Islam feature among the directions with the largest followings on earth. When comparing and contrasting these two, it becomes clear that, while there are certain parallels between these religions, they also have significant differences.
The Koran's description of Creation, for example, is scattered across all of its pages. In the Koran, Adam is prohibited from approaching the Forbidden Tree. When sin occurs, God is shown to be responsible for the pain and suffering in the world (Baianonie, 2001).
While the Bible also contains the Creation story that includes Adam and Eve, along with their fall from grace, it provides a more unified account. Adam is allowed near the Forbidden Tree, but just not to eat its fruit. Death and suffering are directly related to sin and decay rather than to God's will.
According to the Koran, human beings have a superior position on earth, being more important than other life forms (Baianonie, 2001). The universe is seen as being at the service of man. The Bible has a similar viewpoint of the human relationship to the rest of creation. Human beings are at the highest point of creation, with animals and plants created in their service. The Bible adds, however, that human beings are to tend to the needs of the animals and plants that provide their sustenance.
Free will is another component of what it means to be human. According to the Koran, human beings have the faculty of choice, while also being able to distinguish between good and evil. Having the choice, people can choose to obey or disobey and in this way earn…… [Read More]
Religious Group's Statement
William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "Religious Diversity and Religious Truth"
is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process
In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.
The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of the LDS church -- while not always directly in contrast (or conflict) with other Christian faiths, appears to set the LDS church on a pedestal, apart from and above other theologies embraced by those faiths that believe in Jesus Christ. In other words, the LDS represents the truth, and all other Christian denominations are perpetrating lies.
The beliefs and pronouncements of the LDS faith will be compared and contrasted with passages from the readings on pluralism and on the status of tradition.
Where is the Truth to be found? Kaufman's view of Religion & Truth
Gordon Kaufman (on the same page, literally and figuratively, as James' quote) writes that there is a problem today of "enormous diversity in religious claims about truth." He goes on to point out that claims of truth in historical and scientific fields can be assessed and often proved or disproved, by being "placed in the light of public criteria" -- and yet, religious claims of truth are elusive. It is worth mentioning that Kaufman writes in terms of the claims of "truth" between Buddhists, Moslems, Hindus…… [Read More]
poetry of Robert Frost and Carl Sandburg
Robert Frost and Carl Sandburg are both important poets in their own right. Although they both grew up in the same era, their poetry styles have many differences. The paper firstly states their different origin, history and poetic style. Secondly, it analyzes a selected major work - "The Road Not Taken" and "The Road and The End," - of Frost and Sandburg respectively. It is worth noticing that the chosen poetries of both poets contain many elements of similarity. This makes the chosen sample most suitable to distinguish the most minor, as well as the major differences in the poetic styles of the writers. Thus, in the paper, their lives and poetry styles are compared and contrasted using an example of their poetry.
About Robert Frost
As we read of Frost, we grow in awe of him - his thinking, his understanding, his feelings, his intellect, and his expression. Each poem strikes a chord somewhere within us, bringing us closer to life and making us appreciate the simple pleasures that life offers. He helps us see the wonders of nature in birds, flowers, fruits and streams.
Each poem is like a journey of life's self-discovery. The jewels of thought that are found embedded among the seemingly simple poems are so profound, that they catch a person off guard. The depth of feeling and wisdom, with a way with words that hits at once and lingers long afterwards too, gathers wider meanings and interpretations.
About Carl Sandburg
The nationally acclaimed poet, lecturer, biographer, and folksinger - Carl Sandburg, (6 Jan. 1878-22 July 1967) - provided broad and enduring insight into the worth, circumstances, and spirit of the 20th century American people. He fervently excelled for those who did not speak for themselves due to lack of words and power. He was quickly established as the poet of the American people, narrating their songs, stories, and proverbs; pleading their cause; jubilating their spirit and vernacular; and commemorating the divided experiences of the shared national lives of Americans.
Sandburg left without a college degree with an appetite for reading and writing poetry, encouraged by his first noteworthy mentor, economist and poet Philip Green Wright. Wright initially published four Sandburg leaflets: In Reckless Ecstasy (1904), Incidentals (1907), The Plaint of a Rose (1908), and Joseffy…… [Read More]