Radiometric Dating and Relative Age Dating
It has been a kind of grey area for many how scientists and archeologists determine the age of recoveries they make from ancient sites. The moment this question is asked, it brings on board a number of processes among them radiometric dating and relative age dating. In the process of comparing and contrasting these two processes, this paper compares and contrasts these two processes as well as highlighting their strengths and weaknesses where applicable.
Radiometric dating which is commonly known as radioactive dating is a method used to estimate the age of materials like rocks mostly based on a contrast among the pragmatic profusion of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope as well as its putrefy products by the use of decompose rates. Radiometric dating relies on three fundamental rules in addition to a number of critical assumptions. It is important to note that all the rules are similar in every case while assumptions vary for every method. (Nic, M.; Jirat, J.; Kosata, B., eds, 2006). On the other hand, relative age dating has been largely defined as the science of shaping the comparative order of precedent events without inevitably determining their supreme age. Despite the fact that relative dating can simply determine the chronological order in which a number of proceedings occurred and not when they transpire, it still remains a valuable modus operandi particularly in materials missing radioactive.
In comparing and contrasting these two techniques, we find that radiometric is more precise as compared to relative dating in that in using radiometric dating you tend to get numeric outcome like finding a rock to be 240 million years while in relative dating, the use of clues to estimate the age of a particular material is evident. For example, you can assume that the rock is Jurassic when it comes to age if that particular rock is in a layer that is flanked by Triassic and Cretaceous rock layer.
It can also be said that relative dating is more…… [Read More]
Abraham Maslow and Sigmund Freud both shaped the science of human behavior, psychology. They were not contemporaries, though. Freud was born in 1856, and Maslow in 1908. By the time Maslow studied psychology, the discipline had already been firmly established partly because of the influence of Sigmund Freud. Both researchers established trends in how to conceptualize human psychology. Although Maslow was influenced by the trends that Freud established in the subject of psychology, Maslow developed his theories independently. Some of Maslow's theories are divergent and even contradictory from those of his forebear. Maslow and Freud are fun and easy to compare and contrast because they share enough in common with one another to recognize points of reference.
Sigmund Freud was born in Austria on May 6, 1856. He spent most of his life in Vienna. His father was a merchant. Freud initially studied neurology and intended to become a doctor. One day he was working with a patient diagnosed with what was then called "hysteria," and the experience sparked in Freud the urge to study the human mind ("Sigmund Freud"). At first, Freud learned about the art and techniques of hypnosis, before switching just to the use of talking to clients about their dreams and innermost thoughts. Freud developed controversial but comprehensive theories about the human mind, hinging on his theories of the unconscious mind. According to Freud, the human personality is divided into three main parts: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id represents our most basic childlike urges. The ego represents the complex of who we think we are and who we present to the world. The superego represents the social norms that govern human behavior and cause feelings like guilt. Freud remained obsessed with human pathology, and developed seemingly outlandish theories about the deepest…… [Read More]
Vikram Pandit and Marissa Mayer Leadership Styles
The objective of this paper is to compare and contrast the leadership styles of Vikram Pandit (Citigroup) and Marissa Mayer (Yahoo) using Darling & Leffel's (2010) to construct different theoretical frameworks to discuss the reason the two leaders have been the successful leaders in the corporate world.
Theory of leadership
There are different theories of leadership to demonstrate the strategies leaders employ in achieving organizational goals, however, all the theoretical frameworks agree that leadership is a process where an individual with leadership acumen influences the subordinates to achieve a common goal. Rowe, & Guerrero (2014) define leadership as the process of influencing the subordinates and facilitating individuals to achieve goal objectives. However, Northouse, (2010) defines the concept leadership as a process where a leader influences a group of individuals in order to achieve a common goal. Darling, & Leffel, (2010) argue that the articulate leadership is essential in the contemporary business environment. However, different leaders use different styles to influence the entrepreneurial spirit among the subordinates.
Thus, leadership is how an individual influences others and theories agree that leadership is more articulate than management. (Darling, et al. 2007). Typically, great leaders possess articulated and dazzling intelligence that assist them to zest for changes through a coherent vision. For example, transformational leadership uses the vision and intellectual stimulation to achieve changes and organizational outcomes. (Rubin, Munz, & Bommer, 2005).
However, transactional leadership uses rewards and punishment to accomplish the desired goal. Contrary to the transactional leadership style that uses punishment and reward, the transformational leaders inspire the team through vision and coaching. In a contemporary business environment, the vision set priorities and provide directions to achieve goal objective. To create a vision, the leader uses management tools such as Core Competence Analysis, SWOT Analysis, Personal Learning Plan, Porter's Five Forces, and Core Competence Analysis to achieve organization strength.
The transformational leadership theory is one of…… [Read More]
Jungle and Fast Food Nation
The American meat industry has been a source of public contention ever since industrialization, periodically brought to the fore by investigations into and revelations of unsafe labor and food safety practices. In particular, Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle reveals the realities of the meat industry at the beginning of the twentieth century, and Eric Schlosser's book Fast Food Nation reexamines this same industry nearly a hundred years later, finding surprisingly little changed. By comparing and contrasting the two books, it will be possible to examine the evolution of the America food industry as well as how the same problems can reappear a hundred years later if the root cause is not dealt with.
In order to understand the relationship between The Jungle and Fast Food Nation, it will be useful to examine each book's investigation of the meat packing industry separately, before comparing the results of either investigation. The Jungle follows the story of Lithuanian immigrant Jurgis Rudkus and his family as they attempt to succeed in America, and Jurgis' work in slaughterhouses provides the opportunity for a description of workplace practices. Although The Jungle is fictional, and thus not a traditional work of journalism, its depiction of the conditions in slaughterhouses constituted an impactful form of muckraking, and thus may be examined in comparison to Fast Food Nation's more explicit reporting even though the former is filtered through the narrative of an immigrant family trying to succeed in turn of the century America.
In The Jungle, Sinclair describes the unsanitary, unethical, or unsafe conditions in the meat packing industry a number of times, and demonstrates how a variety of factors contribute to these conditions, from corporate complicity to governmental incompetence. The main character, Jurgis, notes "the sharp trick of the floor-bosses whenever there chanced a come a 'slunk' calf," that is, the sometimes…… [Read More]
Strain theory states that certain societies may pressure individuals to commit a crime. Strain may be either structural, namely where the individual feels that his or her needs are not met and turns to crime, therefore, as way of meeting these needs. In this case, processes at the societal level filter adown and effect the individual's perception regarding how he or she perceives her need. For instance, the particular society may be too constricting and disallow the individual from meeting his needs. The individual then turns to crime as outlet to meet it.
The strain may be also individual where society's goals become so important to the individual that he or she looks for ways to achieve and meet them, and unable to accomplish them in the normal way, reverts to crime in order to do so. The end of achieving these goals, in other words, becomes more important than the means taken in order to do so.
General strain theory looks at the strain in the life of the individual and whether that is strong enough to induce his attraction to crime. Agnew, author of general strain theory, posited negative and positive strains where the negative strain existed discouraging individuals from reaching their goal hence they turned to crime in order to do so. This is absence of a necessary motivator. Whilst the positive situation refers to accumulation of constrictive, positively valenced stimuli that lends negative stress and strain on the individual (Pfohl, 1994).
(2) Characterize the social disorganization theory.
Social disorganization theory states that environment matters as much, or more, than the individual's characteristics such as age, gender, race etc. In attracting one to crime. The theory doesn't apply to all crime only to street crime. First introduced by Thomas and Znaniecki, the authors posited that behavior is a product of situation and environment. Attitudes are formed by acculturation. Communities that are characterized by negligible or non-existent welfare systems, decrepit schools, non-caring governments, and stunted churches may well result in dysfunctional families and a high-level of crime. Healthy and strong communal relationships reinforce positive behavior and reinforcement that…… [Read More]
Tom Shulich ("Coltish Hum")
A Critical Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Rational-Emotive Therapy
In this paper, I consider the benefits and drawbacks of behavior therapy and the cognitive therapy. These are talking therapies that now have over a half-century of application in clinical settings and are still used today in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, drug treatments of psychological disorders. I conclude that these therapies are still useful, though each has its limitations.
Behavior therapy (BT) and rational-emotive therapy (RET) were developed in the mid 20th century as alternative psychotherapies to Freudian psychoanalysis. A key foundational text for BT is Joseph Wolpe's (1958) Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Rational-emotive therapy (originally called simply "rational therapy") was founded in 1955 by Albert Ellis (Ellis & Dryden 1987, p. 1). Ellis' RET incorporates aspects of learning theory, which is central to BT, but goes beyond BT to utilize the central concept of "cognition," which includes subjective beliefs, narratives, language, and the attendant feelings these internal thoughts invoke. Rational-emotive therapy is thus seen as an early form of "cognitive-behavioral therapy" (National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists [NABCT] 2010).
Wolpe's (1958) Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition grew out of findings from his laboratory experiments on cats. Wolpe was able to demonstrate that he could inhibit the animals' fear responses by feeding them while gradually introducing and intensifying stimuli that would previously have frightened them. Wolpe extended this technique to humans, treating phobias and inhibitions through gradual desensitization by getting the patients to physically relax while gradually introducing increasingly intense exposure to things that produced anxiety, within the safe, controlled context of a therapy session.
Wolpe based his BT on the experimental psychology of behaviorists. Behaviorism was pioneered in the early 20th century by the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov in his studies of the digestive system. Pavlov was…… [Read More]
PECS and Autism
THE BEST MODE
Comparison and Contrast: Picture Exchange Communication System
Autism is a developmental disorder of communication skills, caused by abnormalities in the brain or nervous system. Symptoms usually surface in the first 3 years of life. Treatments are in the form of picture communication systems, medication, diets and social interaction. The most effective appears to be the PECS, which treats in six phases. It has advantages and disadvantages to consider.
Autism and Treatments
Autism is a developmental disorder in the brain and communication skills (Kaneshiro & Zieve, 2012). The causes of this physical abnormality remain unknown, although genetic factors seem important. Language abnormalities among the relatives of autistic children are a common observation. Chromosomal and nervous system abnormalities have also been observed. Autism becomes evident in the first 3 years of life. Most autistic children have difficulty in pretending play, social interactions, and verbal and nonverbal communication (Kaneshiro & Zieve).
Successful treatment is focused on the child's specific needs (Kaneishiro & Zieve,
2012). Approaches include applied behavior analysis or ABA, Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children or TEACCH, medications, diet, occupational therapy, physical therapy and speech-language therapy. Visual aids are also found to be helpful (Kaneishiro & Zieve). Alternative approaches have also been developed, such as the Picture Exchange Communication System.
This is an augmentative and alternative communication or AAC, which uses images instead of speech communication techniques, for the purpose of helping autistic children speak (Prontes, 2012; PEC, 2012). The child hands a picture to a communication partner or teacher for the represented item. It provides the child with a functional outlet of expressing what he normally conveys by speaking. It can be used with a child as early as 2 years old in helping him initiate conversation and express his needs to the others. The observation is that the child's condition tends to lessen as his ability to communicate increases. Using this system allows the child to talk about things to which the child is already exposed in his actual environment. As an ABA approach, PECS enables careful monitoring and positive reinforcement techniques necessary in teaching behavioral steps and practices (Prontes, PEC).
The first phase initiates the communication process (Prontes, 2012; PEC, 2012). The child is led to…… [Read More]
Treatment of Cancer
Cultural and Ethnical Related
Beliefs in the Treatment of Cancer
Healthcare disparities among cultural or ethnic lines have been shown to not be as totally unbalanced burdens from disease, disability or death. Particular populations or groups when compared to the majority of the population are at an obvious disadvantage but not as wide a gap as they would have you believe. "Racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care are not due to access-related factors or clinical needs, preferences and appropriateness of intervention." (Smedley, Stith, & Nelson, 2002) The true problem is that there are unique cultural and ethnic beliefs that could be affecting the overall care these groups receive. This report will attempt to compare and contrast at least five cultural or ethnic beliefs in the treatment of cancer to see if those beliefs do in fact affect the overall care received.
The treatment of cancer has various approaches and program objectives vary. There is no one system for the treatment of cancer that works every time. But, is there a clear distinction that there is a healthcare related disparity among segments or subpopulations of the total population? The treatment of cancer must take into consideration each individual case to ensure that the terminology, comparison population, health areas, and segments of the population are treated equally in the treatment of the disease as a whole.
The first cultural belief this report focuses on are the very successful results of clinical trials in the treatment of cancer that may never be applied to minority groups. Cultural and minority groups have been shown to not completely understand the significance of cancer related clinical trials and can even follow the belief that they would be guinea pigs if they participated even after it could be demonstrated that participants of clinical trials receive excellent medical care. Often, these cultural or minority groups are simply not aware that clinical trials are even an option in the treatment of cancer or they simply do not understand how a clinical trial works.
A second belief is that there is a huge disparity between the healthcare treatment defined by the socioeconomic status, age, geographic area, gender, race or ethnicity, language, customs and other…… [Read More]
Amanda Wingfield and Linda Loman
Comparing and Contrasting Mothers in Tennessee Williams's the Glass Menagerie and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman
Two plays from the 1940's, Tennessee William's The Glass Menagerie (1944) and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman (1949), although much different in tone and content, both have female characters who want only the best for their families, yet live completely in the past. Amanda recalls her youth filled with "gentlemen callers," and cannot see Laura's (or Tom's) strengths and talents. Linda avoids confronting Willy about his plan to kill himself. Both refuse to see their families as they are. In this essay, I will compare and contrast Amanda and Linda, in terms of their hopes and wishes for, and treatment of, their families.
As Tennessee Williams describes Amanda Wingfield in the List of Characters, "Amanda, having failed to establish contact with reality, continues to live vitally in her illusions" (The Glass Menagerie, p. 1541). The play is narrated by Tom, who plays a dual role of narrator and major character. We see Amanda through his eyes: she is motherly yet overbearing; concerned yet controlling. She is also quite talkative and explicit in her conversation (although she does not listen well to others). As she tells Tom at dinner, for example "chew your food and give your salivary glands a chance to function!" (p.1544).
Amanda talks at Tom and Laura, not with them. Consequently, she misses many chances to encourage her children's real talents. Tom craves excitement, adventure, and variety. Yet instead of encouraging Tom to find a creative channel for these restless yearnings, Amanda disparages them. Early on, Laura admits she has cut class:
I went in the art museum and the birdhouses at the Zoo. I visited the penguins every day! Sometimes I did without lunch and went to the movies!
Lately I've been spending most of my afternoons in . . . that big glass housed where they raise the tropical flowers. (p.1548)
Here, Laura signals interest in art; animals;…… [Read More]
AC Cooling Towers
The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast two different types of air conditioning (AC) cooling towers. This report will be a professional opinion based on the literature, pricing and specifications available for the two towers under review. Of course, there are important concerns when picking an air conditioning cooling tower and having one installed including useful life cycle, maintenance costs overall, the ease in which maintenance can be completed and so forth. While cost should obviously be a concern, the length of life of an air conditioning cooling tower as well as the efficiency and other traits of the cooling tower matter just as much, if not more.
One of the brands up for review is known as TowerTech. Their brochure includes costs but also highlights the fact that there are two main types of air conditioning cooling towers, those being closed circuit and non-closed circuit towers. TowerTech hypes the fact that the latter is actually a much better option and for a few reasons. Those reasons including less cost spent on installation, less weight of the unit, a more flexible layout, no more glycol needing to be used, easier inspection and maintenance ability and a life expectancy that is double to triple that of closed circuit cooling towers. Features of the TowerTech in particular include heavy duty pultruded FRP structure with what they call SS hardware. The variable flow nozzles on the unit are self-cleaning, the basin for the unit is entirely enclosed and the fans are bottom-mounted. One major way in which the closed-circuit units are inferior is that the non-closed units have an external heat exchanger that improves overall operation (TowerTech, 2015).
The TowerTech people offer a straight comparison between what their towers cost and what a comparable closed circuit tower would cost. Indeed, the cost differential is actually pretty small for the smaller towers but becomes noticeable for the larger ones. For example, a 250 ton TowerTech tower is only $5,000 less than a comparable closed-circuit tower. However, the rest of the differences are noticeable. The horsepower level of the fan is forty percent less, the weight of the unit is noticeable…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast the rhetorical flair as it relates to different articles that assess and analyze what is known as the 10,000-hour rule. For the uninformed, the 10,000 rule states that it basically takes about 10,000 hours for a person to become a master at a discipline or trade. Easy examples to point to include mastery of the violin, writing of books/novels and computer programming. Indeed, these are some of the many examples used by authors Sandman and Bradley as they analyze and poke holes in the 10,000-hour rule. While Sandman and Bradley come to much the same conclusion, Bradley's use of logos was clearly the wiser choice for the argument being made and Bradley's overall technique of varied examples and clear explains was superior.
There are, of course, three different approaches to rhetoric. Those approaches are known as ethos, logos and pathos. When assessing the two works to be compared and contrasted for this report, it becomes quite clear which person is doing what approach. First to be briefly summarized would be the work of Jared Sandman. As noted before, he asserts that the 10,000-hour rule is fundamentally flawed. As becomes quite clear upon reading his work, he is relying on his own authority and experience to make this point. Thus, Sandman is clearly using the ethos approach to rhetoric and speech. For example, Sandman points to the idea that it took about 250,000 words written to get to a level of writing that was publishable. He then goes on to state that another 250,000 words put him at a fairly good level of adeptness. He further states that using the 10,000-hour rule is a little on the high side. He states that he writes about two pages an hour. That would mean that he would write about 20,000 pages in 10,000 hours. This is the equivalent of fifty full novels of work. To make it clear that Sandman is relying on his own authority and expertise, he states that someone who does not have writing down by the fiftieth book is clearly doing something wrong. He clearly asserts…… [Read More]
strong work ethic is vital to the success of any firm. In recent years thee have been many comparisons made between the work ethic of American and Japanese employees. (Rhody 1995) The purpose of this discussion is to compare and contrast Japan's management theories and work ethics with that of the United States.
Japanese Management Theory and Work Ethic
Japanese workers are among the most productive workers in the world. (Rhody 1995) Much of this productivity has been attributed to a strong work ethic and the managerial structure of the Japanese Labor Force. (Rhody 1995) According to an article in the journal Public Personnel Management, the Japanese management style that is practiced contributes greatly to the productivity that exists throughout the country. The journal explains, "Japanese management deals with each employee as a person rather than a worker. This concern tends to go beyond the job and the paycheck." (Rhody 1995)
The management theories used by the Japanese have long been a topic of debate.
A prime example of the management style of the Japanese can be found in the various Japanese car companies including; Nissan, Toyota and Honda. According to SAM Advanced Management Journal,
The Japanese have introduced into the work environment a sense of community. Toyota, for example, has a day care center for young mothers who wish to work. Out of the 6,000 people employed at the plant, roughly 5,900 are Americans, mostly from Kentucky (Aaron, 1996). This sense of community tends to foster togetherness or rather a sense of fate: what happens to one will happen to all...By careful screening of their prospective employees, the Japanese have assembled a potent workforce committed to their families, jobs, and local environment. After the selection process, training and development of human resources, employee attitudes, job satisfaction, and the importance of quality and continuous improvement are also very critical in Japanese organizational culture. (Laws and Tang 1999)
As you can see Japanese managers care a great deal about their workers and go to great lengths to support their employees. In turn employees want to perform well…… [Read More]
COMPREHENSION- "TELEPHONE CONVERSATION" AND "ON THE SUBWAY"
"Telephone Conversation" by Wole Soyinka and "On the Subway" by Sharon Olds
These poems analyze racism and racist perspectives between whites and blacks during the last five decades. Racism is depicted in this poem from several different perspectives, through both, the viewpoints of black as well as the white people. The poems demonstrate how widespread the phenomenon of racism is, and how the individuals are so intolerant of others of different colors and the different ways in which some people are trying to view racism. The issue of racism is explored by the poems in two ways, the first is the way ordinary people see it, and the second is how politics molds the view of racism. The analysis of the poems will be done to understand how a biased viewpoint can not only plague the kids into over thinking and over reaching but also plagues it to be authoritatively judgemental.
The poem "Telephone Conversation" by Nigerian poet Wole Soyinka, is based on the author's thoughts on the stereotypes taht exist about African or black people in a scenario where such people were looking for a respectable accommodation. When Soyinka writes on how he would tell the owner of the house that he is African, he uses terms such as "I warned" and "self-confession," since he knows what the landlady's response would be through experience. The landlady, asks him how dark his skin color is, and this angers Soyinka, he however uses words such as "Red pillar-box and Red booth" wittingly to answer the lady. This use of wit shows a possible counter for excessive stereotyping in the modern world. The use of color red is not only describe his color but it also depicts his shame, anger and embarrassment towards the question he was asked. However, Soyinka then maintains his moral high ground with the landlady through his use of a combination of wit and humor. He rhetorically asks the woman if by her question she meant his skin color was as white as "milk chocolate" and then answers that his color was "West African sepia," a description which further astonishes the woman. He then sarcastically asks of the landlady to not only examine his exterior skin color but to also see the sole of his feet and the palm of his hands…… [Read More]
African-American Literature -- Compare and Contrast
The two stories selected for this first comparison, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs and the short letter from Jourdon Anderson, "To My Old Master," are both extremely touching, honest, enlightening and historically precious pieces of literature.
To begin with, Anderson's letter to Colonel P.H. Anderson reveals a number of key things about the life of a male slave during the Civil War. It comes as an almost shocking irony when Jourdon writes to a man who kept him as a slave and tried to kill him. The reader knows that Jourdon is a practicing Christian even before he writes that he would be interested in coming back to work for the colonel. "Although you shot at me twice before I left you, I did not want to hear of your being hurt, and am glad you are still living…" But the reader also knows that the former slave is trying to be compensated for the years of hard labor he put in for free.
Think about that for a moment. Here's a slave master who tried to kill Jourdon as he ran away, and here is his former slave hoping he is doing okay. Jourdon goes on to ask what kind of wages the colonel would offer if Jourdon were to return. Again, the reader knows that Jourdon is a Christian, and Jourdon does report in the second paragraph that he attends church on a regular basis, but clearly he believes in the Christian doctrine because it is obvious he has at least partially forgiven the colonel: "Many darkeys would have been proud, as I used to be, to call you master," he writes. Or is it a case that Jourdon just would like to be paid for the hard work he put in all those years? Christian attitude or not, this is a powerful letter, packed with intelligence and a reserved kind of respectfulness toward the colonel.
It is…… [Read More]
The vase is painted with bright colors, while in the Monet painting the viewer hardly notices the off-center vase. It is hard to imagine the Van Gogh flowers in their bright vase standing quietly in a peaceful corner of a room like Monet's flowers. The viewer feels like an observer in the Monet painting, like a fly on the wall, but the viewer of the Van Gogh painting stares at the sunflowers as if the viewer were looking into the eyes of a human being painted in a portrait. All of this is due to how the arrangements of the flowers contribute to the distinct tones of both paintings. Monet's vase of flowers is slightly off center, which seems to make the flowers seem less important. What is interesting about the painting is not the flowers, but the way that the light seems to cause the flowers to look hazy, gauzy, and makes them hard to see clearly. But in Van Gogh's painting, the sunflowers form the focus picture and take center stage. It is as if the artist is saying that they are so important, they cannot be pushed to the side of a room or corner. The sunflowers seem to have a distinct personality, again, almost like a portrait rather than a still life. Also, there is no clear direction of the light in Van Gogh's painting. The sunflowers are harsh and bright in their yellow and orange tones as if lit from above, while the Monet flowers seem to be lit from an angle.
The moods of the two paintings are also quite different. A few of the flowers in Van Gogh's painting seem to be wilting, slightly, while all of Monet's flowers are healthy. This may be yet another reason why the moods of the two paintings are so different. Monet's painting looks very natural. The impression of the flowers is comforting for the…… [Read More]
As mentioned earlier, Sellin placed emphasis on the cultural diversity that was found in a modern society, in which wile criminal law contains the crime norms of inappropriate and deviant behavior, the conduct norms of less powerful groups that reflect their own specific social situations would conflict with the crime norms mentioned earlier, leading to the inculcation of criminal and deviant behavior among the members of less dominant and influential groups. Therefore, as diverse cultures permeate society, deviant behaviors would grow as a result of increased conflict, felt Sellin. Conflict can be of two main types: primary, which may occur when the norms of two different societies happen to conflict with each other, and secondary, in which a single culture is involved, and in which conflict may occur over a period of time. ("Introduction to sociology," n. d.)
When one stops to analyze culture conflict theory and its relationship to criminal behavior, one would come to the realization that conflict theory and criminology are closely inter-related, and this would include the study of deviant and criminal behaviors. Take for example the study that was conducted by the GAO, to find out whether or not the race of either the victim or of the defendant would cast an influence over the capital sentencing process in any way. Fifty three criminal cases were studied as a part of this analysis, and to everyone's surprise, it was found that there was indeed a close inter-relationship between culture, social learning, conflict and crime. (Vito; Maahs; Holmes, 2007)
The GAO study revealed these facts: in almost 82% of the cases, it was found that the race of the victim had influenced the end sentencing, of whether the defendant would receive the death penalty or be charged with capital murder. This was found to be especially true in cases where the victim was white and the defendant, black. In short, evidence was able to prove that the victim's race and culture was a strong influence on the case at every juncture throughout the criminal justice system process, especially at the early stages where the prosecutorial decision to either seek the death penalty or…… [Read More]
FASB and GASB Accounting
Compare and contrast FASB and GASB accounting. Explain the objectives of the two standards boards and how they are similar and different. Describe how the modified accrual basis of accounting differs from full accrual accounting
The FASB and GASB share similar objectives by focusing on improving transparency and reporting standards. This is important, because both are used as way of providing the most accurate information to the general public. To fully understand how this occurs requires looking at the two approaches and comparing them with one another. Once this takes place, is when there will be an examination of the modified accrual basis methodology vs. The full accrual approach. This is when we can offer specific insights about how these standards are similar and different.
A Comparison of FASB and GASB Standards
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) was founded in 1973. Its purpose was to create a universal set of standards for American businesses to follow when reporting their earnings. A few of the most notable include: accounting for nonprofit mergers / acquisitions, financial guarantee insurance contracts and hedging. This is important, because it is showing how this basic approach is attempting to improve transparency based on using conservative accounting principles (i.e. taking write downs against earnings and carrying forward less income). ("Facts about FASB," 2012) ("Financial Standards Accounting Board," 2011)
The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) is an offshoot of the FASB. This is because the Financial Accounting Foundation (FAF) established both organizations. The difference is that the FASB is responsible for applying these standards to businesses. While the GASB is relating these principals to how state and local governments are operating. The basic methodology that is utilized is Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). This is a standard that is currently utilized by the FASB. Moreover, the standards that is determined for GAAP is defined by the FASB. They have been working in conjunction with GASB since 1984. (Fischer, 2008, pp. 765 -- 781)
As a result, the GASB will use similar approaches as the FASB. The only difference is that these standards are applied to state and local governments under GASB guidelines. While the FASB will use similar kinds of principals in how businesses are accounting for their balance sheet. Furthermore, the FASB will dominate the GASB, by giving the organization standards…… [Read More]
Compare and Contrast organizational (command) climate with organizational culture.
Organizational climate is the recurring patterns of behavior, attitudes and feelings that characterize life in an organization or company. It is used to describe the dimensions of the environment at work. The factors that determine organizational climate are leadership, organizational structure, historical forces, standards of accountability, standards of behavior, communication, rewards, trust, commitment, vision and strategies, and organizational correctiveness.
Leadership is a factor since the leader has a powerful influence on the expectations and manners of everyone in the company. The leader needs to strategize and methodize the alterations needed to compete in the future as well as the best ways to integrate everyone in the company to gain commitment. Organizational structure is important since how the company organizes itself is a reflection as to what it considers critical to its success and reflects the commitment and values of the employees. Historical forces have an impact on the organizational structure that develops over time and influence its climate. If the company has neglected innovation and resisted change, the culture and climate is impacted greatly. Standards of accountability are defined as what will be observed and heard while communication is a significant factor of desired behaviors and is measured by the company's communication patterns. The lack of acceptable behavior triumph corrupts the corporate organizational climate. Rewards measure competencies in a tangible and constructive feedback helps to reinforce the purpose in building and reaching goals and objectives and a company that is value driven. Trust reflects the feelings of mutual respect and support within a company and it is high when employees sense their input is important and valued, support is constructive, and actions are supported by others. Commitment reflects an employees' pride in their organization and the extent of their support in the future of the company. Vision and strategies are statements of the company's desired future, and the goals and priorities of an organization's vision, the climate and culture will reflect such over time.
Organizational culture is a system of shared meaning where culture is the social glue that helps hold the organization together. It is the basic pattern of shared assumptions, values and beliefs considered to be the correct way of thinking about and acting on problems and opportunities facing the organization. The characteristics of organization culture include innovation…… [Read More]
Los Angeles (compare and contrast two books/Articles)
Aesthetic Judgment: "Mildred Pierce" compared to "What Makes Sammy Run"
What Makes Sammy Run
The tale of Sammy Glick has been told by Al Manheim in the first person narrative. Al Manheim is the drama critic working for the esteemed New York Record. The tale of Sammy Glick is about an uneducated boy who becomes a screenwriter from a copy buy in Hollywood back in the 1930s. Glick achieves this success by backstabbing many people (Schulberg, 2011).
Manheim starts his narrative by recalling the first time that he met Sammy Glick when he was a 16 years old boy and was working at Manheim's newspaper as a copy boy. Manheim starts to observe Sammy very keenly as, Sammy's aggressive personality disturbs Manheim a lot. Therefore, in this way not only does Manheim become a mentor to Sammy but he also becomes his best friend as claimed by Glick on many occasions (Schulberg, 2011).
The Hollywood system has also been described by Manheim in great detail. He has described this system as a money machine that oppresses the talented writers. It is preferred by the bosses that they have free range when it comes to dealing with the writers. This includes giving them work on weekly basis or signing a 7-year contract with them (Schulberg, 2011).
It has been remarked by Manheim in the novel that in Hollywood it is a rule and not an exception that "the convictions are for sale" and people don't let any chance to double-cross someone go by. It was observed by Manheim that there are three products that are being produced by Hollywood and these are: fear, moving pictures and ambition. The creation of Writer's Guild was witnessed by Manheim. The main purpose behind building this organization was to protect and defend the rights of screenwriters (Schulberg, 2011).
Right after a periodic reshuffling of the studio,…… [Read More]
Second Semester Exam
Compare and contrast organizational climate with organizational command.
Understanding organizational theory is critical as it facilitates both improved leadership and greater unit cohesiveness and morale. Two key concepts in organizational theory are that of organizational climate and command structure. Climate can be understood as the elements which play into unit motivation and how it affects unit productivity. To offer a definition, climate is a set of behaviors shared by all or most members of a unit and can be understood as their shared values, attitudes and assumptions which define daily life and how an individual feels about and judges their unit. On the other hand, command structure can be defined as the building blocks of the military as units and formations under the control of a single officer. Command structure is a mechanism to delegate authority in a manner to maximize productivity across a number of integrated and operationally attached sub-units that are usually combat-capable.
Although organizational climate and command structure are related, climate often proves easier to assess and change, to improve unit productivity than overall command structure. At an individual level of analysis the concept of influencing unit climate is called individual psychological atmosphere. These individual perceptions are often aggregated for understanding at the team or group level leading to changes in overall team behavior that can influence unit outcomes. To contrast, organizational command influences group efficiency through ensuring the problem distribution of command from top to bottom and facilitating the resolution of problematic issues (i.e. complaints, obstacles) from bottom to top. However, by quantifying climate much more immediate steps can be taken in the field to improve unit outcomes than by modifying the command structure which is often difficult to modify.
In conclusion, the modern soldier can gain valuable knowledge through an understanding of the differences between organizational climate vs. command. Organizational climate is the general atmosphere of a unit and how it influences its efficiency…… [Read More]