Criminal justice system normally refers to the compilation of the prevailing federal; state accompanied by the local public agencies those pacts with the crime problem. These corresponding agencies procedure suspects, defendants accompanied by the convicted offenders and are normally mutually dependent insofar as the prevailing decisions of the single agency influence other supplementary agencies (Cole & Smith, 2009). The fundamental framework of the underlying system is normally granted through the lawmaking, judicial and the executive twigs of the government. The major significant advancements within the criminal justice system within the past decade has been the widespread execution of the corresponding initiatives designed that pertain to the diverting of the populace with mental sickness accompanied by the addictions away from the prevailing imprisonment and their treatments (David, 2008). The development of the existing jail distraction programs, mental health courts and drug courts has been promoted through the belief that these prevailing programs addresses a pressing policy issue and subsequently save money. The underlying programs claim to have resulted to the production of the significant reduction within the recidivism accompanied by its economical value that pertains to saving lots of money during its process of implementation. The approximation of the cost savings to the underlying justice system particularly the corresponding jails ranges from hundreds of thousands dollars to millions of dollars. Hitherto transversely the country, sheriffs have managed to execute the programs in perpetual in order to realize suitable jail budgets in long-lasting to develop (Cole & Smith, 2009).
A court is normally considered as the law enforcement that is the initial stage of the corresponding criminal justice procedures. The populaces who are normally arrested are prosecuted in order to decide whether to either prosecute or drop the prevailing case accompanied by the judges decides the terms of the bail (David, 2008). In case the prosecution process take place then the prevailing prosecutor ought to make a decision on the charges. The underlying defendant ought to select to either importune guilty or not culpable, juries are normally selected and thus in case the culpable, and the prevailing judge ought to make decision on the appropriate penalty. There exist three levels of courts namely the trial courts of the limited jurisdiction, general jurisdiction and the appellate courts. The court of the limited jurisdiction which is normally the lowest level within the court coexists under numerous names within…… [Read More]
For example, Cook County, IL, has built a network of support for juvenile female offenders within the local community. The county has developed its own gender-specific assessment and treatment guidelines and has trained youth-facing community workers on assessing juvenile offenders and recommending programming. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 30). Also, the county designed a pilot network of social service agencies in order to provide a community-based continuum of care. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 30). This continuum of care helps to prevent at risk youth from slipping through the cracks.
Cook County's program was so successful that the State of Connecticut adopted a similar network of institutions practicing a uniform assessment method. Whereas Cook County agencies used the assessments to select programming choices for at-risk youth, Connecticut criminal justice institutions used the assessments to issue alternative sanctions tailored to the juvenile offender's particular risks, needs, and strengths. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 30).
3.Analyze trends and patterns of these programs as they contribute to reduced recidivism.
It is telling that states and various local governments, which possess different powers, responsibilities, and capabilities, have all converged on a rehabilitative, diversionary approach to female juvenile programming. Each institution came to the realization that most female juvenile offenders committed criminal acts for somewhat different reasons than male juvenile offenders. For females, criminal behavior was not rooted in pride or greed, but rather, grief. It was grief resulting from a very unhealthy childhood experience marked by sexual or physical abuse. These offenders did not know that they could interact with other people in a manner which did not involve sex or violence. Thus, the gender-specific assessments sought to identify grief-stricken offenders and suggested programming designed to acculturate them to more healthy, platonic, and peaceful interpersonal relations.
4.Relate the trends and patterns to the programs overall validity and effectiveness.
Gender-specific, rehabilitative programming is valid in the sense that it is based on the common risk factors and causes of female delinquency, childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and disadvantage. (Hawkins, et al., 2011, p. 7). The programming attempts to build…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Leadership Strategies and Practices
Leadership Strategies and Practice
Examples and Analysis of Roles
The criminal justice leadership strategies are also partly similar to business practices followed in commercial organizations. However, the difference in chain of command, organizational culture and theories applicable for criminology are unique. The criminal justice organizations also develop strategies that are relevant for their organizational culture as well as with respect to the community relations. These organizations also establish a unique lesion with civilians as well as with other government and administrative functions of the state. The work below provides examples and information regarding the functioning of criminal justice organizations, their leadership and practices adopted to formulate strategies. The research also analyzes the roles of criminal justice leadership strategies with respect to the organizational culture, behavioral theory, planning, and community relations.
The department of criminal justice is not only limited to prosecution and policing but is also involves various law enforcement agencies. The role of police, community police, intelligence agencies, prosecution, and other community help units is also quite helpful for societies. The role of leadership strategy in governing criminal justice organizations is also vital. The criminal justice organizations are also governed through laws and regulations. However, they have a room for their own strategy in countering the criminal activities taking place within the society. The leadership and role of strategy is as vital in criminal justice organizations as in normal business entities.
Leadership Strategies and Practice:
There are various organizational elements that are required to achieve higher results in the criminal justice practices. The role of leadership can be determined in relation to giving clear directions and identification of the requirements according to situations. According to Cronkhite (2012) the criminal justice organizations are entities with organizational structure, management, leadership, goals, missions, and strategies to achieve their objectives. Furthermore, these organizations also deploy strategic practices envisioned through their leadership.
Examples and Analysis of Roles:
The role of organizational culture, behavioral theory, planning, and community relations is also regarded as a part of the leadership strategy within criminal justice. The section below provides detailed understanding of the theory and particle in order to elaborate these elements. The significant role played by the higher leadership and policy…… [Read More]
Criminal justice system refers to either the state or federal set of agencies and processes which are created by governments to control crime and to engage in penalties and discipline on those who break the law and who hurt others or damage property. "There is no single criminal justice system in the United States but rather many similar, individual systems. How the criminal justice system works in each area depends on the jurisdiction that is in charge: city, county, state, federal or tribal government or military installation" (NCVC, 2012). Thus, what can make the criminal justice system so tricky and difficult to understand is largely because different jurisdictions have differing laws, agencies and methods of criminal justice management (NCVC, 2012). Thus, the state system is in charge of handling crimes which occur within the state boundaries; the federal system handles crimes which occur in multiple states or on federal property (NCVC, 2012). Within this complex system, different people engage in different roles. The prosecutor, defense attorney, criminal and victim have unique parts to play within this intricate system.
Prosecutors are attorneys who represent the state or federal government, though not the victim via the court process from the first moment the accused individual arrives in court, or until the accused person receives and acquittal or a sentence (NCVC, 2012). These attorneys offer "evidence in court, question witnesses, and decide (at any point after charges have been filed) whether to negotiate plea bargains with defendants. They have great discretion, or freedom, to make choices about how to prosecute the case" (NCVC, 2012). Thus, one could argue that the prosecutor works for the good of the general public and for the good of society, in helping to prevent dangerous criminals from being free on the streets and able to do more harm. The level of victimization that has been suffered should motivate this attorney to play their role as fully and effectively as possible (NCVC, 2012).
In America one of the overwhelming beliefs which guides the criminal justice system is that everyone…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice System: Ethics in Criminal Procedure
Ethics refers to the principles of morality that govern an individual's behavior. Ethics, therefore, provides the basis through which an individual defines, and distinguishes between the good and the bad. This implies that it is ethics that provides the framework for the duties and responsibilities an individual owes to himself, and to the community. Today, ethics define how corporations, professionals, and individuals relate with one another. Within the criminal justice system, ethics refers to the standards that govern the conduct of persons working within the criminal justice system (Kleinig, 2008). It defines the professionalism of prison guards, judges, attorneys, prosecutors, and police officers (Kleinig, 2008).
The Process of the Criminal Justice System
There are ten stages involved in the criminal justice system; initial contact, investigation, arrest, custody, indictment, detention/bail, plea bargaining, adjudication, disposition, and post convict remedies (the Legal Dictionary, 2014). Initial contact involves observation and awareness; an officer is made aware of a criminal activity (the Legal Dictionary, 2014). Investigation involves acquiring facts that are relevant to the case, with the aim of identifying the real offender (the Legal Dictionary, 2014). Arrest marks the beginning of custody; a legal arrest is made when the evidence at hand is sufficient. Custody follows arrest, and involves fingerprinting, photographing and interrogation (the Legal Dictionary, 2014). Indictment is the presentation before a jury, which then determines whether or not to grant bail to the suspect (the Legal Dictionary, 2014). Plea-bargaining takes the form of a meeting between the prosecutor and the suspect aimed at reaching out-of-court settlements (the Legal Dictionary, 2014). An unsuccessful plea-bargain results in adjudication, in which the guilt or innocence of the suspect is determined. Disposition is the sentencing of a suspect who has been found guilty - it can be challenged through post conviction remedies such as appeals (the Legal Dictionary, 2014). Ethics within the criminal justice system is aimed at guiding the conduct of officers in all the stages of this process to ensure justice is served, and all suspects are treated equally.
How Ethics in Real Life Differs from Ethics in Law
The law influences the conduct of professionals, like any other individual. However, the courts are not often used in the settlement of real life ethical issues (Kleinig, 2008). In fact, "the ethics of a particular act is many times determined independent of the legality of the conduct" (the…… [Read More]
Criminal justice system is comprised of elaborate pieces of a huge puzzle. The age of "Order," CSI, and various other TV programs has actually all however removed the genuine components of the puzzle that bring about the arrest of the suspect. Prior to being employed, one is enlightened on how this works; he ought to be warned of the jobs that everyone plays and at exactly what phase they are purchased into the scene. Everybody from the cop to the judge comes across the suspect at various phases and there are numerous things that occur to preserve the flow of the justice system.
Review of the Criminal Justice System
Law enforcement agent, Judges, Area Lawyer, and District attorneys all play their own component in the criminal justice system. They all have their own various communications with either the suspicious or criminal defendant. There are various things that have to occur prior to each component fulfilling their possibility of the meeting the suspect or criminal. The exact same options exist for the suspect, generally his first communication is with the police officer, and relying on his participation or (absence of) he will have a meet with the defense attorney, the district attorney and lastly the judge (Israel et al. 2003).
The Job of the Police Officer
"The basic part of the police officer is to safeguard and defend." This appears basic enough. However it gets more complexe when you think about the mechanics that it needs. Normally the police officer is the first individual that the suspect encounters. When there is a report of suspicious activities, police authorities are called to the scene to explore. The policeman has the job of identifying if there has actually been a law broken; discover witnesses recover peace to the location even if this suggests taking the suspect off the road (Israel et al. 2003).
The Duty of the Defense Attorney
The defense attorney is typically the 2nd individual to…… [Read More]
d.). Armed robbery is an offense carried out while in possession of a drawn weapon like gun despite of whether it was fired or not. Plea negotiation or bargaining is usually conducted in order to lessen trial expense and involves the provision of a lesser sentence by the prosecutor in exchange for admission of guilt. Pre-trial conference involves discussions between the defense, prosecutor, and judge to ascertain the need for the case to go to trial. No Contest Plea is where the defendant accepts punishment without the formal admission of guilt while Not Guilty Plea is the claim of innocence by the defendant and Guilty Plea is admission of guilt by the defendant.
Similar to all criminal cases, Mr. Crook's case goes through various steps in the American Criminal Justice System. The legal authority that is used in presenting the advice to Mr. Crook is based on my knowledge in law and government classes. With regards to law, my classes mainly focus on criminal investigation in which I have continued to excel. Moreover, I have conducted research on contemporary law, issues and cases that are relevant to criminal justice procedure and felony cases.… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Administration
The criminal justice system involves practices and institutions directed by governments in place to ensure that social control is upheld, crime mitigation and deterring or going ahead to sanction those that are in violation of laws through criminal penalties and rehabilitating them.at the same time those who have been accused of any crime are protected against abuse of the powers to investigate or prosecute them. The paper will look at the key issues when it comes to criminal justice administration today.
The criminal justice system today consists of three main parts which are the legislative part, the adjudication part and the correction part. The legislation part has the duty of creating laws which have to be followed by every individual. Incase one does not follow these laws they might find themselves faced with charges against them. The adjudication comprises of courts which are the venues for settling disputes and at the same time administering justice.in the court setting there are various people; prosecutor, judge and the defense attorney. The correction part comprises of parole, prison, or jail. With the knowledge of what the criminal justice comprises of we can now look at criminal justice administration today (American society of criminology, 2012).
The administration of criminal justice is faced by key issues. These include law enforcement which is definitely the most visible when it comes to justice system criminal justice administration. The first contact person anyone involved in crime has with the criminal justice is a police officer. Today there are police patrols done around communities with the aim of crime prevention, investigation of crime incidences and make arrests of crime suspects. The next key issue in criminal justice administration is the court system. Once one is arrested they enter the court system where in court an individual is either determined to be…… [Read More]
If the issue of pant sagging is not addressed, it will lead to public dissatisfaction, especially from people who have raised concerns. It will also continue the implications on black men as being disrespectful gangsters, or as Cosby says (middle class blacks who are disrespected and despised gangsters, whose egregious behavior is sagging pants). It will also continue the implication that the black represent some unified community which is monolithic so that discrimination to them (blacks) is de-racialized. Other implications are there as seen in the Basketball Association, where they sought to enforce the dress code, stating that hip hop dressing projected an image that tends to alienate middle class members in the audience. The economic implication about sagging pants is that it prevents the youth from getting jobs leading to the high number of unemployed youth especially the blacks.
Some take the ban as a racist move targeting African-Americans, and others think it is a leeway for the police to further harass the young people. The council should think twice before making the new ban and regulations because it is gross to others. Sometimes the law is not the answer to every problem in life, other methods like talking to the children can be incorporated as a way of ending the culture. Anti- sagging campaigns can also be held to outlaw sagging. The Kecoughtan's campaign is a good example because, after the campaign, there was a decrease in sagging. The campaign focused on ban to sagging pants and peer education.
Despite the existing controversy, something should be done to reverse the downward spiral of men especially the blacks. Public policies, which are of benefit to men, especially the black men are needed. Therefore, leadership and different councils should come together to implement workable policies, and create sustained pressure essential for the change needed. Fashion is not a legislative issue, and it is ridiculous to criminalize fashion. Therefore, council members who aim…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice IT
It is becoming very clear how much of an impact the newest technological advances have on the world. For example, consider how quickly the information spread via the social media about Osama bin Laden's death. Technology innovations are also greatly impacting the criminal justice system in the U.S. By providing significant improvements in the way that agencies find, process, share and utilize information. With the present speed of change, many new information technology advances are still on their way for the 18,000 police departments and several thousand prosecutorial court and correction agencies in the U.S. (Pattavina, 2005). In the future, as the digital world continues to advance in complexity, the criminal justice system will continue to improve in overall effectiveness and capabilities in crime measurement, control and response.
Since the 1960s, criminal justice system agencies have been using information technology to gain a better understanding of the issues and challenges they face, improve the management of daily operations, lower operation costs and develop and enhance strategic planning and tactical approaches. Information technology has positively impacted law enforcement even more so over the past several decades (Pattavina, 2005). This is especially the case in the area of crime analysis, as defined by Reuland (1997) as resource deployment, investigation and apprehension of offenders, crime prevention and administrative support. Crime analysis also supports crime prevention departments, investigation officers and community relations/public relations in strategic planning, development and evaluation. For example, although not yet used by the majority of law enforcement units in the U.S., a crime analysis technology called geographic information systems (GIS), along with crime mapping, has proven considerably advantageous.
With GIS software, the user can create any form of geographic display from a point map to 3-D representation of spatial or temporal data of police issues, such as crime problems. For example, GIS helps analysts determine where different types of crime occur and provides insights on relationships between certain geographic variables. In tactical crime analysis, GIS clarifies patterns of crime, such as burglary and car theft. The crime analyst can then display several variables at a time,…… [Read More]
" (Weinstein, 2003) This range is dependent upon the charges that are brought against the defendant in the criminal case as well as "some aspects of the conduct underlying the charges." (Weinstein, 2003) Judges are legally required to "impose a specific sentence is subject to the exercise of discretion in two areas" which are those of:
1) the judge makes the determination that the sentence must be within the Guideline range; and 2) in cases which involve downward departures where the sentence imposed may be below the applicable guidelines range. (Weinstein, 2003)
Judges are naturally sought by the public for the purpose of influencing the outcomes in cases which they preside over. And public opinion must surely, at least to some extent, and depending upon the ethics within the specific community, exert some influence upon the opinions and rulings of a judge in some cases. Just as well, the Judge cannot but help to feel pressure from the opinions of other political figures within the same state or county in which they serve. And as well, the employees of a Judge may oftentimes feel that the Judge has imposed too harsh a punishment upon a community member who is well thought of although they have been found guilty of some type of criminal offense. However, the bottom line for a judge in handing down decisions on cases are very much bound to interpretation of foregoing case law in similar cases and in federal and state sentencing guidelines that are imposed as a matter of law upon the judge often with no to little discretion. This is also true in other areas of law as well such as the Rule 32 Guidelines which have been set out in child support determinations in divorce and custody cases in domestic court.… [Read More]
Does the criminal justice system discriminate? Provide support your position with reference to the various components of the process, and give an explanation for either why the system discriminates, or why it appears to discriminate.
Yes, the criminal justice system discriminates. African-American males are overrepresented in every part of the criminal process, though there has been no good evidence to show that they actually engage in criminal behavior at rates that are so grossly disproportionate to the participation rates of the rest of society.
In fact, enough young adult African-American males are incarcerated that it impacts the African-American community by contributing to single parenthood, making it less likely that African-American women will find spouses, and perpetuating a cycle of violence and incarceration.
In addition to racial discrimination, women who kill their spouses receive sentences that are roughly four to five times as long as the sentences that men receive when they kill their spouses. Though the Supreme Court has outlawed the execution of the mentally retarded, the mentally retarded are tremendously represented on death row. Likewise, the mentally ill are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, despite the fact that many of the underlying mental illnesses experienced by these people are not actually linked to an increase in violent or criminal behavior. Finally, the poor are more likely to become involved in the criminal justice system, not only because they are more likely to live in environments that are perceived as violent and dangerous, but also because they and their companions lack the resources to resolve some disputes outside of the criminal justice system. One simply cannot look at the state of today's criminal justice system and suggest that it does not discriminate.
The system discriminates because, at each major point in the criminal justice process, someone has the ability to exercise discretion. In fact, the discrimination starts before the criminal justice system gets involved, because a complainant generally has to complain of a crime before the criminal justice system becomes involved. Take, for example, the issue of loitering teenagers in a…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice: Challenges and Developments
The criminal justice system in the United States, and indeed anywhere in the world, is a governmental tool to ensure the safety and security of the citizens of the country. Certain areas have however been considered in research to steer away from this goal. The public has for example lost a considerable amount of trust in the system as a result of apparent oppressive practices in the system. Furthermore alcohol has been proved to be a problem in many crimes; yet many of the prisoners with drinking problems remain untreated, and crimes are perpetuated as a result. There are also however significant developments within the system, including IT advances, which could help to create an increase in job opportunities in a variety of departments.
Perceived Oppression in the Criminal Justice System
The United States prison system appears to be the icon of years of accumulated oppressive practices against especially African-Americans. Indeed, according to Parenti, the 900% growth of the Justice Department's budget over the last 20 years seems to have mostly been used in order to build an increasing number of prisons. These are used to house an increasing amount of prisoners (currently around 60% of all prisoners) incarcerated for non-violent drug crimes. Furthermore about one out of every three black men in their twenties are under criminal justice control or are sought under warrant.
A further criminal justice problem has arisen as a result of September 11, 2001. Surveillance practices have been increased to include "suspicious" persons, meaning that anyone of Arab or similar Eastern descent is the victim of more often than not invasive surveillance practices. This is a perpetuation of what Parenti calls an "over-policed, surveillance society." Indeed, Arabs have been added to black people as a profile for likely criminal or terrorist activities.
Despite the popular explanation that the prison boom is economically driven, Parenti suggests that the root of this problem should be sought elsewhere. The economic problems associated with prisons seem to substantiate this view. Prisons are not, according to Parenti, profitable in economic terms. The profit derived from the prison system occurs in terms of what Parenti calls the capital and ideology of white supremacy. This is true even in these enlightened times of equal opportunity and an end to human rights abuses. Parenti identifies two specific…… [Read More]
Some things are fundamental to the history and progressive development of human society. The evolution of technology brings with it new challenges in the management of the security of the state. For this motive that law enforcement systems is set in the society to maintain and promote law and order (Law enforcement, 2002). Law enforcement systems act in organized manner, in the process of promoting adherence to the law of the country and identifying those who violate the laws and norms that govern the society. Law enforcement engages in the patrols and surveillance in dissuading and discovering criminal activities, investigating and apprehending the offenders. Law enforcement agencies and systems work in conjunction with judiciary services and correctional facilities, following the constitution of the land.
Parts of the Constitution of the United States most relevant to the ethical standards of law enforcement professionals
The United States law enforcement agencies -- that is the police and private law enforcers- compose the professionals in the system. These professionals work within the designated constitutional principles of the country in their duty of maintaining order. The constitutional requirements for recruiting and qualifying to become a law enforcement professional govern the professionals. The constitution has parts that regulate the operations and conduct of professionals in their duty (Tierney, 2009). The rules in the constitution relevant to the ethical standards of professionals are as follows: the professional should not exceed their authority in enforcing the law. The police shall not knowingly disobey the law or rules of criminal procedures. The police shall not restrict the freedoms of individuals, whether in arrest or detention, in violation of the laws and the constitution of the United States. The professionals, whether on or off duty, shall not consign any action that is against the law of the United States, unless when permitted by the performance of duty. The professionals should carry their duty with integrity, fairness and…… [Read More]
This may mean an expansion of white-collar task forces designed to investigate such crimes.
Predictions are that terrorist will continue to commit heinous criminal acts against our citizens in the future. If this prediction comes true, what, if any, effects will this have on the corrections system. Will Criminal Justice Administrators need to rethink what "model" (more punitive or restorative model) of justice should be used if more and more terrorist are incarcerated in our prison system?
Why or why not?
If terrorism becomes the focus of the criminal justice and prison system, this means that more and more non-citizens are likely to be incarcerated in the future. The result of this is that the United States must develop a more clearly defined policy to handle suspected terrorists in a legal and ethical fashion, so as not to draw the anger of the international community, or of congress. A new set of specific guidelines must be developed as to definitions of combatants and non-combatants, as to what is cruel and unusual punishment even for non-citizens, and what are accepted interrogation techniques for U.S. officers and police to pursue when dealing with suspected terrorists. The government must provide specific guidance in these areas to soldiers and law enforcement officers.
The model for justice of convicted terrorists has always been punitive, given that terrorists by definition are viewed as individuals who can be rehabilitated and reintegrated into society. Also, terrorists often have ties to foreign organizations or are foreign nationals who perceive themselves as living outside of the law of national community of the U.S. But this does not mean that the entire system must become more punitive. In fact, law enforcement officials have warned that too punitive an attitude can actually encourage terrorist recruitment of Muslims behind bars. "Steps to effectively reintegrate former inmates into the larger society should also be identified, with an eye to diminishing the likelihood that former prisoners will be recruited by radical groups posing as social service providers, or…… [Read More]
Issues of justice and fairness during the trial of offenders could also be found the area of timeliness under the criminal justice systems.
Discussion Two: Issues Arising from Other Issues
At Excelsior College, many areas of specialization have been dwelt on by different students. To be precise, for example, the college covers issues related to homeland security, criminal justices and justice systems and the enforcement of the law. One area that the students indulged in is the treatment of mentally ill offenders during pre-trial, trial and their time in prison. Basically, the area deals with the treatment of criminal offenders and the justice system procedures of trial. Basically, these issues of justice, fair treatment when serving time in prison, and timeliness during trial could also apply in other field of study. In the same way the mentally ill have dissimilar incentives to assist them recover while in custody, other criminals have equal rights in the sense that they have to undergo corrective measures such as indulging in community service and attending spiritually cultivating sessions that will change them for the better. The normal offenders, should therefore, be considered under the policies and regulation controlling corrective facilities just like the mentally ill offenders.
Evidently, it is clear that most of the policies and regulations in law control and order a large scope of lawmakers and offenders. Law enforcement incentives, providing security and development of efficient justice systems all integrate and aim at the common objective of ensuring well established and effective criminal justice systems. Though different incentives and policies may be given to govern a certain fraction of the citizens, some of the policies extend their scope of command to different sections, considering that the law has the common objective of ensuring just and fair trials that regulate the peacefulness of a given society.… [Read More]
Though the assets were seized without any promise or even expectation of individual officers gaining personal financial rewards, the ethical considerations of this problem are fairly obvious. It sets a dangerous precedent for future investigations involving large amounts of cash, expensive cars and homes, and other goods and property that is easily saleable at the completion of an investigation. The wide distribution of the money derived from the seized assets does something to alleviate the ethical problem that this situation clearly presents, but it does not solve the problem.
Journal 6: "RCPD say small percent of offenders produce large percent of crime," Riley County Kansas Channel 49 News
There is strong evidence that criminal offenders, especially those that commit certain types of crimes, have a high rate of recidivism. This article bears out that fact, and includes the rather controversial statement that "If you arrest the right people...the crime rate goes down." Again, the moral repugnance of such a perspective is quickly tempered by the practical results of such a view. The article details the case of a nineteen-year-old male who has been repeatedly charged with burglaries. Obviously, putting him in jail will stop him from committing more burglaries. Though targeting certain people for extra criminal scrutiny must always be done with extreme caution, ethically speaking, the use of past criminal behavior as a means for identifying future criminals is a practical means of protecting the greater population.
Journal 7: "Crime in black communities explored," Louisville Courier-Journal
Among the many issues explored in this article, the relationship between education and rates of criminality among African-Americans are examined. This impacts the effectiveness of ethics in criminal justice in general; it has been argued that no justice can truly occur when injustices -- especially racial ones -- are built into society itself. There is a great deal of truth to this belief, though there is little that law enforcement and criminal justice practitioners can do on a day-to-day basis to change the situation. Remaining wary of allowing bias to taint judgment is, as always, a necessary safeguard. But at the same time, no unfairness built into the system can be used to excuse individual acts of criminality -- each individual criminal was in possession of a free will at the time of their actions, and…… [Read More]
To have an appropriate policy outcome, an investigation is necessary to determine the basis of their relationship. This is necessary since both the attorney and the public will be in a position to justify if he shot his wife unknowingly.
On the third website there is a case concerning a murderous ex-cop who faces cases of murder and hopes to get another chance. In such a case, there has to be evidence on the charges laid against the ex-cop and they are applicable in the case to establish the significant policy outcome. In lack of concrete evidence then it is unnecessary to charge the ex-cop against a series of murder, which is a callous act. The jury has to get proper information and then establish the kind of justice that will prevail on the case.
The three above proposals are similar in a way that they entail an important part before deciding on the kind of justice. The similarity on the three proposals is the fact that there is need to conduct an investigation before charging the accused. The difference is the fact the final policy outcome will differ in accordance to the case. Some cases will have evidences that are not reliable enough to charge the accused.
One area on the criminal justice system that needs reforming is the corrections system that has had an augmented rate of corruption cases. The system apparently faces serious allegations for having their officers entwined in unlawful acts within the system such participating on the drug dealing transactions. The best way to ensure that there is a successful reform within the system is to have gradual transfers at least thrice a year in that it gives the officers very minimal time to relate with the inmates and encourage the illegal dealings within the systems (Neubauer, 2011). In addition to officers gradual shuffling, there is necessity of an improved security system that monitors the inmates as well as the officers to distinguish the ones encouraging corruption on the systems.…… [Read More]
Powell, Michael. "Bragging of Safety While Many Live in Fear." New York Times. 22 April, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/22/nyregion/bragging-of-safety-while-many-live-in-fear.html
In this article, Michael Powell claims that in spite of New York City's stellar record of crime reduction there remain "sad and bloody corners" of the city, especially in the outer boroughs. In some areas, and especially in low-income housing projects, crime has actually increased. Another problem that Powell addresses in this article is the issue of stop and frisk as a police tactic. This tactic is abused, and is clearly racist in its application. As a result, the administration of Mayor De Blasio confronts several civil rights lawsuits. Powell touches upon a central issue in criminal justice: the need to balance patrols and prevention with an overbearing police presence. Some residents appreciate the strong police presence because it may make their housing developments safer. Yet others feel like they are living under constant surveillance, all because they are poor and not white. I do not have any answers, but would say that a balance is most certainly necessary. All citizens have a right to police protection, but the police should engage the residents and ensure that their presence is appreciated. Perhaps there are better ways to empower residents or make the police presence less intense.
Zernike, Kate. "Panel Proposes Changes to New Jersey Bail System." New York Times. 20 March, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/21/nyregion/panel-recommends-significant-changes-to-new-jersey-bail-system.html
In this article, Zernike discusses significant changes to the State of New Jersey bail system. Under current law, the defendant is held or released based on their ability to pay/meet bail. The revised law uses the risk the defendant poses to society as the determining factor. Theoretically, the switch presents less of a bias against the poor and disenfranchised, who are commonly underserved by the…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Trends
The trends of the past, present and future that outline the borders connecting the criminal justice system components and their links adjoining the society is, beyond doubt, an authentic relationship that the law and society have established. Criminal justice has been affected by various trends in the times gone by. This is because trends keep changing with the passage of time. Therefore, it is exceedingly important for the criminal justice system to try even harder if it wants to achieve success and go beyond such trends that give rise to innovative crimes. It is not easy for anyone to find out the connections linking the criminal justice system and trends of criminal activities as they are inconsistent. As a consequence, the criminal justice system is affected by the continuous changes in crime patterns and trends. However, in the contemporary world of today, the criminal justice system is trying its very best to fine-tune itself for protecting and serving the revolutionizing society.
There are a number of trends that have affected the criminal justice system and those trends are still affecting it in the present times. To begin with, the first trend is linked with sex and racial/ethnic barriers. Facts and figures in this regard reveal that the status of females and marginal groups in law enforcement agencies is rather small and stumpy as they face prejudice and biasness at work. Despite the fact that women are assessed as better patrol officers than their male counterparts, they are not given the opportunity to work as one because of their gender. The organizational resistance has slowed down the recruitment of female officers. In other cases, even if women are hired, they are not provided with uniforms or weapons. There has also been a failure in the development of child care programs for women serving as officers. Women also face discrimination, tokenism and discrepancy on a regular basis. Besides this, the…… [Read More]