Criminal Justice Trends
The trends of the past, present and future that outline the borders connecting the criminal justice system components and their links adjoining the society is, beyond doubt, an authentic relationship that the law and society have established. Criminal justice has been affected by various trends in the times gone by. This is because trends keep changing with the passage of time. Therefore, it is exceedingly important for the criminal justice system to try even harder if it wants to achieve success and go beyond such trends that give rise to innovative crimes. It is not easy for anyone to find out the connections linking the criminal justice system and trends of criminal activities as they are inconsistent. As a consequence, the criminal justice system is affected by the continuous changes in crime patterns and trends. However, in the contemporary world of today, the criminal justice system is trying its very best to fine-tune itself for protecting and serving the revolutionizing society.
There are a number of trends that have affected the criminal justice system and those trends are still affecting it in the present times. To begin with, the first trend is linked with sex and racial/ethnic barriers. Facts and figures in this regard reveal that the status of females and marginal groups in law enforcement agencies is rather small and stumpy as they face prejudice and biasness at work. Despite the fact that women are assessed as better patrol officers than their male counterparts, they are not given the opportunity to work as one because of their gender. The organizational resistance has slowed down the recruitment of female officers. In other cases, even if women are hired, they are not provided with uniforms or weapons. There has also been a failure in the development of child care programs for women serving as officers. Women also…… [Read More]
Criminal justice system normally refers to the compilation of the prevailing federal; state accompanied by the local public agencies those pacts with the crime problem. These corresponding agencies procedure suspects, defendants accompanied by the convicted offenders and are normally mutually dependent insofar as the prevailing decisions of the single agency influence other supplementary agencies (Cole & Smith, 2009). The fundamental framework of the underlying system is normally granted through the lawmaking, judicial and the executive twigs of the government. The major significant advancements within the criminal justice system within the past decade has been the widespread execution of the corresponding initiatives designed that pertain to the diverting of the populace with mental sickness accompanied by the addictions away from the prevailing imprisonment and their treatments (David, 2008). The development of the existing jail distraction programs, mental health courts and drug courts has been promoted through the belief that these prevailing programs addresses a pressing policy issue and subsequently save money. The underlying programs claim to have resulted to the production of the significant reduction within the recidivism accompanied by its economical value that pertains to saving lots of money during its process of implementation. The approximation of the cost savings to the underlying justice system particularly the corresponding jails ranges from hundreds of thousands dollars to millions of dollars. Hitherto transversely the country, sheriffs have managed to execute the programs in perpetual in order to realize suitable jail budgets in long-lasting to develop (Cole & Smith, 2009).
A court is normally considered as the law enforcement that is the initial stage of the corresponding criminal justice procedures. The populaces who are normally arrested are prosecuted in order to decide whether to either prosecute or drop the prevailing case accompanied by the judges decides the terms of the bail (David, 2008). In case the prosecution process take place then the prevailing prosecutor ought to make a decision on the charges. The underlying defendant ought to select to either importune guilty or not culpable, juries are normally selected and thus in case the culpable, and the prevailing judge ought to make decision on the appropriate penalty. There exist three levels of courts namely the trial courts of the limited jurisdiction, general jurisdiction…… [Read More]
For example, Cook County, IL, has built a network of support for juvenile female offenders within the local community. The county has developed its own gender-specific assessment and treatment guidelines and has trained youth-facing community workers on assessing juvenile offenders and recommending programming. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 30). Also, the county designed a pilot network of social service agencies in order to provide a community-based continuum of care. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 30). This continuum of care helps to prevent at risk youth from slipping through the cracks.
Cook County's program was so successful that the State of Connecticut adopted a similar network of institutions practicing a uniform assessment method. Whereas Cook County agencies used the assessments to select programming choices for at-risk youth, Connecticut criminal justice institutions used the assessments to issue alternative sanctions tailored to the juvenile offender's particular risks, needs, and strengths. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 30).
3.Analyze trends and patterns of these programs as they contribute to reduced recidivism.
It is telling that states and various local governments, which possess different powers, responsibilities, and capabilities, have all converged on a rehabilitative, diversionary approach to female juvenile programming. Each institution came to the realization that most female juvenile offenders committed criminal acts for somewhat different reasons than male juvenile offenders. For females, criminal behavior was not rooted in pride or greed, but rather, grief. It was grief resulting from a very unhealthy childhood experience marked by sexual or physical abuse. These offenders did not know that they could interact with other people in a manner which did not involve sex or violence. Thus, the gender-specific assessments sought to identify grief-stricken offenders and suggested programming designed to acculturate them to more healthy, platonic, and peaceful interpersonal relations.
4.Relate the trends and patterns to the programs overall validity and effectiveness.
Gender-specific, rehabilitative programming is valid in the sense that it is based on the common risk factors and causes of female delinquency, childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and disadvantage. (Hawkins, et al., 2011, p. 7). The programming attempts to build the delinquent's resistance to these behavioural influences, through exposure to a caring adult as well goal-setting exercises. (Hawkins, p. 6). These practices are meant to shift the female delinquent's perception of her environment from one of hostility to one of cooperation, trust, support, and opportunity.
Office of Juvenile Justice…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Leadership Strategies and Practices
Leadership Strategies and Practice
Examples and Analysis of Roles
The criminal justice leadership strategies are also partly similar to business practices followed in commercial organizations. However, the difference in chain of command, organizational culture and theories applicable for criminology are unique. The criminal justice organizations also develop strategies that are relevant for their organizational culture as well as with respect to the community relations. These organizations also establish a unique lesion with civilians as well as with other government and administrative functions of the state. The work below provides examples and information regarding the functioning of criminal justice organizations, their leadership and practices adopted to formulate strategies. The research also analyzes the roles of criminal justice leadership strategies with respect to the organizational culture, behavioral theory, planning, and community relations.
The department of criminal justice is not only limited to prosecution and policing but is also involves various law enforcement agencies. The role of police, community police, intelligence agencies, prosecution, and other community help units is also quite helpful for societies. The role of leadership strategy in governing criminal justice organizations is also vital. The criminal justice organizations are also governed through laws and regulations. However, they have a room for their own strategy in countering the criminal activities taking place within the society. The leadership and role of strategy is as vital in criminal justice organizations as in normal business entities.
Leadership Strategies and Practice:
There are various organizational elements that are required to achieve higher results in the criminal justice practices. The role of leadership can be determined in relation to giving clear directions and identification of the requirements according to situations. According to Cronkhite (2012) the criminal justice organizations are entities with organizational structure, management, leadership, goals, missions, and strategies…… [Read More]
Criminal justice system is comprised of elaborate pieces of a huge puzzle. The age of "Order," CSI, and various other TV programs has actually all however removed the genuine components of the puzzle that bring about the arrest of the suspect. Prior to being employed, one is enlightened on how this works; he ought to be warned of the jobs that everyone plays and at exactly what phase they are purchased into the scene. Everybody from the cop to the judge comes across the suspect at various phases and there are numerous things that occur to preserve the flow of the justice system.
Review of the Criminal Justice System
Law enforcement agent, Judges, Area Lawyer, and District attorneys all play their own component in the criminal justice system. They all have their own various communications with either the suspicious or criminal defendant. There are various things that have to occur prior to each component fulfilling their possibility of the meeting the suspect or criminal. The exact same options exist for the suspect, generally his first communication is with the police officer, and relying on his participation or (absence of) he will have a meet with the defense attorney, the district attorney and lastly the judge (Israel et al. 2003).
The Job of the Police Officer
"The basic part of the police officer is to safeguard and defend." This appears basic enough. However it gets more complexe when you think about the mechanics that it needs. Normally the police officer is the first individual that the suspect encounters. When there is a report of suspicious activities, police authorities are called to the scene to explore. The policeman has the job of identifying if there has actually been a law broken; discover witnesses recover peace to the location even if this suggests taking the suspect off the road (Israel et al. 2003).
The Duty of the Defense Attorney
The defense attorney is typically the 2nd individual to come communicate with the suspect. If there are fees 'brought against the suspect he becomes a criminal defendant'. The function of the defense attorney is to offer legal advice and presentation for the defendant and to talk on their behalf. They explore to discover methods to show the defendants innocence or challenge exactly what evidence the prosecution has against him. The protection task is to likewise collect proof and…… [Read More]
d.). Armed robbery is an offense carried out while in possession of a drawn weapon like gun despite of whether it was fired or not. Plea negotiation or bargaining is usually conducted in order to lessen trial expense and involves the provision of a lesser sentence by the prosecutor in exchange for admission of guilt. Pre-trial conference involves discussions between the defense, prosecutor, and judge to ascertain the need for the case to go to trial. No Contest Plea is where the defendant accepts punishment without the formal admission of guilt while Not Guilty Plea is the claim of innocence by the defendant and Guilty Plea is admission of guilt by the defendant.
Similar to all criminal cases, Mr. Crook's case goes through various steps in the American Criminal Justice System. The legal authority that is used in presenting the advice to Mr. Crook is based on my knowledge in law and government classes. With regards to law, my classes mainly focus on criminal investigation in which I have continued to excel. Moreover, I have conducted research on contemporary law, issues and cases that are relevant to criminal justice procedure and felony cases.… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Administration
The criminal justice system involves practices and institutions directed by governments in place to ensure that social control is upheld, crime mitigation and deterring or going ahead to sanction those that are in violation of laws through criminal penalties and rehabilitating them.at the same time those who have been accused of any crime are protected against abuse of the powers to investigate or prosecute them. The paper will look at the key issues when it comes to criminal justice administration today.
The criminal justice system today consists of three main parts which are the legislative part, the adjudication part and the correction part. The legislation part has the duty of creating laws which have to be followed by every individual. Incase one does not follow these laws they might find themselves faced with charges against them. The adjudication comprises of courts which are the venues for settling disputes and at the same time administering justice.in the court setting there are various people; prosecutor, judge and the defense attorney. The correction part comprises of parole, prison, or jail. With the knowledge of what the criminal justice comprises of we can now look at criminal justice administration today (American society of criminology, 2012).
The administration of criminal justice is faced by key issues. These include law enforcement which is definitely the most visible when it comes to justice system criminal justice administration. The first contact person anyone involved in crime has with the criminal justice is a police officer. Today there are police patrols done around communities with the aim of crime prevention, investigation of crime incidences and make arrests of crime suspects. The next key issue in criminal justice administration is the court system. Once one is arrested they enter the court system where in court an individual is either determined to be guilty or innocent evidence is brought before the court, and the defendant (suspect) is given the chance to confront the person who accused him or her, they are either released if they are found innocent but if they are found guilty they will be sentenced or given a punishment on the basis of criteria that the judge has set. After sentencing the individual goes to the next key issue in criminal justice administration…… [Read More]
If the issue of pant sagging is not addressed, it will lead to public dissatisfaction, especially from people who have raised concerns. It will also continue the implications on black men as being disrespectful gangsters, or as Cosby says (middle class blacks who are disrespected and despised gangsters, whose egregious behavior is sagging pants). It will also continue the implication that the black represent some unified community which is monolithic so that discrimination to them (blacks) is de-racialized. Other implications are there as seen in the Basketball Association, where they sought to enforce the dress code, stating that hip hop dressing projected an image that tends to alienate middle class members in the audience. The economic implication about sagging pants is that it prevents the youth from getting jobs leading to the high number of unemployed youth especially the blacks.
Some take the ban as a racist move targeting African-Americans, and others think it is a leeway for the police to further harass the young people. The council should think twice before making the new ban and regulations because it is gross to others. Sometimes the law is not the answer to every problem in life, other methods like talking to the children can be incorporated as a way of ending the culture. Anti- sagging campaigns can also be held to outlaw sagging. The Kecoughtan's campaign is a good example because, after the campaign, there was a decrease in sagging. The campaign focused on ban to sagging pants and peer education.
Despite the existing controversy, something should be done to reverse the downward spiral of men especially the blacks. Public policies, which are of benefit to men, especially the black men are needed. Therefore, leadership and different councils should come together to implement workable policies, and create sustained pressure essential for…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice IT
It is becoming very clear how much of an impact the newest technological advances have on the world. For example, consider how quickly the information spread via the social media about Osama bin Laden's death. Technology innovations are also greatly impacting the criminal justice system in the U.S. By providing significant improvements in the way that agencies find, process, share and utilize information. With the present speed of change, many new information technology advances are still on their way for the 18,000 police departments and several thousand prosecutorial court and correction agencies in the U.S. (Pattavina, 2005). In the future, as the digital world continues to advance in complexity, the criminal justice system will continue to improve in overall effectiveness and capabilities in crime measurement, control and response.
Since the 1960s, criminal justice system agencies have been using information technology to gain a better understanding of the issues and challenges they face, improve the management of daily operations, lower operation costs and develop and enhance strategic planning and tactical approaches. Information technology has positively impacted law enforcement even more so over the past several decades (Pattavina, 2005). This is especially the case in the area of crime analysis, as defined by Reuland (1997) as resource deployment, investigation and apprehension of offenders, crime prevention and administrative support. Crime analysis also supports crime prevention departments, investigation officers and community relations/public relations in strategic planning, development and evaluation. For example, although not yet used by the majority of law enforcement units in the U.S., a crime analysis technology called geographic information systems (GIS), along with crime mapping, has proven considerably advantageous.
With GIS software, the user can create any form of geographic display from a point map to 3-D representation of spatial or temporal data of police issues, such as crime problems. For example, GIS helps analysts determine where different types of crime occur and provides insights on relationships between certain geographic variables. In tactical crime analysis, GIS clarifies patterns of crime, such as burglary and car theft. The crime analyst can then display several variables at a time,…… [Read More]
Criminal justice is about the laws which are related to criminal behaviour. Criminal justice includes the area where judiciary is involved for e.g., police and lawyers. Lawyers are directly associated with the crime because they can defend or prosecute the criminals. As a professional field of study criminal justice involves studying the behaviour. The aim of the study is to gain knowledge and awareness of rules, laws and rights of victims and suspect both.
In Criminal Justice ethics, diversity and conflict plays a major role. As a student of Criminal Justice I have learned that ethics is important in making moral judgments which demonstrates clearly that what is right and what is wrong. An ethical framework of justice is required to make fair decisions. When we talk about ethics in criminal justice here, we are suppose to forget about the emotions, personal values and instincts that can create or raise questions over a decision. Ethics in criminal justice study stimulates analyzing and questioning habits which are essential to make fair decisions. It also supports in analyzing the ethical consequences of decisions. In criminal justice ethics tells us how to manage and relate the policies regarding the major concerns of law and justice i.e., rehabilitation and punishment. (SagePub, 2011)
When we talk about diversity in criminal justice we are forced to emphasize over racial disparity. I have experienced that the sentencing section of the criminal justice system is largely influenced with race. Although in a common practice it ranges from traffic signals to death penalty only because of the race. United States has a history full of African-American racial representation, where the discrimination leads to conviction of crimes.
Culture diversity causes racial discrimination which can easily violate the laws and often it is related to sentencing. Subjects and professions like Criminal Justice indulge the cultural diversity and racial discrimination which is quite a shame. Racial disparity must be excluded from the…… [Read More]
Criminal justice administration mainly focuses on crime prevention and punishing any illegal activities. Criminal justice administration is wide and it entails law enforcement and the judicial administration. Some of the jobs that relate to criminal justice administration include; security coordination, juvenile delinquency administration, law enforcement and being a courtroom official. Additional crime is also part of criminal justice administration. This field entails terrorism prevention, immigration policies and social policies. Other duties that criminal justice entails include; police officer, community relations advocate and correctional officer. For an officer working with the criminal justice administration, his work involves law enforcement (Bharti, 2008).
Key issues in Criminal Justice Administration today
The criminal justice administration today faces various issues and problems thus needing serious reforms. In most cases, many nonviolent offenders go to jail because many prosecutors and district attorneys succumb to political pressure hence become tough on crime. The prisons are always populated and there are minimal resources to ensure there are significant improvements in the system. Some of the key issues facing Criminal justice department today include; wrongful convictions, gangs, racial injustices in the administration, excessive criminalization, socio economic considerations, and problems with informants (Miller, 2011).
One of the major issues affecting the Criminal Justice Administration is wrongful convictions of the suspects. Some of the common causes of wrongful convictions include; Misidentification of the eyewitnesses, Improper Forensic Science, poor lawyers, Snitches and informants, False confessions and government misconducts. Eyewitness misidentification is the major factor affecting wrongful convictions.
Gangs are accountable for most of the crimes around the globe. Many legal experts claim that criminal justice administration is not in a position to control the strength and growth of gangs around the globe. Most legal experts also claim that the justice administrations are unable to send criminal gangs in prison or keep them under security.
Criminal victims and the Criminal justice administration
Criminal victims and the justice administration is also a key issue affecting the criminal justice administration today. How the criminal justice administration handles a criminal victim affects the justice system. Currently, the criminal justice administration…… [Read More]
When the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation in 1789, the United States of America formed a government that specifically divided its powers between three separate branches. This was done in order to make certain that no one branch of government could accumulate too much power. These three are called the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of government, and the Constitution defines the powers each branch of government is allowed to exercise. While the Executive and Legislative branches of government deal with the running of the government, the Judicial branch is limited to dealing with legal matters. While it may seem that the Judicial branch is someone less important, it is the judiciary that decides whether the actions taken by the other two branches of government are legitimate.
Alexander Hamilton argued in the Federalist Papers that a separation of powers was necessary in order to prevent one particular group "adverse to the rights of the other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community'- from gaining control over the entire government." (Kaiser, 2003) In order to accomplish this goal, the Constitution had restrictions on serving in more than one branch of government at the same time, making certain a clear division was in place between the branches. It also guaranteed that each branch of government had independent, electoral bases, and was endowed with institutional support mechanisms so that no branch of government became completely dependent on another. It was particularly important to the founding fathers that the judiciary had a constitutional base of independence, and thereby could operate with complete freedom. In order to spread power around, the U.S. Constitution was designed to created a government that split power among three distinct, separate, and independent branches of government.
These are the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches and each has unique…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Leadership
Identify two types of ethics and explain their role in criminal justice organizations. Support your responses with resources.
Ethics are concerned with the issues of right and wrong and provide a framework for moral living. Ethics in the criminal justice system is an integral part of police work. Ethical considerations are paramount to decisions involving discretion and a strong moral foundation suits police work well. Banks (2010) notes that knowledge of ethics provides people an opportunity to analyze assumptions and weigh options. Two types of ethics that have particular importance in criminal justice are normative ethics and ethical absolutism.
Normative ethics is fundamental to proper and prudent decisions made by personnel in the criminal justice system. Banks (2010) writes that normative ethics involve taking into account the range of moral issues in an area and that a person should always act morally, having deduced the proper course of action from reason. This ethical standard is important in the field of criminal justice as it requires actors and agents to use reasoning and logical faculties to arrive at proper codes of conduct.
Ethical absolutism suggests that there is an external moral code applicable to all, notwithstanding personal feelings or judgments; that moral principles apply to everyone, everywhere all the time, without exceptions (Holmes, 2008). Cook (2007) observes that the moral absolutist is often noted in the field of criminal justice as police officers may perceive themselves uniquely qualified to pass judgment on others.
2. List and explain three types of budgets formats. Which type of budget do you feel would be the best used in a Corrections organization. Why?
McLean and Brayley (2009), in reviewing several varying budget formats observe that object classification, or line item budgets, are the most common form of budgeting formats. Among the benefits of the object classification budgeting system is that it…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice System in the United States
In today's world, it seems that crime simply cannot be fully stamped out. Yet, that is the essential goal of the field of criminal justice. In fact, criminal justice is the pursuit of investigating crimes, as well as trying and punishing those criminals who commit them. The very essence of criminal justice is the need to protect society from crime that may otherwise harm those within it. This is what makes criminal justice such a crucial element to today's modern world.
The definition of crime is not as cut and dry as many might think. Essentially, the modern dictionary states its definition "an act or the commission of an act that is forbidden or the omission of a duty that is commanded by a public law and that makes the offender liable to punishment by that law" (Encyclopedia Britannica 2012). Crime is essentially an act of behavior that deviates from the pre-accepted norms of society. It is therefore punishable, which is handled primarily by the criminal justice structure that is put in place through our modern legal system. However the notion of crime is also more complex than that. The same dictionary also gives crime the definition of "a grave offense especially against morality" (Encyclopedia Britannica 2012). Thus, it is clear that the morality of a society can impact how a behavior is associated as a crime, and how severe that crime will then be labeled.
There are a number of components within the contemporary criminal justice system, and each process plays an important role within keeping the legal system a solid foundation for behavior and actions within the society. Essentially, the very first component of criminal justice is the act of investigation. Criminal justice pursues understanding how and why crimes were committed in order to more effectively punish the guilty. The age old tactic of investigation is now using innovative scientific techniques and technology like DNA testing. These investigations use "forensic science, which deals with the application of the physical…… [Read More]
Some things are fundamental to the history and progressive development of human society. The evolution of technology brings with it new challenges in the management of the security of the state. For this motive that law enforcement systems is set in the society to maintain and promote law and order (Law enforcement, 2002). Law enforcement systems act in organized manner, in the process of promoting adherence to the law of the country and identifying those who violate the laws and norms that govern the society. Law enforcement engages in the patrols and surveillance in dissuading and discovering criminal activities, investigating and apprehending the offenders. Law enforcement agencies and systems work in conjunction with judiciary services and correctional facilities, following the constitution of the land.
Parts of the Constitution of the United States most relevant to the ethical standards of law enforcement professionals
The United States law enforcement agencies -- that is the police and private law enforcers- compose the professionals in the system. These professionals work within the designated constitutional principles of the country in their duty of maintaining order. The constitutional requirements for recruiting and qualifying to become a law enforcement professional govern the professionals. The constitution has parts that regulate the operations and conduct of professionals in their duty (Tierney, 2009). The rules in the constitution relevant to the ethical standards of professionals are as follows: the professional should not exceed their authority in enforcing the law. The police shall not knowingly disobey the law or rules of criminal procedures. The police shall not restrict the freedoms of individuals, whether in arrest or detention, in violation of the laws and the constitution of the United States. The professionals, whether on or off duty, shall not consign any action that is against the law of the United States, unless when permitted by the performance of duty. The professionals…… [Read More]
On September 18 at around 2:30 PM, the victim, a famous citizen in the community was assaulted and robbed of his wallet by the defendant on his way home. The victim was not only assaulted but he was also pushed against his car and threatened with a knife. The crime generated huge media attention because of the victim's popularity as calls for speedy arrest and conviction of the criminal gained momentum. As heavy pressure was place on the law enforcement officers to arrest the criminal, the defendant was apprehended several days later while carrying the wallet of the victim and knife and was subsequently identified in a lineup by the victim. During preliminary of the case, the defendant was pronounced indigent and offered with a public defender and even denied bail because of the nature of the crime. While he chose not to take to the stand, the defendant was convicted of several charges associated with the assault and is awaiting sentencing.
Double Jeopardy in these Proceedings:
Based on the Fifth Amendment to the American constitution, double jeopardy is an aspect in the criminal law that forbids the government from prosecuting people more than once for a single crime and from imposing more than one punishment for a single crime ("Double Jeopardy," n.d.). Defendants appearing in state courts are also guaranteed this right because most state constitutions consists of this law. Notably the protection must still be provided to defendants even in states that don't necessarily guarantee this right to defendants. This right could attach itself to these proceedings if the indigent defendant had already been punished for the same offense. In this case, the defendant could be guaranteed this right if he had already been convicted and punished for his involvement in the offense. However, this policy does not attach itself to the proceeding because the defendant has only been declared indigent, which has nothing to do with the offense.
The other important aspect that may have played a critical part in these criminal proceedings is the defendant's failure to take to the stand in his own defense. The jury in this case was unduly influenced by the defendant's decision not to…… [Read More]
Issues of justice and fairness during the trial of offenders could also be found the area of timeliness under the criminal justice systems.
Discussion Two: Issues Arising from Other Issues
At Excelsior College, many areas of specialization have been dwelt on by different students. To be precise, for example, the college covers issues related to homeland security, criminal justices and justice systems and the enforcement of the law. One area that the students indulged in is the treatment of mentally ill offenders during pre-trial, trial and their time in prison. Basically, the area deals with the treatment of criminal offenders and the justice system procedures of trial. Basically, these issues of justice, fair treatment when serving time in prison, and timeliness during trial could also apply in other field of study. In the same way the mentally ill have dissimilar incentives to assist them recover while in custody, other criminals have equal rights in the sense that they have to undergo corrective measures such as indulging in community service and attending spiritually cultivating sessions that will change them for the better. The normal offenders, should therefore, be considered under the policies and regulation controlling corrective facilities just like the mentally ill offenders.
Evidently, it is clear that most of the policies and regulations in law control and order a large scope of lawmakers and offenders. Law enforcement incentives, providing security and development of efficient justice systems all integrate and aim at the common objective of ensuring well established and effective criminal justice systems. Though different incentives and policies may be given to govern a certain fraction of the citizens, some of the policies extend their scope of command to different sections, considering that the law has the common objective of ensuring just and fair trials that regulate the peacefulness of a given society.… [Read More]
Criminal Justice System
Describe criminal justice system a filtering process. What decides cases stay filtered? What type correctional client process produce? How process impact correctional system an individual institution's ability achieve goals?.
Criminal justice system
Criminal justice refers to a close examination of laws regarding criminal behavior and subsequent action that follows once found guilty. It involves the judiciary workforce, police, lawyers, members of the Supreme Court and advocates. The goal is to be always fair to a suspect of any given crime though this is not always achieved hence the reason for flexibility in implementing the laws, the power of the judiciary to interpret laws and capacity to make changes to unfair laws. Knowledge about the laws, privileges and rights of suspects and victims is important in aiming for justice in our law enforcement and court systems Siegel, 2010()
Criminal justice system has the goal of doing justice, preventing crime and controlling crime. In the society, it therefore acts as a filtering process by ensuring we live harmoniously and those who pose any danger are dealt with appropriately for example serving a jail term in a correctional facility and ensuring that we live in a safe and crime free society. The system acts as a filtering process whereby the officials screen out some offense cases while advancing others to the decision making process. It is evident that at any given stage of the system, some defendants are released while others are processed under different conditions that also maybe filtered at various points. Many cases enter the system but only few are convicted or punished. It all starts with policing, then court proceedings and finally enters the correctional stage Cole, 2008()
In deciding which cases stay and which ones are filtered out, the police may decide that evidence provided is not sufficient or that a crime has not been committed thereby letting some cases go free. The prosecutor on the other hand my also decide that for a given crime justice is best served by sending the victim to a correctional facility. Other defendants may also…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Exit Exam
e Criminal Justice Department graduating seniors an exit exam a measure departmental learning outcomes. How tool determine criminal justice major effective? Original responses substantial significant supported additional scholarly reference textbook.
The Criminal Justice Department has been asking graduating seniors to take an exit exam as a measure of departmental learning outcomes. How could that tool be used to determine if the criminal justice major is effective?
According to Lightfoot & Doerner (2007), despite the considerable expenditure of attending a university, little is known about the relative success of criminal justice majors in preparing students for future careers. The dropout rate for social science degrees is 50%, compared with 10% for students in the humanities and the time-to-degree rate of program completion has increased for all students, in all majors (Lightfoot & Doerner 2007:114). Asking students to take an exit exam is problematic, because, by definition, the students who have 'made it' throughout their four years of schooling have attained some level of success. Students who fail to find support within the major as undergraduates will not be counted.
Another obvious problem with using an exit interview as a measure of the success of the program is that it does not take into consideration the successful advancement of the program graduates in the workforce, either immediately after graduation or later on, over the years. The utility of the degree cannot be measured in students' grades alone on any kind of academic assessment. Of course, there are students who may have been successful, regardless of the major they chose. But if students with the major are able to obtain work both within the field and outside of it and sustain that vocational success over time, this is one measure of the effectiveness of the degree, particularly given that the degree is a practical social sciences major, constructed with an intention of preparing students for working in the 'real world' of the justice system, rather than training them in theory.
The content of an exit exam would also be difficult to determine, given that…… [Read More]
Criminal justice system can be described as a collection of state, federal and local agencies which are concerned about problems of crimes. Such agencies assist to process convicted offenders, defendants and suspects. They are also interdependent as the decision from one agency is capable of affecting the other agencies. Their primary framework of their system has been provided by the judicial, legislative and executive branches of government.
The Legislature: Both federal and state always define crimes, fix sentence, as well as providing funding for criminal justice agencies. The judiciary: They are the trial courts which make judgments on and pronounce a person's guilt that has been charged with crimes, whereas the appellate courts interpret the law as per the principles of the constitution. Federal appallate and state courts can review legislative decision and give decision whether they are categorized under federal law, state law as well as ultimately, the United States Constitution. Courts are given power by the judicial review to evaluate legislative acts based on whether they obey the rules of the Constitution. In any case the law conflict with the Constitution, then it can be strike down by an appallate court, John Randolph Fuller. 2005.
The executive branch gives power to the mayors, governors and president. Their powers on criminal justice matters make them to be able to appoint judges and heads of agencies, for example, directors of department of corrections and police chiefs. Moreover, officials who are elected are capable of leading efforts for the improvement of justice through putting forth legislative agendas as well as mobilizing public opinion.
Justice system has its major components such as police, courts and corrections that deter or prevent criminal activities by apprehending the persons involved in criminal activities, trying them and after that punishing them. Department of police are public agencies that has the functions of maintaining order, enforcing criminal law as well as providing services. The police officer has its operation within the community for the purpose of preventing and controlling crimes. They work in cooperation with prosecutors in investigation of criminal, collecting evidences which are essential in obtaining convictions in the court. The courts are tribunal in which people who are accused of violating criminal law, judges or juries determine their criminal responsibility. The court's function is to seek justice and discover…… [Read More]