Let's just talk here at the beginning about doing things differently. How about this -- are you right-handed?
Gina: No, I'm left-handed, why?
Therapist: What if I asked you to start brushing your teeth with your right hand. Tonight, after your dinner, use your right hand.
Gina: Okay but that will seem weird and I might not be very good.
Therapist: Once you do it for a while, how would that seem to you? For example, your next appointment is in a week, that will give you 7 days to practice. How would that work for you?
Gina: I believe it would begin to seem fairly routine if I did it long enough.
Therapist: And seeing how this change could be possible could lead to other changes in your life. Are you ready here today to open the door to changes?
Gina: And what is your part in this? How do you work with me, a heavy drinker who admits to her problem but can't give up my drinks?
Therapist: Remember Gina, there are two experts in this room. I am trained and I have expertise in terms of helping people with their problems. And you are an expert on your life and you have expertise on exactly why you drink too much and why you came to me for help in cutting back. Right?
Therapist: Think of us in this room as collaborators on an important project. I'm an architect and I want to build a beautiful house by a river, but I don't know anything about geology and I don't know how to properly site buildings. You are the surveyor, and you can help make the house safe from floods and from poor soil by helping us situate that house in exactly the right place.
Improvement in Skills and Coping Strategies
Clearly in the interview with Gina one could detect that she was depressed, as the session wore on she rationalized away…… [Read More]
However, counselors must be careful not to take advantage of a suffering individual" in their moment of need (Monroe, 2007).
In fact, recent developments in the world of counseling seem to suggest a merging of secular science (psychology, etc.), postmodern world-views, humanism, and Biblical therapy. While there are always definitive characteristics that set Biblical therapy apart (reliance on a higher power, goals towards spirituality, etc.) one of the most important differences is that "therapists must relate to their clients from a position of equality (Blanton, 2005, 97). The uniqueness of the individual, again, cannot be overemphasized because "the person to whom I talk is created in the image of God, which means that he or she is fascinating, worthy of respect, and just plain likable" (Johnson, 2007).
Crisis Intervention Techniques -- a Seven Layered Approach -- Since each crisis situation is quite different, the professional still needs a toolbox from which to glean appropriate tools that may be utilized in different situations. By determining the level and category of the person in crisis, this toolbox will act as a template for the robustness of intervention, whether outside assistance is required, what the short- and long-term affects might be, and finally to address a plan of action. These layers do not assume any one way of intervention, but are simply roadmaps to begin a therapeutic approach.
Level 1 -- Somatic Distress- Usually defined as manifesting in a biomedical disease or minor psychiatric symptom; often expressed by anxiety and depressive symptoms. Usually, these symptoms come about based on an external fear, but are often seen as a result of a specific worrisome diagnosis or development in one illness. Unresolved grief or abandonment issues can also contribute to this type of distress. For the most part, somatic distress is usually handled through addressing the physical symptoms, and…… [Read More]
A Biblical Perspective of Crisis Intervention
Crisis strikes every single person at one time or another during their lifetimes. It is usually beyond the individual to control the circumstances that lead to a specific event, or at least it seems that way. Modern day psychology has many answers which more often than not take the onus of the blame for any situation away from the recipient of the crisis. Though there may be no human fault for some crisis (e.g. natural disasters), there remain many potential crisis that could have been avoided. Secular psychology has little help for such situations other than helping people not feel guilty, give themselves positive reinforcement and attempt to cope with the situation after it has occurred. However, there is a hope that can reduce the possibility of crises before they happen.
The Bible has always been a help in times of trouble, but it also gives instruction that can lessen the possibility of that trouble ever occurring in the first place. Living in a way that is concurrent with the wishes and will of God helps balance one's life to the point where crises are minimized even if they cannot be avoided. Crisis intervention starts before the crisis ever begins, and the Bible offers practical solutions to anything that can occur. Before understanding exactly how the Bible can help, it is necessary to understand crisis and crisis intervention, define types of crisis, and look at ways that will prove unsuccessful in the long run.
It is difficult to determine an exact definition of crisis because what can be considered a crisis is different for every individual. However, many have made attempts to give a broad explanation of the topic which can be a good starting point for discussion. Martin (2011) states;
"It is well-known in the world of psychology that a person experiencing a crisis tends to become unbalanced. This is caused by a distortion…… [Read More]
Failing that, clients will be offered temporary shelter, housing assistance, and pro bono legal services where appropriate. Referrals may be made to homelessness service agencies and charities, providers of pro bono legal services, and home improvement charities.
Regarding the mentally ill and suicidal clients, select police officers will be trained and organized into crisis intervention teams, based on the Memphis model, to ensure that the mentally ill are recognized and offered services more appropriate to the reality of their illnesses. Similarly, local emergency room staff will be trained to the same ends. Where appropriate, the town will provide transportation to the nearby mental health facility as it will be worth the cost to ensure that the client is getting the assistance needed (James & Gilliland, 2008).
To combat street crime, we will facilitate a proactive partnership between community organizers, activists, groups, and the police department to foster positive community-police relationships and increased community-police communication and empower citizen anti-crime action through formal training and informal social interactions between citizens and police.
Programs for children and youth will be offered to prevent youth involvement in street crime and to help positively engage young people affected by crises in the lives of the adults around them (Greenstone & Leviton, 2011).
Referrals to substance and alcohol abuse services, psychological counseling, and reemployment services will be offered to all who demonstrate the need for such intervention. Such services may be offered to address a client's immediate crisis or the secondary issues surrounding or predating the immediate crisis.
The Town of Danville will provide temporary shelter space and safe, reliable transportation for clients to issue-appropriate facilities in the region. Because Danville is small and has limited resources, transporting clients to appointments is the most cost-effective way the town can ensure that intervention processes get started and continue through their prescribed course. Great effort will be exerted to make sure transportation services are scheduled with efficiency as the priority.
Working with area colleges and universities will ensure proper evaluation of the program and will make the program more attractive to foundations and federal funding programs that provide grants for this kind of public service (James & Gilliland, 2008).
Staffing, Training, and Burnout Prevention
Staff training will include cultural and gender sensitivity dimensions. Frequent training and refreshers will…… [Read More]
Triggers are abandonment, child rearing, responsibilities of motherhood, fear of abandonment, lonlieness.
Seems to pick inappropriate partners; in long-term, one must ask, are there issues Mary engenders over time with romantic relationships?
Substantive emotional stability; lack of intimacy; feelings of rejection.
Clearly -- initial steps are to work through the feelings of suicide and find a way to get Mary on a treatment program with a professional.
Mary needs to either seek immediate help from a psychiatrist; perhaps who can prescribe either anti-anxiety medication or screen for anti-depression. Mary may be in enough of a crisis that emergency psychiatric treatment may be needed; checking herself in to a local hospital or at the very least finding a medical assessment as quickly as possible.
Crisis intervention -- critical that Mary get help; initial issues to cover are: self-esteem, that suicide is not a solution, find ties to the world that Mary can actualize; distract Mary from the negative by asking about the positive; emphasize the future can hold a great deal of motherhood, etc.
There are a number of variables -- first, trust and empathy must be established; Mary is suffering but needs to know that there are steps that can be taken to help the pain end. Something in the brain chemistry MUST change for Mary to feel better. Patience, perserverence are necessary -- compassionate intervention (see below).
Mary perceives that she has little choice, and that she is on the brink -- her money situation is dire, her relationships are all but naught, and her physical health is deteriorating along with her mental health.
Mary seems to have lost the spark, the will, to actualize. Lack of eating, lack of relationships, lack of external stimuli are forcing her inward.
Options for Mary
Important not to lecture Mary, but through appropriate questioning probe areas of interest to her and allow her to see that there are options for care, regular treatment, and people who want…… [Read More]
, 2001 cited in van den Brink, van Ree, 2003). Detoxification and relapse prevention are important in planning the intervention and are both gradual processes. In the detoxification phase the patient has to reduce and finally stop the consumption of cocaine and become abstinent, and the relapse prevention phase is targeted at preserving abstinence.
Counseling is recommended all throughout the process. Behavioral techniques are very important as well as the therapist' attitude. The therapist should be flexible, empathic, directive, but collaborative, and should provide social reinforcement frequently for all appropriate efforts and changes exhibited by patient.
The most effective behavioral techniques for cocaine addictions have been suggested the following: behavioral contracting, effective goal-setting, modeling/role playing, shaping successive approximations, self-monitoring, therapist prompting/monitoring, the Premack principle, skills training (e.g., social skills, problem solving, task analysis, relaxation, time management) (cited in Therapy Manuals for Drug Abuse: Manual 2). Key interventions in cocaine addictions are: understanding, describing and coping with craving, establishing goals and motivation to change, refusal skills / assertiveness, decision making skills, case management, HIV risk reduction etc.
In this specific case, it is important to show the patient how consumption of cocaine and his thoughts about cocaine influence his behaviors and emotions (if the intervention is made from a cognitive behavioral point-of-view). Moreover, emphasis will be placed on the cocaine consumption as a dysfunctional behavior, which has been modeled by his father's alcoholism. The patient may be taught techniques of distraction or self-talk to cope with craving. Role-play may be used to develop refusal and assertiveness skills. Being a dependant person, these skills will help him to also gain a feeling of independence. The patient should be provided with a list of support phone numbers to call in times of need or crisis. It would be very good to identify a person that may support his efforts, but this is a difficult task with this patient who is rather isolated. Therefore, community support (Cocaine anonymous) or group activities may prove beneficial for him. In order to promote recovery it is very important to suggest the advantages of changing the negative behavior, which will reinforce a more adaptive…… [Read More]
Crisis Intervention in Schools
In the United States setting up of secured educational institutions is presently considered to be a matter of great concern. The issue of security has become so crucial that it has been strived to be achieved even at the cost of gaining knowledge. The knowledge is attainable only when the educational institutions are considered as secured. Varied tragedies are anticipated everyday in the educational institutions that influence the students adversely. The interference against such tragedies is considered as the first treatment of the psychological development of children. Natural calamities, hostility, bereavement, abuse of armaments, mishaps, threats for committing suicides are considered to be disasters that interfere in schooling process. Attending school by a student or teacher having grief over the sad demise of one's own relation or even of one's pet is common in the school working days. It is found to be great trouble to cope with the daily schedule under such traumatic conditions. Such instances necessitate immediate treatment.1
Etymologically the meaning of crisis is traced to two Chinese words-'wei' referring to a disastrous condition and another 'ji' meaning chance of alteration. These two words in conjunction take the word 'crisis' to indicate a disastrous condition that is capable of being changed. 2 According to Caplan 'crisis' is used to describe the danger to the stable state of mind. At the occurrence of crisis, a disequilibrium state arises giving rise to confusion and inefficiency this state of affairs lasting for four to six weeks. 3 Theories on crisis has been propounded by analyzing the crisis in grief and have been inherited from the branch of psychoanalytic theory and ego psychology laying emphasis on the capability of the man to grow with learning. Handling of crisis involves three elements. They are observation of crisis as the result of an uncontrollable circumstance, identification of the involved…… [Read More]
What about Bob?:
A psychological overview
"I have...problems" the patient Bob Wylie whines, in his first session with his psychiatrist in the film What about Bob? The film details the near-traumatizing experience of the psychiatrist in treating Bob over the course of the film. Bob is a white, middle-class, middle-aged divorced man who has multiple phobias and is also highly manipulative in terms of how he interacts with the psychiatrist's family. Bob's lack of social connections in terms of friends and family become particularly manifest in the film as he strives to be 'adopted' by his therapist, whom he follows (stalks) when the therapist is on vacation. Bob is afraid of most social interactions (yet is pathetically needy), is germ-o-phobic (he is afraid to touch anything directly) and is a hypochondriac (he fears everything from having a heart attack to having his organs explode unexpectedly).
The crisis Bob experiences during the film is immediately touched off by his divorce, which he seems unable to explain in a coherent fashion (he blames it on his difference of opinion with his wife on the subject of Neil Diamond). However, clearly his crisis has long-standing, deeper roots that a single relationship. In a more conventional therapeutic setting (in other words, when being seen by a more competent therapist than his on-screen psychologist) Bob would be diagnosed as having a personality disorder, rather than a mood disorder such as depression.
According to the DSM, a personality disorder is an appropriate diagnosis when a patient exhibits "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. This pattern is manifested in two (or more) of the following areas," namely of cognition or "ways of perceiving and interpreting self, other people, and events;" affectivity, "the range, intensity, lability, and appropriateness of emotional response;" "interpersonal functioning;" and "impulse control" (Personality disorder, 2011, Behave Net). Bob clearly displays deficits in all of these areas, as…… [Read More]
Crisis situations are usually sudden, unexpected, life-threatening time-restricted incidents that may overpower a person's ability to react adaptively. During these critical incidents, the extreme events may contribute to individual crises, traumatic stress, and even Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Generally, a crisis can be described as an incident that occurs when people are confronted with issues or problems that cannot be solved. The irresolvable incidents contribute to an increase in anxiety, tension, inability to operate for extended periods, and a successive state of emotional unrest. In the past few years, there have been various major events that have impacted the development and growth of crisis intervention. Some of these major events have occurred in the past 30 years and contributed to the evolution of crisis intervention.
Definition of a Crisis:
As previously mentioned, a crisis can be described as an incident that occurs when people are confronted with problems or situations that cannot be solved. These problems or situation are usually accompanied by emotional unrest, anxiety, tension, and seeming inability to function effectively (Dass-Brailsford, 2007, p.94). In other cases, a crisis is defined as an incident or event considered as unbearably difficult that is beyond a person's available resources and coping techniques. This period is characterized by a period of psychological disequilibrium, which cannot be resolved using common coping mechanisms.
Generally, crisis events have various characteristics including perception of the event precipitating the incident as threatening, seeming difficulty to change and lessen the effect of stressful conditions, and increased tension, fear and confusion. The other characteristics are high level of biased discomfort and rapid shift to an active crisis state from a state of discomfort. Some of the most common examples of crises include death or loss of a loved one, unemployment, natural disasters, financial challenges, physical illness, an accident, unexpected…… [Read More]
Outline the process and procedures used once a call comes in and include information on preparation, assessment, and follow through (e.g. flow chart):
James, R.K. (2008) Crisis Intervention Strategies. Belmont, CA: Cenage/Thompson.
Roberts, a.R. (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment, Treatment, and Research. New York: Oxford University Press.
Turner, F. (2011). Social Work Treatment: Interlocking Theoretical Approaches. New York:
Therapeutic Crisis Intervention Components (Tactical training programs, assessment programs, workshops, referral organizations, etc.)
Institutional Components (Training and technical assistance to other organizations in terms of prevention, identification, and legal procedures)
Training -- Who provides training, what organizations are trained, interface with community, describe.
Technical Assistance -- Who reviews, interface with law enforcement or other agencies, mechanisms and plans.
Training Component -- Regular Training, what method, qualifications of trainer, implementation planning, different training sites and/or methods?
Community outreach, prevention, follow-up, interface with law, medical, mental health, governmental providers, etc.
Within this organization, how do the two sides interface? Is there overlap, if so, how, why; what efficiencies or deficiencies are present?
Examine Training Manuals in Detail: Note bibliography (current and theoretical); note standards, note overall focus, note robustness; not follow-up; how are volunteers assessed; not phone protocol for crisis hotlines; how are these monitored, how often, follow up suggestions and training?
Preparations, training, procedures for call?
Type of crisis, severity of issue? Who is involved, when and why?
Follow up? Intervention? Retraining? Procedures?… [Read More]
Use sound reasoning to explain to Bradley how the situation will get better if he allows the hostages to go free. Perhaps the negotiator can call in a favor on Bradley's behalf if Bradley shows a sign of good faith and allows the hostages to go free.
Providing Bradley alcohol would be against protocol, but the food and the promise of aiding Bradley is getting the help he needs rather than going to jail may be of help. Bradley is looking for help right now and not to get drunk. He also may be looking to make a demand that the negotiator will say no to in order reiterate the fact that Bradley does not trust the police.
If the alcohol is a necessity to Bradley, the negotiator may try to pull some strings and allow it. Against protocol or not, if lives are in danger, providing the alcohol to Bradley may save the lives of some individuals. On the other hand, if Bradley continues to get drunk, he may make a mistake he wouldn't normally make and someone may get hurt.
Issuing a tactical assault on the classroom can end badly, especially since Susan is pregnant. Bradley may very well lose control over his anger and distrust of the police and could intentionally hurt Susan and his unborn child, which could result in two fatalities. At this point Bradley is beginning to understand his situation and is looking for a way out. He knows he's made a mistake and wants the situation to be over with, but he is also desperate and could very well hurt someone out of desperation or the hope that he can get away. The most obvious choice is the professor or Susan, the two people he harbors the most anger towards.
If the tactical team cannot be avoided, the only thing the negotiator can do is to explain the situation to Bradley. Bradley needs to know…… [Read More]
Crisis negotiation is a procedure used by law enforcement to communicate with individuals who are threatening violence. They include violence in the workplace, stalkers, barricaded subjects, individuals threatening suicide, and hostage takers. In the past several decades, the concept of crisis negotiations has been described as the most important development in police psychology and law enforcement. Actually, various law enforcement agencies have been using crisis negotiations techniques in response to kidnappings, critical incidents, hostage or barricade conditions, and personal crises. Based on recent trends, the use of crisis negotiations by law enforcement agencies have continued to grow since its inception in 1973. The main purpose of crisis negotiation is to develop rapport through establishing communication to gather intelligence regarding individuals' threat of violence.
Types of Situations that Require a Crisis Negotiator:
There are various types of situations that may require the use of crisis intervention procedures through a crisis negotiator. Some of these situations include:
Generally, hostage situations are conditions that involve taking an individual captive for tangible reasons that are usually expressed in form of demands. Therefore, the captive is used as influence to acquire the suspect's substantive goals (Vecchi, Van Hasselt & Romano, 2005). A crisis negotiator may be required in such situations because hostage-takers and their victims experience substantial emotionality.
This is the second type of situation that may require a crisis negotiator and involves taking a person captive for intangible purposes or expressive reasons. Unlike hostage situations, the non-hostage situations the person may not need police or other authorities since he/she is held by a hostage taker who is in a highly emotional state. An example of such situations is when a person holds a spouse captive because of an extramarital affair.
This is a form of hostage crisis situation…… [Read More]
parents would be what method of attempted suicide was involved and whether their daughter made any statements beforehand referencing it either directly or impliedly. That is because: (1) the difference between genuine suicide attempts and those that are primarily symbolic cries for attention is often manifested in the methods involved (Levine, 2008); and (2) better awareness of the daughter's communication content would obviously help the parents become aware and alert to any future suicide attempts foretold by her statements.
In treating this client, I would first communicate that any information she divulges to me is confidential and that she can tell me anything without worrying that I will disclose it to her parents. I would ask her to tell me how much she really wanted to end her life permanently at the time of her suicide attempts and how much she may have just wanted to escape from whatever she might have been feeling at that moment. I would reassure her that her primary obligation in life is only to herself and not to live up to anybody else's expectations. I might ask her to imagine, in a hypothetically perfect world, what elements of her life she might wish to change, or that she would wish were different to change her desire to live and I would ask her whether she always fights the urge to commit suicide or if the urge comes over her intensely at specific times.
Naturally, I would feel horrible if any client of mine committed suicide and I would have to fight the urge to blame myself of to second-guess my approach to treating that client. I would handle those feelings by reminding myself that as long as I followed ethical and professional protocols, I…… [Read More]
The UN has been denied a proper role in the conflict and Annan admits it as being limiting and not very effective.
Middle East, MDGs and the future of our planet
Speaking of his diplomatic initiatives to redefine security, as security from hunger, disease and poverty; towards accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Annan paints an interesting picture of his struggles with African leaders like Mugabe, who refused to acknowledge the use of condoms in the strategy to prevent the spread of AIDS. He captures this shifting in priorities quite well, when he says:" I spent most of my tenure as secretary-general in an international environment obsessed with the potential peril of weapons of mass destruction. But in HIV / AIDS, which never received anything like the same level of attention, we had a true WMD- and one that was actively unleashing itself in the world." His lament about countries prioritizing violence over peace is clear when he says:" Member states willed the ends but rarely the means. The world, as ever, was happy to invest in the instruments of violence, but not the resources for peace."
Despite the violence, chaos and destruction that have characterized the Arab Spring, Annan remains optimistic and believes that the demands for better governance that are being made are legitimate and reflect the aspirations of the younger generation.
Readers and the general masses usually know about the conflicts as what the media tells them. This gives a one on one description about what the leaders have to go to and how being a general of the UN really was. The readers should know the details of the conflicts from the primary source. Let alone the events of his time in the UN, Annan present more about the ongoing conflict in Syria. This adds onto the knowledge of the masses because many are confused about what exactly is happening in Syria. There have been books about political happenings and events, but someone so direct and influential writing would definitely be a must read.…… [Read More]
Crisis Counseling and Therapy
The precipitating events that are brought forward in the movie "Girl Interrupted" are the attempted suicide of a young girl on nineteen years. It concerned her parents that she failed to go forward and receive her high school diploma in a prestigious northeastern community. They also got to find out that their daughter was involved with an affair with one of their friend's husband. This involved the granting of sexual favors. She is depressed and also lacks a direction in life even after finishing her high school education in fact she does not want to go to college but instead wants to become a writer. She makes an attempt to get rid of her delusions and does this through the taking of vodka in combination with aspirin even though she denies and fails to consider her actions as being a suicide attempt rather she saw it as trying to make what she was going through stop. Her parents rush her to a mental institution after they find her in the situation that she was in. She is not sure whether she is insane or not and that is why she accepts to be admitted to a mental institution which was supposed to only be rest for few weeks but she ended up extending her stay for up to eighteen months.
The girl in the movie is faced with a serious crisis, first in her development. She does not seem to have any direction in life at her young age. At that age most of her age mates have dreams and ambitions that they want to accomplish after high school. This includes going through college education to acquire some knowledge in a career that would land them a good job. She is also in a situational crisis whereby in the mental institution that she is admitted she meets other women who are darker and more diseased in their personalities as compared to her. She goes ahead to befriend these girls among them is a pathological liar, a victim of sexual abuse, burn victim and a psychopath. She stays in an environment that is bizarre in the institution and her troubled psyche. The mental institution is disconcerting…… [Read More]
ABC Model of Crisis Intervention
The ABC model of crisis intervention comprises of three stages namely A) achieving contact, B) identifying the crisis, C) coping. The model is used to construct brief mental health interviews for person's that have been affected by some psychological stressor. This a problem-focused approach that is most effective if used within 4 to 6 weeks of the stressor occurring. A counselor will use the ABC model in order to restore the client to a normal level of functioning or normal state. Achieving contact is vital as the counselor has to get the client to open up about what happened. To get the client to speak about the stressor, the counselor will employ basic attending skills, empathetic responses, active listening, respectful demeanor, and calming reassurance. Recognizing the client's non-verbal responses is also vital for the counselor. Identifying the problem will only be possible if the client and counselor have built a good rapport. The counselor will identify the nature of the crisis by establishing the client's emotional distress, precipitating events, and cognitions. Coping is the last step the model. This step deals with how the client is coping with the past, present, and future in their behavior.
In order for a counselor, to be successful in crisis counseling they will need to have the following skills excellent listening skills, communication skills, patience, empathetic, non-judgmental, respectful, and trustworthy. These skills will enable the counselor to reach out to a client and be able to build a good rapport. Been an active listener and having good communication skills will assist the counselor to listen, understand, and communicate to the client showing empathy to their crisis. This way the client will feel respected, and they will likely open up and be comfortable with the counselor. The client will need to feel they can trust the counselor with their crisis. Demonstrating that one can be trusted and having the required skills for trustworthiness is crucial for the counselor. Trust is hard earned, and the counselor will need to earn the client's trust. Problem-solving skills will assist the counselor to know how to handle and provide solutions to the client. The client will be interested in…… [Read More]
Case Study 2 is about Mr. Jones, the "fragile adult." Recently, a neighbor has brought attention to a case involving Mr. Jones and has asked for a crisis worker to help. Mr. Jones is an elder who lives alone, but whose son has been seen occasionally visiting. The neighbor and Mr. Jones go have coffee together regularly, but Mr. Jones has not wanted to meet in two months and no longer invites the neighbor inside the house. The neighbor claims that there are new bruises on Mr. Jones's face. The crisis worker should employ the ABC model in this case.
The ABC method of crisis intervention is a three-stage process for a brief and focused procedure. Although there are three distinct steps, the text points out that it is sometimes necessary to use the interview components of each step at any time in order to achieve goals (p. 2). Thus, it is important to remember that the ABC model is not linear in nature, but more like a "tapestry" style intervention (p. 1). The first element of the ABC model is establishing rapport and initiating the therapeutic relationship. This entails maintaining contact with the client via active listening. Next, the problem is identified and focused so that appropriate interventions can be developed. Finally, coping mechanisms are introduced to help the client address the core elements of the crisis that were elucidated. The therapist helps the client to develop a long-term solution to the crisis once the therapeutic relationship has been terminated.
Establishing rapport is the first step in the ABC model. The crisis worker will attempt to contact Mr. Jones, which is an important and necessary step. Mr. Jones has withdrawn from his social life lately, which is why the neighbor has approached the social workers. Because of this, it could be difficult to establish rapport with Mr. Jones. Building rapport means engendering trust. The client, Mr. Jones,…… [Read More]
The way in which these quotes were related to previous research also asserted trustworthiness. The reliability and validity of ethnographic research is often questioned in comparison to experimental research, although there are several strategies recognized to enhance credibility (LeCompte and Goetz, 1982); there is little evidence of use of such strategies in the study.
The findings of the study enabled the researchers' to put forward several indications towards future practice in health care in rural communities, although it was recognized that in order for a comprehensive set of nursing care management regulations and interventions to be identified, further research within the specific types of community used are required.
Summary of critique and conclusions
Overall, the piece of research effectively identified several gaps in the current research regarding the effect of health care transitions in rural communities. The study identified three relevant research questions, although presented little information regarding the current knowledge on those three issues. The study chose an ethnographical study approach for the research, which was particularly relevant given the context in which the research would be based, that of ethnic and community effects, and also the need of in-depth answers to answer the research questions. There was excellent information given relating to the communities in which the study was based, although it is unclear as to how participants were selected, and whether there could have been a more appropriate sample used. Several methods of data collection were used, and although the predominant method of interview technique was clearly described, there was little information on the way in which the other techniques were used in the study.
Overall there was little raw data presented in the findings, which does not allow for a thorough assessment of the findings. However the data which was presented was related to previous findings in such a way which illustrated reliability of the study, and allowed for the three research questions to be answered and the implications to health care in the rural community to be highlighted.… [Read More]
Ebert (1986) believes "there is absolutely no justification for preventing mental health professionals from participating in virtually all facets of hostage negotiation," (p. 580). As Hatcher, Mohandie, Turner & Gelles (1998) point out, most mental health professionals that do participate in any aspect of hostage negotiation do so "by invitation only in police-established hostage negotiation schools," (p. 461). With this training, the mental health professional is thus theoretically prepared to engage the perpetrator directly. However, the mental health professional is only prepared when the training provided is thorough and consistent, and in accordance with the parameters and goals of each crisis situation.
The pros of employing a psychologist as a primary negotiator are clear. Most significantly, the psychologist has expertise in human behavior and cognition and can apply that knowledge to making quick decisions. The psychologist can also provide post-traumatic stress intervention services to the hostage victims and members of the police force who were likewise affected. Retaining a core psychologist or group psychologist as a primary negotiator can also alleviate the burden placed on officers in crisis situations, allowing police forces to perform the duties necessary within their domain of expertise. Expertise in the crisis situation itself as a moot point, as both psychologists and police officers require specialized training to serve as primary negotiators (Ebert, 1986). Furthermore, a psychologist helps to create a more diverse team on the police force and could lead to a more collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to crisis management. Ebert (1986) adds that having a psychologist serve…… [Read More]
If asset bubbles can be leading indicators of recession, that begs the question what assets are the most important? Several studies have shown that housing prices are critical. They were important in Japan and in 2008 in the United States. Babecky (2012) showed that housing prices consistently predict asset bubbles, minus the occasional false positive. Intuitively this makes sense since any sort of bubble will result in more investment in real estate.
There is a further question that is raised in light of the contagion of the 2008-2009 crisis. Prior to that, as Evanoff (2013) notes, several asset bubbles were effectively contained by monetary policy and did little damage. Most bubbles that cause damage do so in the developing world -- Southeast Asia and Russia in the late 1990s for example -- but in the developed world the damage is usually contained. Frankel and Saravelos (2011) examined the indicators that might shed light on which countries are more likely to experience an economic crisis. Their work identified other variables, including level of reserves and real exchange rate appreciation as being statistically-significant valid leading indicators.
The Babecky (2012) study found that the nominal effective exchange rate, and global inflation are also indicators of bubbles that can be used to predict recession, along with house prices. There are lags associated with these figures, but they can still be used as leading indicators, if they rise quickly during what appears to be an asset bubble. Appreciation remains the key term here -- when asset values are appreciating too quickly there is risk of recession. The intensity of such a recession may still be dependent on the underlying causes of the bubble and the possible contagions that exist within the economies. Nevertheless, the findings show that where an asset bubble appears, inflation rates are likely to increase and the currency is likely to increase in value -- the latter more quickly than the former. At least in developed countries over the past forty years, these leading indicators do presage a recession.
Inverted Yield Curve
Returning to the issue…… [Read More]