Culture of Interest: Japan
Theoretical foundations of cultural and cross-cultural analysis: Japan and America
Japan: Mildly collectivist culture
American: An individualistic culture
Similarities and differences in Japanese and U.S. culture
Potential biases of researcher
Appendix I- Hofstede four Dimensional Theory
Edward Tylor (1832-1917) defines culture as a collection of customs, laws, morals, knowledge, and symbols displayed by a society and its constituting members. Culture is form of collective expression by groups of people. Since the dawn of industrial revolution and later, due to an increased integration of cultures across nations, cross-cultural analysis has assumed much import in scholastic discourse within psychology, anthropology, and psychology. Present study is an endeavor to make a cross-cultural assessment of American and Japanese culture. More differences than similarities have been found in both the cultures. Where Japanese culture fosters Aimai, meaning ambiguity and vagueness, Americans are intolerant to this characteristic. Based on Hofstede's four dimensional theory of cross-cultural analysis, findings regarding individualism-collectivism index, power distance index, uncertainty tolerance, and masculinity-femininity index of American and Japanese people have been presented. Secondary research of pertinent literature and rigorous comparative analysis reveals that while both cultures are monocentric and value masculinity, they are diametrically opposed in uncertainty avoidance and individualism-collectivism index. The paper is divided in seven sections each highlighting different but interconnected theme regarding cross-cultural analysis of American and Japanese cultures.
As a member of society, human beings interact with each other and this interaction creates a culture particular to that society. Anthropologists have researched the term 'culture' in a holistic manner. Edward Tylor, the famous British anthropologist described culture as a collection of knowledge, morals, laws, convents, customs, symbols, and habits that are adopted and displayed by member of a society (Ferraro & Andreatta, 2011). Other scholarly definitions of culture are similar in meaning but with different words. Each constituting element of culture is related to the other and they are not isolated…… [Read More]
Culture and the Work of Lahiri
Focusing questions: After looking at three or four definitions of culture from different dictionaries, what do these definitions have in common? In the United States, some members of ethnic groups who have been in the country for several generations or more may feel distant from their cultures or even without a culture. What are the various factors that account for these feelings?
The Four Definitions of Culture:
"Culture refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving" (Tamu.edu).
"Culture is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts. Today, in the United States as in other countries populated largely by immigrants, the culture is influenced by the many groups of people that now make up the country" (Zimmerman, livescience.com 2012).
"The beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time" (Merriam-Webster's dictionary).
"The behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group" (dictionary.com).
After examining these distinct definitions, it's clear that they have several things in common. Namely, culture tends to be a unifying force among individuals, which brings people together in a group. It allows the sense of collectiveness to be shared and it helped the group define their common values and their common goals. In certain regards, culture helps to provide a roadmap of life for the individual. Culture assists the individual and the group through certain transitional life events. For instance, certain life events such as deaths can be extremely devastating to a cultural group: rites of funeral and burial can make these incidents less painful for all the members of the group. The shared culture helps in guiding these processes so that everyone feels less traumatized by the entire event.…… [Read More]
Culture and Human Psychology: An Examination of Gift-Giving in Different Nations
Culture is a complex phenomenon that evades being defined in terms that are at once comprehensive and concrete -- any entirely firm definition of culture is bound to leave out some elements of some cultures, and any definition that is all-inclusive is necessarily unspecific in certain regards. Put broadly, culture can be thought of as the sum total of popular forms of expression, commonly held values and symbols, familial and political structures, technological advances and levels of utilization, persistent religious/spiritual beliefs, and the hierarchy of needs and manners of meeting those needs that are produced/held by members of any given group of human beings. In other words, culture influences everything humans do, as everything humans do takes place within the context of culture -- a painting, for example, will have a specific meaning within the culture that produced it, working to either support or to question specific cultural attitudes or beliefs that exist within the culture.
Not only does culture affect artistic endeavors, but it influences psychology as well. Mental disorders typical to some cultures -- such as anorexia in the developed world -- are virtually unseen in others, and though this might in part be due to environmental and resource issues it is also very a result of culture. Pressures to behave, look, or believe in a certain way can give rise to a variety of psychological problems from conflicts with internal drives, and normal psychological phenomena such as memory and emotion can also be heavily influenced by cultural values and perspectives. The variance that culture can create when it comes to psychology and behavior is made quite clear by the following examination of gift giving in three different cultures.
The pastoral nomadic culture of the Massai has led to an interesting gift giving arrangement known as osotua, in which two partners agree to assist one another through gifts of livestock but only when asked and only when they can afford to, and with requests made only when there is need (Aktipis et al., 2011). Though this is…… [Read More]
Culture is quite a broad term and encompasses a lot of different things. The oldest way of describing a culture is basically talking about the different aspects linked to it. This means that the oldest way includes the mention of the music, sculpture, literature and paintings of that certain kind of culture. It has been noted that a culture of a region becomes more prominent and profound if it is carried out and exhibited by the intellectual and the upper class. (Skelton & Allen, 1999) Another way of looking at culture is by considering what the majority of people are doing or how they are carrying out their own life.
This brings us to talking about the second aspect of culture. This is merely the way of life of the people living in a certain area. This sort of culture can even be used to describe animals if one thinks about it. Therefore in this context, we can go on to talk about the culture of any tribe, community or even a continent. William Graham Sumner (1906) basically stated that culture results from the repetition of small acts. Many a times, these acts don't really make sense but they are somehow incorporated into the culture of that certain region. Mead (1955) stated that culture is basically a group of behavior that a certain number of people share amongst each other. Since these people share these acts and behaviors, these acts are then carried on generations through generations. Thus, children, immigrant and a larger group of the society go on to take up these acts and make them an integral part of the culture of the society.
This was basically an overview to talk about how culture is looked upon differently by experts and scholars. Today, there are a variety of different cultures all the around the world. Even around me, I am exposed to cultures such as the Southeast Asia culture, Japanese, South American and so on and so forth. The culture that I had the privilege of experiencing was Indian culture. I experienced Indian culture by attending a spring event and religious service that is known as Holi. Before I get into more details about how my experience was, I…… [Read More]
Culture pervasiveness and the difficulty of defining it is one of the reasons why it is attributed for many merger failures. The problem considered in this study was the unstable operating environment that existed following the acquisition of INTEC Engineering by Worley Parsons which was likely caused by differences in organizational cultures. WorleyParsons acquired SEA Engineering in 2007 and INTEC Engineering April 2008 and combined these organizations to form INTECSEA. The capabilities found in these organizations were needed for WorleyParsons ability to facilitate a comprehensive solution for their clients working in deep waters. However, one year on and INTEC's entire management team resigned and staff retention remains a major issue. To understand why this trend is occurring, this analysis will review and apply theory to the transition process to the case of INTECSEA and provide insights to the causes by identifying the effects.
2.1 Background 5
2.2 Where it all started 6
2.2.1 Worley Parsons History 6
2.2.2 INTEC Engineering history 6
2.2.3 Sea Engineering History 7
3 Aim of the Project 7
4 Objectives 9
5 Literature Review 9
Overview of 9
5.1 Mergers and Acquisitions 9
Phases of Mergers and Acquisitions 9
5.3 M&A Trends 10
6 M & A Due Diligence 11
7 Organisational Culture 11
7.1 Defining Culture 12
8 Culture change 14
8.1 Role of Culture in merger and acquisitions 14
9 Mergers and acquisitions cultural approach 16
10 Organizational culture change 19
10.1 Creating Culture Change 23
10.1.1 Cultural approach 23
10.2 Reaction to change in mergers and acquisitions 23
10.2.1 Reaction to change 24
10.2.2 Factors causing resistance to change 25
10.2.3 Appearance of resistance 25
10.2.4 Managing Resistance 26
10.3 Significant factors of organisational culture for integration 27
10.3.1 The role of management 29
11 Methodology 30
12 Data Collection 32
13 Data Collection and Verification 33
14 Research questions 34
15 Conclusion 35
15.1 Recommendations 36
16 Bibliography 38
1 Introduction (tell the reader what the report is about) 4
2 Problem Statement 5
2.1 Background 7
2.2 Where it all started 7
2.2.1 Worley Parsons History 7
2.2.2…… [Read More]
Culture's Impact On Healthcare
Culture: Midwestern, (White Female)
The following are the top 5 characteristics of my culture:
Conservative political values. May cause a closed mine and limit the imagination. Political lines are dogmatic and prevent free thinking.
Family orientated. This bias may cause the individual to be too loyal on one's family. It is very difficult to see our families for who they truly are.
Open minded: Too much open-mindedness may lead to foolish mistakes and jumping on any bandwagon that may come along.
Love of the outdoors and social activities. Too much of this behavior, may lead to not refining the indoor skills that are important in life.
Trusting to new experiences. Too many new experiences may lead to becoming ungrounded.
The Midwestern culture is very conservative and many within the culture base their decisions on popular notions and ideas. Health care to Midwestern culture is seen as a valued resource and the only barriers to seeking health care reside in the individuals themselves.
Midwestern culture is a result of being stuck in the middle of the country where influences come from all cardinal directions. Midwestern culture may contain strong beliefs about the efficacy of health care and health-seeking behaviors. Essentially the culture is aligned with the belief that health care services are generally well performed and provide an extra benefit to the quality of life.
Midwestern culture is generally patriotic…… [Read More]
Culture Health Care
Culture is a very difficult and slippery term in today's vocabulary. Culture is always changing and moving towards new preferences and attitudes that shape its followers' belief structures. Health care is a part of culture and different segments of society have different approaches towards this idea. The purpose of this essay is to highlight the differences of all cultures in perceptions of health and health care. In this essay I will identify the principles of cross-cultural communication and explain how any cultural difference could become obstacles in affecting the communication between patients and their health care providers.
Before discussing the nature of culture on health care it is important to define what this term means. Western culture is a hybrid of many other cultures. Scaling down, American culture can also be localized into distinct segments of appropriate behavior. Race, ethnic heritage and religion all compose the ideals behind culture, but its displayed in local communities bound by a common understanding invisible and impossible to wholly define.
Cross-culture communication therefore requires environmental awareness of one's own personal surroundings. It is foolish to think that the same health care practices work the same in each culture. Cultures by definition, have different environmental conditions and ill reaction to these conditions should require solutions from someone who is versed in local cultural…… [Read More]
Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos
PERSONAL SOCIAL STATUS: In researching this project, I found a study prepared by the Canadian Nurses Association (2005). It reviewed the social determinants of health and how one's social status impacts their or their family health outcomes. The focus of this piece was on issues such as poverty, economic inequality, social isolation and social support systems and their impact on the health of minorities, many of the same categories and characteristics mentioned in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (Andrews et al., 2010). While their study was more on a broad base of Canadian conditions, their findings seem to reflect the circumstances of many first and second generation Filipinos. First and later generations of Filipinos who move to new cultures do act differently, but for the most part there remain many family connections and networks that cannot be overlooked.
My social status is mostly a reflection of the fact that I come from a low to moderate income culture of people who respect work, opportunities, and the ties we have to our families (McBride, nd). The Filipino culture is strongly linked to English and Western practices and really emphasizes our commitment to hard work, accomplishment and the desire to ground my work in activities that help others (something which also leads them to nursing and other healthcare professions) (Castillo, nd). Many Filipinos move out of the islands to other nations, often to the U.S. Moving to a new culture allows Filipinos to adjust their cultural attitudes and expectations of success and pride in our families toward career opportunities that reflect well on us and our families as we become minorities who are able to make a comfortable living. It has been noted that Filipinos have for the most part been the "least poor" of the Asian people, even though there is plenty of evidence that many of our families still live in poverty; and there is other evidence that suggests that because of our strong cultural and family commitments, we remain anchored to a variety of cultural actions that directly impact the determinate factors of our own health.
CULTURAL HEALTH FACTORS: For the most part the Philippines are like many other island countries -- characterized by challenging poverty and a lack of advancing economic opportunities. These facts and the pride they often take in the Filipino tradition of wanting…… [Read More]
Culture and Politics
Germany: How Culture and Politics Bring About Social Change
German history and culture are complex, and the country has been through a lot of changes, both in the past and more recently. In order to understand the cultural and political issues today, it is important to see where they have originated from and where they appear to be headed. That can also help foster social change and development, which is needed in every country in order to keep that country moving forward. Here, the political system of Germany will be addressed, followed by a cultural problem that is being seen in the present day. Once those two areas have been discussed, it will be shown how the German culture and political system can come together to create solutions to the problem, including the development of new policies and procedures. Germany has a rich history and there is a good quality of life there for many, but for those who immigrate and those who have little money, there is not enough assistance to allow them freedom or opportunity.
The Political System of Germany
The German political system is a federal parliamentary republic (Dempsey, 2011). Legislative power is vested in two governing bodies: the representative body of the regional states, and the parliament (Dempsey, 2011). The multi-party system has generally been dominated by two groups, which are the Social Democratic Party of German and the Christian Democratic Union (Dempsey, 2011). This has been the case since 1949 (Fulbrook, 1991). Even after the German reunification in 1990, the political system as laid out in 1949's constitution remained largely the same (Heckmann, 2003). There were only a few minor adjustments made to it. Germany also has a judiciary that is independent of both the legislature and the executive branch (Dempsey, 2011). Individual liberty is emphasized by the constitution, and there is an extensive catalog of civil and human rights that divides powers between state and federal, and also between executive, judicial, and legislative branches.
Right now the Christian Democratic Union is in power, with Angela Merkel as chancellor. The Social Democratic Party, after suffering an electoral defeat, has a new party chairman in Sigmar Gabriel. He may bring new ideas to that particular party in an effort to see it return to power. The recent federal elections failed to see Merkel's party reaching an absolute…… [Read More]
Culture Cuisine in Australia
"Australia is one of seven continents and constitutes most of the Pacific region, both in terms of size and population." (Compton & Warren 2008, P 126). The indigenous people influence food and Australian culture and people immigrated into Australia from other part of the world. Typically, multicultural influx of the people from other part of the world settling in Australia greatly influences the contemporary Australian cuisine.
Objective of this paper is to discuss culture cuisine in Australia. The paper uses cultural capital theory and theory of social differentiation to discuss how cuisine has been used to establish hierarchy in Australia.
Cultural influence on Australia Cuisine
Concept of culture is the social norms, custom, morals, belief and traits guiding people conduct within a society. On the other hand, "food culture is the ensemble of shared knowledge, attitudes and practices that people bring to selecting, preparing and eating food. It exhibits in some degree order, symbolism and continuity." (Bannerman, 2011 P. 58). Australia has a diverse culture reflecting values and tradition of the people. Millions of migrants who have settled in Australia since the Second World Wars have greatly influenced cultural orientation in Australia. Typically, influx of the people from different national background into the Australia greatly influences the Australian cuisine making Australia to become one of the most diverse cuisines in the world. For over 40,000 years, Australian cuisine was greatly dominated by the indigenous food. Indigenous Australians led nomadic lifestyle as gatherers, hunters and moving from one place to the other searching for food as they moved. However, before the arrival of migrants, indigenous settlers have already developed satisfactory cuisine very adapted to the environment. (Bannerman 2011). Staple food of the indigenous people is Australian flora and fauna which include seafood, and kangaroo meat. Other food widely eating by the indigenous people are wallaby, emu, lizard, bongong moth, snakes, and witchetty grubs. Indigenious people also eat fruits, bush berries and honeys.
In 1788, European settlers arrived at Australia through Sidney harbor, however, British…… [Read More]
The cultural industries may be described as the "industrially produced commercial entertainment -- broadcasting, film, publishing, recorded music -- as distinct from the subsidised "arts" -- visual and performing arts, museums and galleries" Galloway & Dunlop 18). Films/movies, radio and publications compose a system which is homogeneous in every sense. The media that is technological in nature also demonstrates a standardization and homogeneity. The aim of the television is to synthesize both film and radio. This is the reason why the culture industry is developing at a very fast rate and this progression has directed this industry to predominant impacts. Cultural products are important for the reason that they bear identity, ethics/principles and help a society to advance economically and socially. When people of a society make endeavors to preserve and promote their cultural diversity, such attempts encourage the development of cultural industries (Horkheimer & Adorno 95). However, there is a big difference between the cultural industry and the popular arts of the previous times (when technology was not so advanced) and the contemporary era.
In this contemporary era, the cultural industry has made the entire humanity to move across the sieve of the culture industry. In the previous times, the movie goers experienced film as the replica of the world outside. However, times have changed drastically and now the movie-goers have turned out to be the guideline of the producers. The passionate and unblemished techniques have enabled them to reproduce practical objects and this ease of skills has enabled them to demonstrate that the exterior world is the uncomplicated extension of the world that is presented on the display. The mechanical depiction has furthered this purpose especially since the sound film has conquered it. The technology has greatly impacted the cultural industry by making real life and movies appear like two peas in a pod. The sound…… [Read More]
d.). For example, in the U.S., decisions are frequently delegated, that is, an official assigns responsibility for a particular matter to a subordinate. In many European nations, like Germany, there is a strong value placed on holding decision-making responsibilities oneself. When decisions are made by groups of people, majority rule is a common approach in the U.S. while in Germany consensus is the preferred mode. One should be conscious that peoples' expectations about their own part in shaping a resolution may be influenced by their cultural orientation (Spang & Ozcan, 2009).
The fifth difference is in attitudes toward disclosure. In some cultures, it is not fitting to be forthright about emotions, about the reasons behind a disagreement or a mix-up, or about personal information. When one is involved in a dialogue or when they are working with others or when they are dealing with a conflict, they should be mindful that people may differ in what they feel comfortable revealing. The difference among cultures in attitudes toward disclosure is also something to think about before one concludes that they have a correct reading of the outlooks, experiences, and ambitions of the people with whom they are working (DuPraw & Axner, n.d.).
The last difference is in the approaches to knowing. Notable differences take place among cultural groups when it comes to the ways that people come to know things. European cultures like those in Germany tend to consider information acquired through cognitive means, such as counting and measuring, more valid than other ways of coming to know things. Compare that to American cultures' preference for affective ways of knowing, including symbolic imagery and rhythm (DuPraw & Axner, n.d.).
DuPraw, M.E. & Axner, M. (n.d.). Working on Common Cross-cultural Communication
Challenges. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/ampu/crosscult.html
German Communication Styles. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/German-Business-Communication-Style.html
LeBaron, M. (2003). Cross-Cultural Communication. Retrieved from http://www.beyondintractability.org/node/2565
Spang, K., & Ozcan, S. (2009). Cultural differences in decision making in…… [Read More]
Culture Element Makes a Nation Distinct
How cultural differences affect an international negotiation
Gesteland (2002 p. 33) cites that understanding how culture is powerful in the outcomes and negotiation process is the first step in any international negotiations. Cultural differences shape the behaviours and perceptions of various parties in negotiation especially in the preparation stage. A company pursuing an international joint venture requires identifying an international company for negotiations. Managers who are quite knowledgeable about the role of culture in international negotiations will choose a target company with much effort and care. Negotiating with a company featuring a similar cultural background is easy. Moreover, it needs less time to establish rapport. This minimizes any chances of encountering misunderstanding. Negotiating with a business with a different cultural background requires managers to exercise absolute preparation thus making them hesitant to initiate the first move. Thus, in international negotiations, cultural differences are likely to have adverse impacts on the negotiation frameworks. Therefore, this must be carefully researched and planned for prior to commencing any negotiations.
The relative importance of national culture, organisational culture, and individual personalities
Writers such as Hendon, Hendon & Herbig (2006 p. 71) discovered that the results of any negotiations is based on a complex relationship between individual personalities, organizational culture and national culture of actors involved in the negotiation process. Negotiators must understand the cross-cultural framework of the definition of national culture and the impact on negotiation. It is difficult to access the national culture. This is because, in the course of negotiations, local or international companies do not show their distinctive characteristics. On the other hand, it is possible to predict an organizational culture because it is fixed on the market position, work ethics and philosophy of the company. The flow of international negotiations is shaped by organizational culture. Negotiators must understand the organizational cultures of companies involved because it helps them identify a common ground thus predict possible…… [Read More]
Culture a multifaceted concept, navigating cultural boundaries constructs borders a challenge managers. Globalisation brought significant challenges notions cultures monolithic easily conceptualised. For managers, understanding motivations, values, behaviours employees globe a complex undertaking.
Globalization has generated much controversy in business environments as managers started to experience more and more problems as a result of foreign influences affecting their companies. Organizational culture is an important concept when considering this situation and this is reflected by the fact that an increasing number of managers have decided to restructure their strategies in order to be able to accomplish their goals with little to no impediments. "Globalization would require from large business firms highly skilled managers to cope with the challenges and responsibilities of the so-called global market." (Guedes & Faria, p. 21) Managers in the present practically need to consider a much wider range of factors as they focus on devising innovative strategies. Market and customer base have changed in many cases, some companies have an international range of employees, and competition is no longer local. Even with this, globalization has also brought numerous opportunities, thus meaning that managers have to constantly rethink their strategies in an environment that never stays the same.
Globalization as an influential factor through technology
When considering the future of their business, their thinking, and the decisions they take, managers have to concentrate on globalization and on how it might affect all of these factors. One of the most intriguing concepts brought on by globalization relates to advanced technology and to how it enabled businessmen to communicate much more rapidly than they did before and to thus interact with individuals from across the world as they try to get the best deals possible. Technology provides new ways to handle information and managers are thus provided with the chance to acknowledge that they need to restructure their strategies in order to be able to keep up with the rest of the social order.
The age of adaptability
Globalization influences managers to look beyond traditional focus and try and address particular problems from a different perspective. Managers virtually need to become…… [Read More]
Doing business in foreign countries inevitably means exposure for foreign cultures and customs. How business reacts to these cultures often dictates whether or not that business is going to succeed in the foreign market. International business trainers face cultural issues when teaching American business skills and practices to foreign audiences. Often, things that are taken for granted when dealing with an American audience can be challenging for a foreign audience. The trainer needs to be able to understand what the cultural differences are that they will be dealing with and how to handle those differences so that no offense is caused and the objectives of the activity are met. This paper will outline some of the different cultural pitfalls that can occur when doing business internationally and will present a case of how to business can deal with these challenges. Hunt (n.d.) describes cultures as being comprised of values, beliefs and attitudes, and these attributes all contribute to cultural differences. International managers need to understand not only the surface-level differences but the differences in the underlying values, beliefs and attitudes that define the culture.
Cultural Mistakes and Challenges
Wade (2004) highlights a number of different cultural mistakes that can be made by people traveling to different cultures. One type of mistake that can be made is with symbols and gestures. Wade notes the famous case of Richard Nixon giving the "ok" sign when landing in Brazil, something that is considered to be an obscene gesture in that country. He also notes the Muslim taboo with respect to the bottoms of feet, in particular as it relates to sitting positions Westerns often adopt. Another category of cultural mistake the Wade discusses is with respect to eating and drinking customs. Drinking alcohol in particular is considered an essential component of doing business in many cultures. Americans who do not normally drink as part of doing business might find some…… [Read More]
Culture and Globalization Revised
Human Culture has rapidly changed over the centuries. This change occurred primarily through the mixing of different cultures over time . As new ideas and ways of improving life are adopted into the lifestyles of different people groups. In early civilizations agriculture was based on groups working together to locate and distribute food based on the natural skill sets of members of the groups. Some being natural organizers, others hunters, others leaders and some builders. As people begin to travel by foot, land, sea they came into contact with other cultures and learned from them. Developing the language, tools, agricultural processes to take better care of their own people groups and even taking advantage of weaker cultures by enslaving them for advantage. The small groups of hunters and gatherers from ancient civilizations became educated over time as they were introduced to new ways of life. They learned to trade for the foods, supplies, clothing and precious resources such as gunpowder in order to increase the areas of land they possessed. Some became skillful in war and others in developing a system of government, education, and medicinal advantages that made them highly effective in conquering and spreading their geographical control over other people groups.
The process of diffusion is explained as the ability to adopt and adapt resources of different cultures that allow for more effective or efficient production. For example once gunpowder was discovered, the use of other weapons such as bows and arrows, swords, and spears became less effective. Therefore many cultures begin to trade and acquire guns, canons, and even develop bombs in order to become more effective in hunting and times of war. As European settlers and explorers traveled across the oceans, they brought with them certain skills and resources that the Native Americans adopted such as the use of guns and rifles.
The culture of Native Americans became different as a result of European settlers coming to America. Once the Native Americans were able to live free on the lands, traveling from one area to another with their entire tribe as the seasons changed or due to the availability of resources. With others wanting to move in and settle on the land, wars between Native…… [Read More]
Americans going to Singapore to entertain the possibility of establishing business there, need to know each of the three cultures prefers to deal.
Religion plays an important part in the cultural life of every country, and a peer-reviewed article in the Journal of International Business Research points out the cultural realities regarding the negotiation styles of Muslim Iranians, Buddhist Taiwanese and Christian Americans. The independent variables in this research -- religion, collectivism, education, age, gender and work experience -- were tested through empirical surveys of the three cultures. The "devotion to religious rules" is far more prevalent among Muslims than among Christians and Buddhist groups (Farazmand, et al., 2011).
While negotiators should be aware of this cultural fact, this does not mean that any Muslim negotiator would rely more on religion than on "analytical, normative, factual or intuitive negotiation styles"; what matters is the degree of devotion the negotiator has to his faith. Finding that out prior to launching negotiations of course may be problematic, but the negotiator should make an attempt to learn the degree of devotion a Muslim negotiator has prior to the interaction (Farazmand, 40). Knowledge of the Muslim religion would help and "…could result in a higher probability of successful agreements,' Farazmand explains (40). Moreover, knowing the ideological beliefs of the negotiator -- whether it is in Taiwan, Iran, or America -- also gives the negotiation a sense of cultural understanding before engaging in dialogue.
In conclusion, having a full understanding of the cultural beliefs, practices and ideological dynamics of the person in the foreign country that will be the negotiator offers an open door to understanding, cooperation, and deal making. The ability to know ahead of time the level of religious and ideological commitment the other negotiator has with respect to his culture is extremely valuable for the success of the negotiation.
Works… [Read More]
In the more informal and low-context culture of United States, closer physical contact and more intimate exchanging of personal information is accepted between strangers. If individuals violate these rules of symbolic communication -- for example, if a Japanese subordinate playfully jokes with his or her boss, or a person in an American office never volunteers personal information about his or her personal life, that person may be viewed as possibly 'suspect' or strange.
Although culture may be occasionally viewed simply as "the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving," this locates culture in the past, as a repository of knowledge, rather than locating it a contemporary context of human behavior and constantly evolving symbolic language (Choudhury 2009). Symbolic language and group ideals can change. Culture is constantly in flux. As individuals from the West and East gain a greater knowledge of differences between low-context and high-context cultures, they can become more symbolically 'fluent' when engaging in cultural exchanges. The exchange of knowledge can create greater respect between cultures, and individuals in the global economy have slowly begun to be more astute about cultural differences by virtue of necessity.
Works… [Read More]
21st century culture is reflected in television, movies and electronic games. With the advent of the Internet, the ways people got their information changed dramatically. In the last ten years, websites have grown more sophisticated and the use of social media tools has become a phenomenon. Just as culture is reflected in various media, media itself has become a significant part of today's culture.
It is popular, and all too easy, to blame the decline of newspaper readership on the Internet. In fact, the decline in newspaper readership began during the Depression as the radio became more widely used. During the late 1960s, there was another big decline in readership when there was an increase in network television viewership (XXX, p. 270). In order to remain competitive in this culture shift, newspapers had to make some changes in the way they did business. In 1980, the Columbia Dispatch became the first paper to go online). Relatively few people had access to computers, so it is doubtful this feature brought about a significant increase in readership. Still, it was a revolutionary idea that inspired other papers to follow suit and today, most U.S. papers have a Web presence. The second big change for newspapers was the introduction of USA Today in 1982. The paper "openly acknowledge[d] television's central role in mass culture" (XXX, p. 261), using lots of color, photographs, and a writing style that was more similar to television news than print news stories of the past. The paper even used vending boxes designed to look like color televisions in a clever marketing ploy to blur the lines between print and broadcast news. The public quickly embraced USA Today and it is now the most widely circulated paper in the country.
USA Today featured more stories on pop culture than had previously been seen in newspapers,…… [Read More]
Culture and the Ipod
American Culture and the IPod
Apple first introduced the iPod in October 2001, beginning what many would consider an enormous revolution in the music industry. While music had been previously made available on MP3 players, the iPod became the first product that was also linked to computer software designed to help consumers both manage and purchase files. In fact, by the end of 2001, consumers had the option of loading their entire music collection from compact discs into iTunes, and carrying up to 1000 song files on their iPod (Apple, 2011).
The iPod irrevocably changed the way we purchase, store, and listen to music. Prior to 2001, most consumers purchased and stored music on compact disks, but iTunes allowed anyone with a computer and CD drive to transfer all of these music files to their computers. iTunes also enabled users to organize music files, create playlists, and even mark files with album art to make the organization clear and accessible. People quickly started taking entire collections of music, copying the files onto a computer, and discarding the compact disks. iPods and iTunes not only made music highly portable, but also allowed us to cut down on storage. Prior to this advancement people routinely carried compact disks and compact disk players or walkmans to listen to music while they were in the car or exercising. iPods suddenly allowed users to carry their entire collection of music in a much smaller, handheld device (Time, 2011).
The debut of the first iPod in 2001 aroused a fair amount of feedback from critics. The main concerns expressed by consumers and critics revolved around the heavy weight and high cost of the unit, as the original price was approximately $300. Consumers were accustomed to using relatively lightweight compact disk players for portable music, and the original iPod felt heavy to many users. In addition, many…… [Read More]