Domestic violence is an insidious problem that affects communities large and small within the entire nation. It is a problem that affects young and old, affluent and underprivileged alike. There are many ways to view domestic violence. Though domestic violence may be defined in many ways, for purposes of this evaluation will be defined as violence that occurs between two individuals living together (Davis, 1998). Typically these individuals will be partners but this is not always the case. Domestic violence may include any type of violence whether verbal or physical, including hitting, verbal abuse, neglect, or any other type of violent act that leads to harm or injury in the battered victim.
Though several legislative measures have been enacted to curb domestic violence, there is still little uniformity of practice among community policing agencies and other support services. At present legislators and community members are considering working together to determine whether a combination of punitive and non-punitive punishment might best reduce the number of domestic violence cases reported each year. These ideas and more are discussed below.
Analysis of Violence
There have been several studies conducted of domestic violence, some that have examined the frequency with which domestic violence occurs and others that have examined reform for domestic violence predators. According the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2000) there has been some decline in recent years in the number of people victimized by domestic violence, particularly women. Yet despite this fact domestic violence is still a crime that continues at an "alarming rate" with statistics suggesting that at least 1 million victims suffer each year from domestic violence committed by their spouse or partner (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000) and more than one in three women experiences some form of domestic violence during their lifetime (Baker, Carlin, Price & Salazar, 2003).
The study conducted by the Bureau of Justice does not indicate whether or not this perceived decline is due to an actual reduction in the number of individuals affected by the crime or is more the result of less people reporting domestic violence when it occurs. Typically studies that focus on domestic violence are not well rounded and incorporative of several different factors; rather they tend to focus on one aspect of violence vs. another. Reform has been proposed in this respect so that domestic violence cases of the future are examined in…… [Read More]
Domestic violence and domestic abuse is a world-wide epidemic. The prevalence of the occurrences of domestic violence is attributable to several variables: cultural differences between partners, alcohol and drug abuse, poverty, and mental issues of aggression, impulse, and character. Psychologists and sociologists have attempted to prove which of these components has the most important impact on whether or not a man will become abusive to his spouse. I say male not to dismiss the occurrences of female physical abuse of males, but because the studies analyzed in the following all consider male abuse of female. Each analyst makes a solid point about how their research indicates that the factor they are examining is the preeminent source of eventual violence. The only logical conclusion that can be drawn is that each of the four factors can contribute to a scenario where a partnership has the potential to escalate into physically violent altercations.
In the article "No Way Out: Divorce-Related Domestic Violence in Israel," Madeline Adelman (2000) states that in many situations, a woman who tries to leave a violent relationship can actually initiative further acts of violence from her partner. In her study, Adelman interviewed 49 battered women, as well as several people who work with battered women in order to formulate her hypotheses about domestic violence. She found that whereas in the U.S. one in 10 women report battery by a spouse, the situation in Israel is that one in seven are abused (Adelman 2000). The variables she utilized in the experiment were that she used interviews from different classes and social standings to try to get the greatest and most far-reaching perspective.
The Middle East is ripe with these kinds of situations because there are so many cultures living in such a relatively small area. Researchers Marshall and Furr (2010) examined the cultural conflict of women who were suffered from domestic violence in the country of Turkey. They were interested in exploring the tolerance of intimate partner violence (IPV) both from the battered women themselves and from the society in general. Abuse in Turkey affects roughly 20% of the population, which is significantly higher than most other nations. That culture, like much of the Middle East, is patriarchal, even to the point where…… [Read More]
CASE young female comes to your office looking frightened and dishelved. She made an appointment with you earlier that day. She keeps looking around and appears to be nervous. She discloses that she was beaten up by her boyfriend who she lives with, and she thinks he is following her. She is frightened because he said he would kill her if she told anyone what happened. She tells you she also has a 3-year-old son with her boyfriend.
The most immediate need associated with domestic violence is safety. Within the first few days, after the attach the most important thing for this individual would be to remove her and her minor child from harms way. The therapist should survey the individual to determine resources and a possible existing social network that would allow her to remove her self from the domestic abuse situation. The lack of financial and social circumstances that would allow this individual from seeking shelter may be a large part of the reason she is seeking counseling.
The individual should be given all the local information on domestic violence shelters and systems. The responsibility of the counselor does not necessarily end here, though. If the individual is reluctant to relocate, for any number of reasons it may take some convincing and even some phone calls to ensure that the systems are in place and available to the individual and her child.
It should be stressed to the victim that in many cases of domestic violence the controlling nature of the abuser, as a precursor to physical abuse may isolate the individual from his or her social network, to attempt to retain control over the abused partner.
Because of this, it must be stressed to the individual that she is not alone and that the systems in place will account for this isolation and offer her a haven without the concerns of the partner's awareness of her location and who she might be with that could be further manipulated by the abuser. Most importantly the individual must be aware that the cost of…… [Read More]
Each year, many battered women kill their husbands after years of abuse and violence. Murder, obviously, is against the law, making the actions of these women an offense. The killing abusive husbands forces society to reconcile the desperation of these women with a need to respect and maintain the law. Such reconciliation can involve the use of self-defense as a legal tactic, reduced sentences, and potentially charging women with a crime other than murder.
Over 1.5 million women seek medical intervention in the U.S. As the result of assault by their male partners. There are many others who never seek such treatment. Such abuse, over time, can ultimately drive a small minority of these women to commit murder (Brown).
The legal system largely reacts by sentencing these women to jail, out of adherence to the law's strong prohibition against murder. At the same time, society, in the interest of justice, demands that the history of violence in these situations be considered.
Self-defense is one of the most common defenses used by women who kill their abusive partners (Ludsin). Here, the law provides at least a limited means to reconcile respect for the law with the desperation of victims who kill their abusers. At the same time, self-defense pleas are often not effective in situations where the murder occurs in a non-confrontational situation where the woman is not in immediate danger.
Reconciling the desperation of battered women with a respect for the law is fraught with problems. If the legal system did not prosecute women who kill their abusers, it would largely be negating its responsibility to uphold the law against murder. At the same time, an unaltered prosecution women who kill their abusers clearly fails to take into consideration the unique aspects of the case. A situation where women who kill their abusers receive reduced sentences is one way to reconcile such differences. Another way to reconcile these differences may be to try such women for a crime other than murder, perhaps by creating a lesser crime such as domestic abuse murders, where sentences are less harsh.
Balancing respect for cultural differences…… [Read More]
In our society, there has been an increasing identification of the occurrence of domestic violence for the past two decades. There are many types of domestic violence like physical mistreatment, sexual exploitation, emotional assault, and maltreatment to property and pets. Domestic violence is prevalent and takes place in all socioeconomic groups. A study of about 6000 American families were done, which showed that between 53% and 70% of male assaulters regularly ill-treated their children. Children from homes where domestic violence takes place are bodily or sexually ill treated and/or critically ignored at a rate 15 times the national average. Roughly about 45% to 70% of battered women in protection have stated the occurrence of child abuse in their home. (Effects of Domestic Violence on Children and Adolescents: An Overview)
Causes of Domestic Violence
When one companion senses the requirement to rule and control the other, domestic violence may begin. Batterers may sense this need to dominate their partner because of low self-respect, severe envy, and trouble in controlling anger and other deep feelings, or when they think lower to the other partner in education and socio-economic backdrop. This control then changes into sentimental, bodily and/or sexual abuse. Reports imply that brutal behavior is a lot produced by a contact of circumstantial and individual factors. This implies that batterers as they mature they learn fierce behavior from people in their society, family and other cultural inspirations. They would have been sufferers themselves, or would have often observed violence. (What Causes Domestic Violence?)
At the basis of this offense is a society in which patriarchy decides the value of human beings. In 1998, John Gottman and Neil Jacobson wrote a book titled 'When Men Batter Women', which reports that mauling, and the principles sustaining it cannot be valued separately from other features of the culture that authorize male dominance. Domestic violence is even now a plague in this country, though laws have been made to defend women and children from maltreatment. In almost all fields, conventional…… [Read More]
The Reasons that Women are Violent in Relationships
The evidence demonstrates that women engage in violent activities at a rate approaching the levels engaged in by men. However, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly characterized as female and the perpetrators as male. How can one reconcile the fact that women and men engage in a similar number of aggressive behaviors with the fact that the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly female? One hypothesis is that the majority of violence engaged in by women is defensive, where the majority of violence engaged in by men is offensive.
The objective of the proposed research is to determine whether or not men and women engage in domestic violence for different reasons. A determination of the reasons that men and women engage in violent behaviors will aid the researcher in making a determination of whether men and women are battered at the same rates. If men and women report that their violent actions are accompanied by the same type of dominating and controlling behavior that characterizes abusive relationships, then the findings that men and women are the victims of violence at equal rates enable the researcher to make a finding that men and women batter at equal rates. However, if the research reveals that women and men have different motivations when engaging in violent behavior, the findings that men and women are the victims of domestic violence at the same rates does not support a finding that men and women batter at equal rates.
Current research demonstrates that there is a difference between violence by men and violence by women. For example, 50% of female victims of domestic violence sustain injuries compared to only 3% of male victims of domestic violence (Bachman and Saltzman, 1995). Despite those findings, evidence of the number of strikes or blows given by men and women in intimate relationships has been manipulated to create the myth of sexual symmetry in violence in intimate relationship (Dobash, Dobash, Wilson, & Daly, 1992). However, at least one study has already suggested that women predominantly use violence in self-defense or to escape violence by their partner (Saunders, 1986). In fact, evidence supports the idea that violence perpetrated against women differs from violence perpetrated…… [Read More]
Why do abused women tend to stay with their abusers? What are the realities for those abused women -- and how do the realities impact the treatment of battered women? This paper delves into those questions and issues.
Choice and Empowerment for Battered Women who Stay
An article in the peer-reviewed journal Social Work points out that while there have been plenty of articles and a great deal of information in recent years -- so that the public is more aware of the problem of battered women than in the past -- that additional knowledge has "proved useful" in dramatizing the problem but in addition it has "created new myths and injustices" (Peled, et al., 2000). One of the realities that result from the additional publicity about battered women is that women who stay in relationships with their batterers are seen as a "deviant group" -- which is unfortunate and does not help the problem (Peled, 9).
Another reality that is well-known by the public -- and contributes to the belief that the battered woman who stays is deviant -- is that some battered women leave and then return to their abuser; and that some battered women actually marry their abusers. In fact up to 60% of women who are abused go back to their abusers "…after discharge from a shelter" (Peled, 9). A woman who finds safety and comfort in a woman's shelter, and is given educational opportunities to better understand what has happened to her while she is in the shelter, and yet returns to the hellish beatings she ran away from, is seen as "…incompetent, weak, and lacking coping skills…contributing to their powerlessness," Peled explains (9).
And so the logical question -- notwithstanding the public's perceptions, which are not always based on facts -- why do women stay. What are her realities that lead her to continue accepting this abuse? For one thing, leaving the abuser may be "…more dangerous than staying for both the woman and her children"; to wit, it may "expose them to severe injury and even murder" (Peled, 11). Secondly, the battered woman may be suffering from "traumatic attachment," Peled writes (11). That…… [Read More]
The term 'domestic violence' and 'abusive relationships' are usually used interchangeably, while abusive behavior is referred to as 'battering'. Domestic violence can thus be defined as abusive behavior between adults in an intimate, sexual, usually cohabiting relationship. These abusive behaviors may include, but not limited to; emotional or psychological abuse, isolation, economic abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse (Hunter, 2010). It is a known fact that women are the most victims of domestic violence. The question that most people in the society ask is, "why can't abused women walk out of such relationships?"
The immediate reply one would get on asking such a question is that only those who are being abused understand why they are staying. This simply means that there are certain realities that such women face that are not understand by the society. In order to understand these realities, we need to look at patterns of behavior in abusive relationships, what Walker (1979) referred to as 'cycle of abuse'. This cycle of abuse has four phases, Tension building phase, Acting-out phase, Reconciliation/Honeymoon phase, and Calm phase. In the tension building phase the partners communicate poorly, are passively aggressive, fear causing outbursts, and experience a rise in interpersonal tension. When it comes to the second phase which acting-out phase, there are incidences of outbursts of violence and abuse. This is followed by the third phase in which partners portray affection, apology, or in some instances they ignore the incident. The indication at this stage is that the violence has ended and the partners assure each other that it will never happen again. Even in cases where the abuser chooses to ignore the incident and walk away from the situation with little comment, they must eventually show love and affection to the abused partner. All sorts of tricks are used to prevent the abused from leaving the relationship, including threats of suicide or inflicting harm to self. The last phase is the calm phase which may be an extension of the third phase, however, elements of interpersonal difficulties will start cropping in which eventually lead to the first phase of tension building (Brewster, 2006). These phases correctly describe the common pattern in every abusive relationship, understanding this cycle will give one an insight of…… [Read More]
Remaining in an abusive relationship may seem a preposterous proposition to some, but a complex range of psychological and sociological factors impact the stay/leave decision. In particular, there are financial reasons as well as familial pressures to remain in an abusive relationship long after it is healthy to do so. Women in rural areas are especially at risk for suffering "further emotional abuse, physical violence, and sexual assault" after leaving an abusive relationship (Rouse 292). Patriarchal values and entrenched patriarchal social, political, and economic systems are at the root cause of why many women remain trapped (Rouse). Social and cultural pressures to remain in a committed relationship at all costs may deter some women from staying in a relationship after it becomes abusive.
Analyses of trends reveals that the longer the relationship has lasted, the more likely the woman is to remain in it (Bell and Naugle). However, if the level or intensity of the violence increases, the woman may be more inclined to leave (Bell and Naugle). Other factors that increase likelihood of leaving an abusive relationship include threats to the children and availability of options and especially financial resources. In short, women need to be highly motivated and logistically able to envision and start a new life outside of the relationship before they will leave.
Rouse points out that one of the common misconceptions of rural communities is that rural residents are more likely to reach out and help their neighbors in need. This is false, according to Rouse. Small town and rural residents are actually likely to be more "ruggedly individualistic" and thus more inclined to staying out their neighbors' business (293). There are also fewer resources such as battered women's shelters or educational outreach programs for women. This leads to the victims of domestic abuse feeling helpless, with a lack of community support for endeavors to leave a bad relationship.…… [Read More]
Domestic violence is a complex problem requiring a multiagency response. This response should include a range of advocacy, support, engagement with the criminal and civil justice systems and with other voluntary and statutory sector agencies.
Domestic violence and emotional abuse are behaviors utilized by one person in a relationship to control the other person. Partners may be married or not, heterosexual, gay or lesbian, separated or dating.
Abuse encompasses such behaviors as name calling and putdowns, keeping a partner from contacting their family or friends, withholding money, stopping a partner from getting or keeping a job, actual or threatened physical harm, sexual assault, stalking, and intimidation.
Violence can be criminal and includes physical assault, sexual abuse, and stalking. Though emotional, psychological and financial abuses are not criminal behaviors, they can lead to criminal violence.
Domestic Violence has a long history. In early Roman society a woman was considered the property of her husband and was subject to his control. Early Roman law provided that a husband could beat, divorce, or kill his wife for offenses which brought dishonor to his reputation or compromised his property rights. These matters were considered private and were not publicly scrutinized (Swisher & Wekesser, 1994).
The Catholic Church's endorsement of The Rules of Marriage in the fifteenth century allowed the husband to stand as judge of his wife. He was to beat her with a stick upon her commission of an offense; this showed a concern for his wife's soul. The common law in England gave a man the right to beat his wife in the interest of maintaining family discipline. The phrase "rule of thumb" alluded to the English common law that allowed a husband to beat his wife as long as he used a stick no bigger than his thumb (Swisher & Wekesser, 1994). Women were not the only ones subject to abuse. In eighteenth century France if it became public that a man had been beaten by his wife he was forced to wear an outlandish costume and ride backwards around the village on a donkey (Gross,…… [Read More]
The SAFE Act not only protects victims of domestic violence, but also helps them become effective members of the country's economy. Domestic violence also account for about fifteen percent of total crimes committed in the United States. Reports from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institute of Health indicate that each year, 5, 300, 000 non-fatal violent victimization committed by intimated partners against women are recorded.
Female murder victims are likely to occur compared to male murder victims to have been murdered by intimate partners (Congress 528). According to Congress, half of female murder victims and four percent of male murder highlighted in the Disease Control, Prevention, and National Institute of Health reports met their death in the hands of intimate partners. With respect to government statistics, approximately 987, 400 rapes take place in United State where 89% of the rapes are perpetrated against female victims. Since 2001, cases of rapes have augmented by four percent (Congress 528).
Domestic violence more than any other criminal act, entails a wide range of relationships and behaviors. Unfortunately, criminal codes are in general rather blunt instruments, describing violence as individual actions, specifically threat of physical harm or physical assault aimed at causing physical harm (Buwaza 4). In reality, most researchers precisely conceptualize domestic violence as a range of conducts, some clearly criminal in temperament, others more manipulative intended to exercise coercive control entailing sexual, physical, verbal and psychological conducts utilized to control another person. This approach focuses on the blueprint of abusive and violent conducts within the relationship as opposed to individual actions of perpetrators. Only in recent time, have criminal codes evolved to the point through which they have begun to acknowledge innumerable abuse forms, but also prohibiting harassment or stalking (Buwaza 4). . Even though such statutes solely centered on physical abuse, they are…… [Read More]
Domestic Violence and Effects on Children
In the western culture, childhood is referred to as the period of special protection and rights. When a child is brought up in a safe and nurturing environment their development is expected to unfold.When a child is born, their brain is about 25% of its adult weight, which later increases to 66% by the end of first year. During the developing stages the brain is most susceptible to the impact of traumatic experiences (Perry, 1997). Latest research implies that exposure to extreme trauma can change the organization of the brain, which can result in problems in dealing with stresses later in life (Brown & Bzostek, 2003). According to the attachment theory, a child's sense of security depends on security of attachment to its first caregiver. In addition, the kind of relationship developed serves as a model of how to relate to people later in life. If the earliest relationships that a child develops are not bonded with safety and trust, the effects are possible to be extensive and long lasting. As per the research conducted on attachment during infancy, the more serious the level of partner violence the higher is the possibility of developing insecure and disorganized attachments. According to Gunnar (1998), insecure infants turn out to have increased cortisol levels even after mild stressors.
The term domestic violence can be defined as the continuous physical, sexual or psychological abuse that a one has to witness at home. Domestic violence is practiced at home in order to gain control and establish power over the other person. At present, in our society the rate of awareness regarding domestic violence is increasing. When a child has to witness domestic violence constantly at home, it tends to develop emotional as well as behavioral problems in them. In addition, their development is effected because these children have to face unexpected and immediate school or home changes along with parental separation at times as well.
While considering the effects that domestic violence on the development of a child we consider that the child is residing in a home where spousal abuse happens frequently. According to Cleaver et al. (1999), studies imply that when such violent incidents took place in a domestic situation, they…… [Read More]
Domestic violence is often overlooked or simplified. People assume children who become exposed to domestic violence only exhibit negative symptoms. Just a couple of decades ago, few had any idea of the impact domestic violence had and continues to have on a child. From growing up and dealing with the pain and/or stigma, to lesser social skills and bad coping mechanisms, the effects of domestic violence on children are clearly visible in some cases while unnoticed in others.
These effects range from severe on one end of the spectrum, to little or no effect on the other. (Due in part to their level of internal or external resiliency) Current research focuses on several areas (1. behavioral and emotional ability, 2. cognitive and coping ability, and 3. long-term issues such as PTSD and depression.) and splits them into categories. (behavioral, emotional, social, cognitive, and mental/physical effects) so as to show the full side of the issue. Whether or not witnessing or being apart of domestic violence increases negative reactions in children may be attributed to level of resiliency.
The bulk of research had internalizing and externalizing behavior as the main focus and found major variations between witnesses and non-witnesses. A broad cross-section of the research examined shows that children often experience multiple or varying symptoms as a result of seeing or being apart of domestic violence. Results over several studies reveal children may exhibit any number of issues from exposure to domestic violence. They may also not present any symptoms by having greater resiliency. Resiliency was shown to play a role in how well children dealt with domestic violence.
Resiliency as read in the literature may be attributed to factors such as environment. This paper sheds light on each category by providing information on children that have witnessed or been in domestic violence situations and how they responded to the exposure. It also identifies more data on symptoms and how children might fit into several or none depending on level of resilience.
Understanding the Effects of Domestic Violence on Children and their level of Resiliency
It has long been known domestic violence that occurs in the home often goes unnoticed. It commonly takes the form of…… [Read More]
Is Domestic Violence a Learned Behavior?
Unfortunately, domestic violence is a learned behavior. There are many forms of domestic violence and/or abuse: Physical, Sexual, Ritualistic, Verbal, Emotional, Religious, Silent, Elder, Economic, Using Children, Threats, Intimidation, Sibling, Cultural, Isolation, Personal, Institutional, and Witness Abuse, etc.… However, they all have the same common denominator: the perpetrator's desire to gain and maintain POWER and CONTROL in the relationship (Laws 2011). Domestic violence or abuse is a pattern of controlling behaviors that are purposeful, and directed at achieving compliance from and over a victim without regard for his or her rights. These behaviors can be perpetrated by adults or adolescents against their intimate partner or significant other in current or former dating, married or cohabiting relationships. Domestic violence is a combination of physical force or terror designed to cause physical, psychological, social, religious, economic, mental, and emotional harm to victims. Characteristics of domestic violence may include selective behavior, permissible behavior, cyclic behavior, and learned behavior (Laws, 2011). Hence, society attributes domestic violence with learned behavior, which warrants further evaluation.
Rationale for Abuse
Many women are abused by intimate partners, millions of children witness such acts, and many of these children are physically abused. Children who are exposed to violence often evidence difficulties, including violent behavior, as adults. One hypothesized mode of intergenerational transmission is modeling. There is evidence that witnessing and/or experiencing violence are related to different patterns of abusive behavior and, perhaps, psychopathology, but the extent of the relationship is unclear. Generality, frequency, and severity of violence and psychopathology all increased as level of childhood exposure to violence increased. Modeling theory was supported by the findings that men who witnessed domestic violence as children committed the most frequent domestic violence, and men who were abused as children were more likely to abuse children. Men who were abused also committed more general violence.
Because of its hidden nature, domestic violence almost always takes place behind closed doors and reliable numbers are elusive, but it is estimated that well over…… [Read More]
Applied research project
Domestic violence is one of the most pervasive and little-understood crimes perpetuated today. The reasons that so many women remain in such abusive relationships and also why some women are finally capable of leaving violent households are little-understood, even though there is considerable statistical evidence that women suffering from domestic violence are under great risk of losing their lives to their abusive partners. This paper offers a qualitative research design approach for a proposed study to explore motivational factors for why women leave or stay in such relationships. It is phenomenological in nature in the sense that it attempts to describe why women act as they do, and to categorize the various personal factors that impact their actions, rather than impose paradigmatic designs or theories upon the women's responses.
Stage One: Conceptualization of a research focus
Domestic violence is one of the most common, yet underreported crimes today. According to the U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, "almost 6 times as many women victimized by intimates (18%) as those victimized by strangers (3%) did not report their violent victimization to police because they feared reprisal from the offender" (Domestic violence statistics, 2011, ARDVARC). Women may fear reporting the crimes that have been perpetuated upon them for a number of reasons, including fears of more violence, should they return home. These fears are not necessarily misplaced: "About 75% of the calls to law enforcement for intervention and assistance in domestic violence occur after separation from batterers" (Domestic violence statistics, 2011, ARDVARC).
In the United States, 21% of violent crimes against women are perpetuated by intimates (either boyfriends or husbands) and 31,260 women were murdered by an intimate from 1976-1996 (Domestic violence statistics, 2011, ARDVARC). This prevalence is not simply true of the U.S. But also globally. One of the most significant studies of domestic violence was conducted by the World Health Organization in 2005. It found that "intimate partner violence is the most common…… [Read More]
Notwithstanding any sociocultural differences between the study's 24,000 respondents to the contrary, the WHO researchers found that, across the board, there were consistent similarities among the effects of domestic violence on the women who participated in the study. For instance, the press release from WHO includes an observation from a member of the core research team for the study, Dr. Charlotte Watt of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who advised, "The degree to which the health consequences of partner violence in the WHO study are consistent across sites, both within and between countries, is striking. Partner violence appears to have a similar impact on women's health and well-being regardless of where she lives, the prevalence of violence in her setting, or her cultural or economic background" (quoted in Landmark study on domestic violence, 2006, para. 3).
The WHO study's findings also confirmed much of the research to date concerning the adverse effects of domestic violence on female sexual and reproductive health and exacerbation of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The WHO study found that women who lived in sexually or physically abusive relationships were less likely to have a partner who agreed to use a condom, more likely to have undergone at least one induced abortion, and they were more likely to have male partners who maintained multiple sexual partners compared to their non-abused counterparts who did not report any domestic violence (Landmark study on domestic violence, 2006).
In contrast to physical violence where there were weapons and/or fear of force used, the WHO study defined sexual violence as being any of the following three behaviours: (a) being physically forced to have a sexual intercourse against their will; (b) having sexual intercourse because they were afraid of what their partner might do; (c) being forced to do something sexual they found degrading or humiliating (Landmark study on domestic violence, 2006, para. 3). This type of domestic violence was particularly disturbing as it applied to pregnant women. For instance, the WHO study found that in a majority of the countries studied, between 4% and 12% of women…… [Read More]
Sternberg et al. (1993) is a secondary research source that described the effects of domestic violence on children's behavior. This source of information on the topic of domestic abuse is more expansive than the previous two sources discussed. Here the impacts of domestic violence are realized through the children of domestic violence victims. As this article also expands the idea of domestic violence, it also ignores those victims of domestic abuse with no children. The article and all of its data suggest that the research that can be done on domestic violence may be infinite and can be viewed through multiple lenses all giving new characteristics to the term and creating new and challenging relationships that researchers must figure out.
The article itself reaches interesting conclusions about its effectiveness. The authors proclaimed "the results of this study have several important implications for the design of research on domestic violence. First of all, extensive efforts must be made to document the severity and nature of domestic violence to define children's experiences accurately " (p.51). The main point of this research appears to be that subjectivity is very important in determining what violence and abuse really consists of. There are different cultures being practiced everywhere in America and many of these cultures would not agree on what is violent or not. This is the problem that is ultimately presented in this source of information about this topic.
The final source used for this research project comes from a report issued by the American Bar Association. In this report, statistics with very little analysis is presented. Sources are quoted throughout out the online report which directs the origin of the information.
Numeric facts are presented that include selections: " in 2000, 1,247 women and 440 men were killed by an intimate partner. In recent years, an intimate partner killed approximately 33% of female murder victims and 4% of male murder victims," and " Women are more likely to be victims of sexual violence than men: 78% of the victims of rape and sexual assault are women and 22% are men." This report is nothing but these factoids without context. This statistical-only method of presentation is useful but only to a point. Although the information is backed…… [Read More]
It has long been recognized that clients must have the mindset and goals set forth for themselves if they are to succeed in a therapeutic changing process. Whether the goal is to change behavioral or emotional problems, the client must be motivated by their own desires to change. Lee, Uken & Sebold (2007) state that oftentimes in the therapy process, a client will know that he or she needs to change, however, they do not have any indication of when the problem has been successfully dealt with -- or when they are successfully changing their behavior. Because there are no indicators for them (without goals), long-term therapy is often what occurs -- sometimes with successful results and sometimes not. Goal setting becomes a vital part of successful treatment "because it gauges clients' progress toward beneficial solutions to their problems" (Maple, 1998; Lee et al., 2007).
There may be reason to believe that because court-ordered batterers may feel resentment, anger, and blame for their sentence, they may not have the ability to recognize that they must change their behavior; therefore, they will not set up goals for themselves as they will not want to actively engage in the therapeutic process. This could result in recidivism for these batterers. The ability to recognize faults and flaws and set out a goal plan for correcting them is vital for recovery.
The opinion on whether court-ordered batterers' intervention is effective or not has been discussed quite abundantly in the last decade. Rosenberg (2003) found that some of the elements that are helpful when intervening in domestic violence cases are more relational types of assistance. Group support and therapist alliances were the first and foremost elements considered to be the most helpful, according to Rosenberg's (2003) study of male and female domestic violence perpetrators one year after they had completed a 52-week court-mandated intervention program. However, there is still debate about whether court-mandated programs can force people to change.
Babcock, Green and Robie (2004) found through their meta-analytic review of 22 studies evaluating treatment efficacy for domestically violent males that treatment, overall, tended to have a very small effect on the individuals. "Effects due to treatment were in the small range, meaning that the current interventions have a minimal impact on reducing recidivism beyond the effect of being arrested" (2004).…… [Read More]
The author further explains that even though there are similarities between heterosexual and homosexual relationships as it pertains to reaction and the victim remaining in the relationship. Again the author explains "homophobia does not allow mainstream service providers to have an adequate conceptualization nor the development of preventive and remedial strategies for the people involved (Toro-Alfonso and Rodriguez-Madera, 2004)."
Therapy for those effected by domestic violence
Both perpetrators, victims and children exposed to domestic violence may require some type of therapy. In many cases anger management is often required and used to assist perpetrators in dealing with anger issues. In addition to anger management some professionals also utilize Art therapy to assist hose effected by domestic violence. Art therapy involves the use of the arts (music, panting writing) to assist people in eliminating violence from the household. According to Panzer et al. (2000) places such as shelters for battered partners should have some type of art therapy to assist victims in confronting their feelings and expressing what has occurred.
According to the American Art Therapy Association, art therapy is defined as a mental health profession that uses the creative process of art making to improve and enhance the physical, mental and emotional well-being of individuals of all ages. It is based on the belief that the creative process involved in artistic self-expression helps people to resolve conflicts and problems, develop interpersonal skills, manage behavior, reduce stress, increase self-esteem and self-awareness, and achieve insight ("About Art Therapy")."
Art therapy combines several different areas including human development, psychotherapy, visual art and various models of counselling ("About Art Therapy"). The therapy is utilized for people of all ages including children, teenagers, adults and the elderly ("About Art Therapy"). In addition art therapy is utilized to address several issues including anxiety, depression, anger, emotional disorders and domestic violence. ("About Art Therapy")
As it pertains to the utilization of art therapy within the sphere of domestic violence, it is most often utilized for victims ("About Art Therapy"). These victims include those that have been abused…… [Read More]
The law enforcement community must present a united front with state agencies against domestic violence if it is ever to be stopped. Until abusers can be brought to justice there will always be frightened victims living their lives, blaming themselves for the bruises.
When domestic violence occurs, many people suffer. The victim is in pain, obviously, but often the person who was violent feels bad about it afterwards. They say they will not do it again, but many do. Quite a few victims stay with abusive partners. Some stay because they have nowhere else to go and feel that no one else would want them. Others stay because they really believe the 'I'll never do it again' line every time it is said. When victims decide to leave, however, it's important for them to know that they have somewhere to go and that the law will be there to protect them. The Evidence Codes are very important because they tell the court what is and is not allowed to be discussed during the trial. Evidence code 1109 is especially important to domestic violence victims.
In section 1109 of the Evidence Code, the law states that "evidence of the defendant's commission of other domestic violence is not made inadmissible by Section 1101 if the evidence is not inadmissible pursuant to Section 352." In order to understand what this means, and why it is so important in domestic violence cases, a discussion of the information contained in Sections 1101 and 352 of the evidence code is needed, as well as a clarification of how these two Sections tie into Section 1109.
Sections 1100-1109 of the Evidence Code all relate to character traits in an individual. Evidence of the defendant's conduct can be used in some circumstances to show his character, but it cannot be used in all cases. Fortunately, domestic violence is one of the areas where previous convictions and instances of violence can be brought into the courtroom as evidence of a character trait toward domestic violence. This can be very important for the victims of domestic violence, as the chances of the defendant being jailed are much greater if his history shows past violence toward domestic partners as well as the current charges against him.
Section 1101 of the evidence code states that evidence of…… [Read More]