Drug Addiction Essays Examples

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Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, Rodriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and its psychological and physiological effects mirror the drug's inherent properties.

To understand the physiology of drug addiction, one must first recognize that all drugs are chemical compounds. Each drug is composed of various chemical properties that react to receptors within the brain, stimulate biochemical processes, and the individual then experiences…… [Read More]

References:
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Drugs and Addiction

Words: 1116 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18518565

Drugs and Addiction

Prolonged drug use produces compulsive seeking of the drugs. Drugs affect the functioning of the brains' functioning, and that has behavioral implications on the drug addict. Drug addiction leads to chronic relapses, which may lead a person to face problems of disconnection. Prescription drugs are becoming the most abused drug types regardless of the negative influences they produce to the lives and behavior of users. University students in America adapt to illegal use of prescription drugs like Adderall, piracetam and modafinil in search of increased intelligence.

The controversy behind the use of drugs like Adderall is based on the ethical influence on others with relation to effects its use has on addicts. The controversy behind Adderall use comes from the fact that it helps users in enhancing their concentration, while at the same time; it produces negative characteristics on users. As this paper discusses the addictive use of drugs, the focus is on the use of Adderall as an enhancement drug, and how it should be treated focusing on moral aspects of drug use on others. There is also going to be a focus on the essence of relating Adderall use to healthy eating, which is encouraged…… [Read More]

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Drug Abuse Individuals Who Use Drugs Have

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50946773

Drug Abuse

Individuals who use drugs have difficulties defeating their addiction and often are pulled back into a reoccurring cycle. The euphoria a person experiences through the use of certain drugs causes the individual to continue their use in order to maintain their excited state. Eventually through continued use a person can develop a tolerance, which can cause increase use to substitute the effect.

Illegal Drugs

The most common illegal drugs on the market include marihuana, heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine. They are considered illegal due to the fact that they are acquired through illegal practices by drug dealers and sold at highly expensive rates. Due to the high cost to obtain these drugs, many addicts go to grave lengths to get their daily dose. Individuals will engage in sexual activity and even steal from family members in order to purchase these highly addicted drugs. People high on meth or heroins loose their sense of judgment and can act in a way not recognizable to their family and friends, they also tend to make irrational decisions that can haunt them forever. Increased sexual activity among addicts can lead to many sexual related diseases, such as AIDS and HIV. According to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Drug Abuse is Costly . (n.d.). National Insitute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 15, 2012, from archives.drugabuse.gov/about/welcome/aboutdrugabuse/magnitude/

Drug Addiction Treatment. (n.d.). How Does Addiction Affect the Family. Retrieved April 15,
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Drug Legalization as the Country

Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89122943



"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()

Socio-economic effects

Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other minority drugs Debusmann ()

Many drug cartels have taken advantage of the limited resources of the nations in terms of having low taxation levels in the Central American countries which had been credited with weakening the response of the region towards drug traffickers. 2010 tax revenue statistics show that El…… [Read More]

Resources:
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.

Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
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Drug Culture Final the Second

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88370120

Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.

On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods, can be considered to be a postmodern horror film that parodies horror films, in general. In Cabin in the Woods, drug use, particularly marijuana, is exaggerated and simultaneously used to comment on society's perceptions of drug use and users. Additionally, commentary on the formulaic structure of horror films, and the…… [Read More]

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Drug Usage the Use Drugs

Words: 4084 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41436016

Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).

Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).

In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the risk of an individual vulnerability of addiction to the Class A drug (James 2006). Researchers tested 700 cocaine users and 850 non-users in Brazil, where use of crack and cocaine is widespread, and found that individuals (some 30%) who had a particular variant of a gene called the Dopamine Transporter…… [Read More]

Sources:
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Drug Treatment According to the

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88329234



Thirdly, drug treatment counselors consider the effectiveness of the program's treatment methods when recommending these programs to addicts. This is determined through evaluating the program's success rates, especially from an objective external agency. This process may also require consideration of the program's accreditation and licensing to determine whether its workers are properly trained mental health professionals and specialists. The success rate of a drug treatment program is crucial in determining its effectiveness in helping the addicted individual to recover.

The fourth factor considered by these professionals when recommending a treatment program is social factors since several environmental factors enhance the probability of exposure to particular drugs. In some cases, some drugs are more often used within some cultures while other drugs are easily found is some geographic areas. Social factors are also considered because drug use takes place in the context of social network for many people (Hoffman et. al., n.d.).

In addition to these factors, drug treatment counselors should consider the family of the addicted person. The need for consideration of the family is because it plays a crucial role in the treatment of any health issue such as substance abuse ("Chapter 1 Substance Abuse Treatment," n.d.). While family…… [Read More]

References:
"Chapter 1 Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy." (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved from U.S. National Library of Medicine website:

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64269/ 
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Drug Abuse and Prostitution Researchers

Words: 2001 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64002153

This despite how much money is being wasted on "the war on drugs." Making "war" militarily on a medical/social problem makes no sense. In addition to the psychological problems of individuals, social conditions contribute greatly to the problem. People who are alienated from society become addicted to drugs, as Sen. Robert Kennedy pointed out back in 1965. Solving the drug problem means "solving poverty and broken homes, racial discrimination and inadequate education, slums and unemployment" (cited in Goldberg, 2005 p. 11), not to mention child abuse. Instead, we treat prostitutes as though they were scum. A New York study has shown that the police, the courts, and their clients (johns) routinely mistreat them in a manner that violates civil liberties and human rights. This is "mirrored at the judicial level, where sex workers bear the brunt of the criminal justice system while johns usually get off relatively lightly" (Facts about prostitution web site).

Until the complex, hard-core social problems are addressed in a meaningful way, drug use will continue to be a problem. Drug use is a symptom of societal sickness, and making "war" on a symptom without addressing the disease itself is useless, expensive, and makes everything worse. Sanho…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
America's drug abuse profile web site. Retrieved 23 April 2007 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/htm/chapter2.htm.

Facts about prostution web site. Sex Workers and Civil Rights. Retrieved 22 April 2007 from  http://www.rapeis.org/activism/prostitution/sexworkerscivilrights.htm 
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Drug Laws Changes in Drug

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42977176

Therefore, a closer look at what is needed is in order.

Needed Changes, Stakeholders and Barriers to Change

The decades that followed Rockefeller and Felony Offender made it clear that these laws were in dire need of change for a variety of reasons. Perhaps most importantly among the reasons for a need for change was the fact that many of those in need of recovery from drug addiction were instead being locked away in prison, burdening the justice system, breaking up families and torturing people with a definite disease. On the other side of the argument, however, barriers to change in these policies was led by staunch conservatives who, not realizing the many facets of drug addiction, were too fast to dismiss addicts as criminals who were only getting what some felt they deserved (nysda.org). In reality, however, there are effective solutions to the debate.

Effective Solutions to the Debate simple relaxation of drug laws and lighter sentences for minor drug offenses is not the only part of the solution equation. In addition, drug abusers need to receive rehabilitation services to help them to free themselves from the prison of drug abuse, and therefore the literal prison that previously awaited…… [Read More]

References:
Current Developments in the Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nysda.org/Hot_Topics/Rockefeller_Drug_Laws/rockefeller_drug_laws.html

The Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.drugpolicy.org/statebystate/newyork/rockefellerd/index.cfm
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Drug Law Reform Pro According to the

Words: 402 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26420633

Drug Law Reform (Pro)

According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.

Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:

C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites. However, indicators suggest that crack use has decreased as powder cocaine has become more available in [certain areas].

So what has this policy really accomplished if drug use is both up and down, depending on the type of drug, the area in question, the help available to addicts seeking treatment,…… [Read More]

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Addiction Is a Disease

Words: 1708 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12218791

Addiction as a Disease:

Addiction is a term that has traditionally been used to refer to psychiatric syndrome that is caused by illicit drug use. Actually, addition is the only psychiatric condition whose symptoms are regarded as an illegal activity. In most cases, this term is described on the basis of drug use, which is the main focus of many research and treatment programs. Generally, drug addiction has significant negative effects on individuals using the drug and those around them such as family and friends. Family and friends are usually forced to watch their loved ones wilt away in illicit drug use. While addiction has traditionally been regarded as a psychiatric condition, there are numerous debates that have emerged on whether it's a disease or merely an immoral act by a selfish individual. My standpoint is that addiction is actually a disease because of the observations I have made on how illicit drug use takes control of the addict. I have watched my brother battle prescription drug addiction and eventually passed away from an overdose at the age of thirty-two years. As a result, I believe that addiction is a disease because it changes the functioning of the addict's brain.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Dingel, Molly J., Katrina Karkazis, and Barbara A. Koenig. "Framing Nicotine Addiction as a "Disease of the Brain": Social and Ethical Consequences." SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 92.5 (2011): 1363-388. Print.

Goldstein, Rita Z., and Nora D. Volkow. "Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex." The American Journal of Psychiatry 159.10 (2002): 1642-652. American Psychiatric Publishing, 2002. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. .
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Drug Policies Major Policies History

Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8012701

14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).

By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).

Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). The Manufacturing Act created a system of licensing manufacturers and quotas for classes of drugs. In 1961, the United States became one of fifty-four nations to participate in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which aimed to modernize and coordinate global narcotic control.

In the 1970s two more laws were…… [Read More]

Resources:
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
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Drug Legalization Is a Highly Controversial Issue

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35311989

Drug legalization is a highly controversial issue, which has been given top priority in political agenda. Many oppose legalization of cocaine but there are just as many people favoring legalization on various grounds. It is important to study both sides of the problem to see if legalization is practical or not. Those who oppose legalization of drugs maintain that cocaine is a dangerous drug which if legalized will send the wrong message that "it is OK to try such drugs" (Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea: 17 A). Opponents maintain that it is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies and other authorities to maintain stricter control over drug use in order to maintain "a delicate balance on drug initiatives." (Hemenway, 2002)

Drug legalization is a sensitive issue that many regard as problematic and believe that it is not in the jurisdiction of United States to allow or disallow legalization of drugs. Those who vehemently oppose legalization believe that it is an international issue, which must be resolved as such because according to international agreements and treaties, drugs such as marijuana, cocaine and heroin are "illegal and addictive." (Hemenway, 2002) researches and studies have also refuted the claim that cocaine…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1)

Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea., USA Today, 10-11-1999, pp 17A
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Drug and Alcohol the Effects

Words: 2365 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79848069

And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).

One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).

The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and drug addiction treatment and rehabilitation over a period of time.

Figure 3.

(Source: http://www.nida.nih.gov/EconomicCosts/Chapter1a.gif)

Figure 4.

( Source: http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/ndcs00/chap2_10.html)

It is clear from the above graphs and charts that billions of dollars are lost every year because of absenteeism and lost earning from both drug and alcohol addiction.

4. Conclusion…… [Read More]

Sources:
Allen J. ( 2006) Drugs a Factor in Many Sexual Assaults, Study Says. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/501383/drugs_a_factor_in_many_sexual_assaults_study_says/ 

Bennet W. (1999) the Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York: Broadway
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Drug Culture in Lost Weekend

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35655446

While Jacob's Ladder is a horror film, Jacob Singer, played by Tim Robbins, is haunted by hallucinations, which he is convinced are a result of secret government chemical or drug testing carried out on him during the Vietnam War. In this regard, Jacob's Ladder comments on the countless unknown substances that are secretly administered to unwilling subjects. This aspect of the film, although ultimately proving to be untrue as Jacob's hallucinations are a desperate attempt to cling to life and he really dies in Vietnam, focuses on a different aspect of drug culture: drug testing and manufacture. In Jacob's Ladder, Jacob and his fellow soldiers, serve as ersatz lab rats, considered to be disposable by the U.S. government.

On the other hand, the Insider, directed by Michael Mann, focuses on the power held by drug corporations and their ability to influence the media and public perceptions of individuals. The Insider is not specifically about drugs and drug use, but rather about the drug manufacturing industry itself. In the film, Jeffrey Wigand, played by Russell Crowe, admits that Brown & Williamson, a big tobacco company, has knowingly made their cigarettes more addictive through chemical infusions and that the company has continuously…… [Read More]

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Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64185510

Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral Values and Moral Panics

A disinterested alien observer who came down to the planet Earth and saw the difference in how legal drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes were treated under the law when compared to illegal drugs would be hard pressed to explain the differential treatment. After all, alcohol and cigarettes cause or contribute to far more deaths, injuries, health problems, and social problems than illegal drugs. In fact, some illegal drugs, such as cannabis, are relatively free of side-effects when compared to those two legal substances. Furthermore, even some of the highly villianized hard drugs, such as heroin, are considered less addictive than nicotine. Therefore, it is difficult to understand why some substances are illegal and others are not. The reasons are not scientific or social; therefore, one must look at the history of drug policy in the Western world and how that has led to the creation of a drug policy that is based on value judgments about the types of people who do certain drugs rather than the real-life impact of the use or abuse of certain drugs when compared to other substances.

In order to understand why drugs…… [Read More]

Resources:
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Drug Courts on Drug Abuse

Words: 2106 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86343601



The later stages focuses on dealing with the problems related to the drug use withdrawal like the withdrawal syndromes, the tendency to relapse. The later stages also focus on restoring the self dignity and also impacting the participant with the prerequisites to self-manage the drug abuse issue once the probation and treatment duration ends (Tara, 2007).

The drug courts are also said to be significant to the economy of the U.S. The drug courts save the taxpayer money for each participant in the treatment as compared to the same individual or one with a similar problem but going through the criminal court system. This is realized by the reduced recidivism cases among the graduates from the treatment facilities recommended by the drug court systems (Daniel, 2003).

In general, the drug use is very addictive and a problem that dealing with it in the U.S. society is very difficult. This is why the drug courts system is very crucial in eliminating the vice. It would be difficult to leave the task to the criminal courts that specialize in only judging and conviction without the option of treatment and rehabilitation. They do not give that personal attention to the offenders as is…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Amanda B.C., & Michael R., (2005). The State of Drug Court Research. Retrieved may 30, 2010

from www.courtinnovation.org/_.../state%20of%20dc%20research.pdf
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Drugs Explored in Music

Words: 1892 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29720651

social problem of using and selling drugs is portrayed in music. I'm interested in studying this because music has at once been accused of glorifying drug culture and also as being one of the few means of allowing users to vent on the realities of drug culture. Clearly, the relationship between drugs and music is a complex one. This paper will seek to shed light on the motivations for artists to incorporate drug culture in their songs and what they presumably gain from it, and what society presumably gains from it as well.

The first song that this paper will examine when it comes to the treatment of drugs as subject matter for songs is in the work of 2 Pac in his famous song, "Changes." This song is so remarkable in that it addresses a tremendous amount of social injustice in that is still alive and well in the world today. The treatment of drugs is often intertwined with the issue of racism and the fact that African-Americans in the world today are put at a severe disadvantage socioeconomically. Consider the first line that 2 Pac uses in reference to drugs: "Give the crack to the kids who the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Azlyrics.com. (n.d.). Semi-Charmed Life. Retrieved from azlyrics.com:  http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/thirdeyeblind/semicharmedlife.html  azlyrics.com. (n.d.). The A Team. Retrieved from azlyrics.com: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/edsheeran/theateam.html

Doak, B. (2003). Relationships Between Adolescent Psychiatric Diagnoses, Music Preferences, and Drug Preferences. Music Ther Perspectives, 69-76.
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Legal Response to Drugs

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9481766

Drugs

Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more lives than the drugs themselves, too. The United States boasts the world's highest rate of incarceration, with the bulk of offenders actually being innocent of everything but wanting to get high. It is unethical to continue the war on drugs, and yet it continues to be an integral part of…… [Read More]

References:

Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html
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Have Stiff Drug Laws Helped or Hurt the Criminal Justice System

Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4814440

Drug Laws

The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal

As a major policy issue in the United States, the War on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the War on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove that stiffer drug laws will only have the impact of criminalizing countless drug addicts who might otherwise benefit substantially from rehabilitation and other treatment-based strategies. With a specific focus on the prohibition of marijuana, the research will set out to distinguish between those states that employ laws of prohibition and…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.
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Compare Drug Policy Between the U S and Netherlands

Words: 2726 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52701418

Drug Policies of the United States and the Netherlands

Virtually every country in the world has drug prohibition and criminalizes the production and sale of cannabis, cocaine, and opiates, except for medical uses, and most countries criminalize the production and sale of other psychoactive substances, and moreover, most countries criminalize simple possession of small amounts of the prohibited substances (Levine 2002). However, no Western country and few Third World countries have or have ever had forms of drug prohibition as criminalized and punitive as the United States (Levine 2002). Beginning in the early 1990's, drug policies in Europe, Canada, Australia and elsewhere began to shift away from criminalization of drugs, and no where has the pendulum swayed more than in the Netherlands (Levine 2002).

The United States' drug policy is the best example of criminalized drug prohibition that uses criminal laws, police, and imprisonment to punish people who use specific psychoactive substances, even in minute quantities, and in most places prohibits supervised medical use of cannabis by terminally ill cancer and AIDS patients (Levine 2002). Moreover, long prison sentences for possession, use, and small-scale distribution of illegal drugs are given under U.S. drug policies, and most U.S. drug laws explicitly…… [Read More]

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Correctional Issue of Drugs

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68200432

Drugs in Federal Corrections

Corrections issues

One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. Research has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (Ruiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV / AIDS or Hepatitis C (Chak, Talal, Sherman, Schiff, & Saab, 2011). Since the prisoners are in a closed environment, they will share needles and other objects, which leads to offenders infecting each other.

Description and evidence of problems leading to the issue

Demand for drugs within the correctional facilities poses…… [Read More]

Sources:
Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.

Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.
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Criminal Policy of Drug Court

Words: 3736 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85191739

Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts

For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). Beyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s (Miller & Gold, 1994). The legislature passed tougher laws imposing longer sentences, such as the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 and the Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988, and the nation struggled to find a solution for its drug and crime problem ("The Effective National Drug Control Strategy,"…… [Read More]

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The Disease Model of Addiction

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88748244

Addiction as a Disease

While drug addiction may not bring about obvious physical changes like some diseases, it still causes permanent changes to the brain. Drugs circumvent the natural system of rewards generated by the brain, whereby performing a pleasurable action will cause a release of dopamine. "The natural capacity to produce dopamine in the reward system is reduced, while the need persists and the drug seems to be the only way to fulfill it. The brain is losing its access to other, less immediate and powerful sources of reward. Addicts may require constantly higher doses and a quicker passage into the brain" ("The addicted brain," 2009). Contrary to Hojung Lee's suggestion, addiction is not really analogous to a habit, despite the fact that it is often called that (as in "he has a drug habit"). The compulsion to use is irresistible to the addict, which is why addicts will sacrifice jobs, family commitments, and even personal comfort to use their drug of choice. It is not a habit like brushing your teeth or getting up at a particular hour of the morning. A habit can be postponed or altered if circumstances dictate it or if there is a logical…… [Read More]

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Drug Culture in Film

Words: 1707 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662737

Drug Culture Midterm

Prior to this course, I had a very narrow interpretation of drug culture in regards to film. The films I was most familiar with were those that focused on marijuana such as Cheech and Chong films, Pineapple Express, Half-Baked, and the Harold and Kumar trilogy among others. Additionally, the only other heroin-centric film I was aware of was Trainspotting, and the only other cocaine-centric film that had made an impression on me was Blow. However, as the term progressed, I became aware of how the general public perceived these drugs and how addiction was depicted in films.

Additionally, my definition of drug culture expanded to include things that are not necessarily consumed but that still alter a person's perceptions or contribute to addiction. These different types of addictions and mind-altering phenomena are most evident in Videodrome and The Social Network.

Question 1b.

There are several films that have impacted me so far in the course. Of the public service announcements and films, A Day In the Life of Donny B. impressed me because of its depiction of an addict and the public's reaction. Throughout the film, Donny B. is shown to have lost his way in life…… [Read More]

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Drug Crime Does Research Evidence Suggest That

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45481255

Drug Crime

Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?

While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).

Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent shift in public policy. There has been a pattern of "normalization" associated with illicit drug use of most types (South 2007, p. 815). The normalization of drug use suggests that a criminological policy is failing to inject the type of normative change needed to prevent drug problems. Instead, criminological policies…… [Read More]

Sources:
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Drug Trafficking in the United States

Words: 2465 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76747395

Drug Trafficking

In The United States

drug trafficking in the united states

"Drag trafficking is an activity that involves the importation, manufacturing, cultivation, distribution, and/or sale of illicit drags.

In this hierarchical system, narcotics are moved from smugglers, growers, or manufacturers to wholesalers who pass the product down through the chain of distribution to retailers and eventually to the consumer or drug user"

(Desroches, 2007, ¶ 1).

Despite the problems inherent in drug abuse promoted by drug trafficking from Mexico and other countries as well as by individuals living in America, United States (U.S.) consumers continue to spend billions of dollars each year on illegal drugs. Producing and supplying illegal drugs currently comprises a massive global business venture expected to continue to grow; negatively impacting the way a person's mind and body works. Drug trafficking portrays the supply side of the drug trade. In the book, Drug trafficking. What if we do nothing?, Harris (2009) explains that in the U.S., drug trafficking constitutes illegal trading of drugs, while on an international scale; it simultaneously depicts a criminal activity. Drug traffickers cater to, albeit, at the same time exploit problem drug users. The United Nations defined drug users as "people who…… [Read More]

References:
Cooke, M. (2010). Tales from the DEA: Project deliverance or project folly?

The American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.aclu-wa.org/blog/tales-dea-project-deliverance-or-project-folly