Environmental Protection Essays

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Environmental Justice & Executive Order Essay

Words: 9648 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26252107

For example, unequal protection may result from land-use decisions that determine the location of residential amenities and disamenities. Unincorporated, poor, and communities of color often suffer a "triple" vulnerability of noxious facility siting." (Bullard, 1998)

Finally, 'Social Equity' is that which "assesses the role of sociological factors (race, ethnicity, class, culture, life styles, political power, etc.) on environmental decision making. Poor people and people of color often work in the most dangerous jobs, live in the most polluted neighborhoods, and their children are exposed to all kinds of environmental toxins on the playgrounds and in their homes." (Bullard, 1998)

V. EXAMINATION of CULTURAL RESOURCES

The National Preservation Institute states that the term 'cultural resource' is not defined in NEPA or even in any other Federal law and yet there are "several laws and executive orders that deal with particular kind of 'resources' that are 'cultural' in character." The following is a description of various sources and their definitions of regulations relating to cultural resources and the human's interaction with their environment.

NEPA and CEQ regulations: makes a requirement of agencies to consider the effects of their actions on all aspects of the 'human environment'.

The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) sets forth Government policy and procedures regarding "historic properties" -- that is, districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects included in or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Section 106 of NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider the effects of their actions on such properties, following regulations issued by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (36 CFR 800).

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) requires Federal agencies and federally assisted museums to return "Native American cultural items" to the Federally recognized Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian groups with which they are associated. Regulations, by the National Park Service (NPS) are at…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bullard, Robert D. (1998) Environmental Justice in the 21st Century. Environmental Justice Resource Center. Online available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm

O'Neil, Sandra George (2007) Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives
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Environmental Policies Give an Example Essay

Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279

The 1980s (the period when Ronald Reagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- Reagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANWR or Arctic National Wildlife Range, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm (DSP) that influence the public's opinion about the environment. Does our DSP limit our ability to respond appropriately to future environmental problems?

Protecting the environment involves sacrificing economic growth to a large extent since economic growth depends on environmental inputs. The forward march of the human civilization has resulted in an indiscriminate exploitation leading to depletion and pollution of natural resources. This may have given immediate economic benefits to the previous and current generations but holds a grim prospect for the coming generations. Traditionally, economists have ignored the role of environment when studying market economics. Tangible benefits like how much a certain sector is contributing to the nation's GDP is easy to measure but intangible benefits or losses due to environmental factors is difficult to assess and therefore plays a minor role in the producer or consumer's attitude when producing or buying a product.

World Bank economist has suggested that the GNP and GDP should be substituted by an Index for Sustainable Economic Welfare or ISEW which considers the depreciation of natural capital…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
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Environmental Health Essay

Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66508186

Environmental Health Website Review

Environmental Health

In today's technologically complex society we are all exposed to potentially harmful agents at work, home, school, and in the great outdoors. Tracking the levels of exposure in the United States is the responsibility of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but other non-governmental organizations have been formed in response to this concern and are providing complementary information to the public. This essay examines the online information that is available concerning environmental agents that pose a risk to human health.

Federal Agencies

The CDC has been tracking the levels of 219 known or suspected toxic chemicals, or their metabolites, in the blood and urine of a cohort of American citizens, for the purpose of determining toxicity levels and potential associations with negative health outcomes (2011, National report on human exposure). The information thus gathered will be used to alter official policy, so that exposure levels are reduced and associated health risks reduced. An agency within the CDC, the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, maintains a complementary website that provides information on toxic agents and associated diseases (2011). This site provides information on specific toxic substances, related government reports, information for both the public and medical professionals, press releases concerning current environmental contaminations, and emergency response recommendations. The CDC also maintains a webpage providing information on indoor environmental quality (2011, Workplace Safety). The built environment can be a source of toxic agents, such as radon, mold, volatile chemicals, and high CO2 levels, or provide protection against a radioactive release or biological attack. Accordingly, this webpage provides information on what has been found during inspections at a number of locations, as well as guidelines for building designers to protect future inhabitants.

The EPA home page contains links and information concerning environmental issues and disasters of national or regional concern (2001). Links to press releases, popular issues, laws and regulations, and related scientific findings are provided, and the information can be selectively geared towards persons with different levels of expertise, such as students, scientists, or medical professionals.

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), which is an institute within the National Institutes of Health (NIH), maintains a website…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR.cdc.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.atsdr.cdc.gov

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). National report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from  http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/ 
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Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Essay

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37679198

Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le Roy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical

The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.

Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing, as well as "a burning feeling in the lungs" (EPA, no date, p. 1). It can even be fatal. Although there are numerous factors that can account for this condition, one of the most prevalent is air pollution. Additionally, it is worth noting that while there are measures individuals can take to mitigate the effects of asthma, particularly as they pertain to air pollution, there is no cure for this chronic condition. In addition to air pollutants, asthma may also be caused and worsened by exposure to other harmful things such as mold, roach feces, and generally unsanitary conditions.

Air pollutants are contaminants in the air that cause a negative effect to both the air itself and to the people who breathe it. Despite the fact that there are numerous varieties of air pollutants, those that are most closely related to the causing of asthma include ozone, particularly that which arises from the exhaust from vehicles. Ozone is a crucial element of smog and is prevalent in major metropolitan areas including Atlanta, Los Angeles, New York, and others (NRDC, 2005). Another eminent air pollutant is particle contamination, which includes vehicle exhaust, dust, smoke from fires, and other chemicals. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are also known to contribute to air pollution, and to make asthma worse. The former comes from burning crude oil and coal,

The costs to society associated by asthma -- which is caused in no small measure by air pollutants, are considerable. According to the Natural Resources…… [Read More]

References:
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf 

Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
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Environmental Crime the National Environmental Essay

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29682431

..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)

The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

An important part of this act and its implementation is the setting of safety and health standards. To this end the Act also makes provision for the setting of uniform safety and health standards for industrial and other work places. For this reason the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established to undertake ongoing research into standards and protocols for safety and health.

Works… [Read More]

Sources:
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009.  http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund " rel="follow" target="_blank">
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Environmental Justice Policies and Issues Essay

Words: 5141 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478705

Environmental Justice in the United States:

Policies, Beliefs & People/Places Involved

During the course of my college career, my interests and passions have changed, gradually evolving to an intensified mix of all that my Interdisciplinary Studies major encompasses. I began my college career seeking a Mass Communication degree; a course of study that focused primarily on community organization and mobilization. After feeling the harsh reality of advertising and public relations evils, I decided that Social Work was my calling. I felt a deep need to help others in situations where if they only had some assistance their lives could be changed for the better. However, after taking an Introduction to Environmental Issues course, I felt strongly that a change of studies was necessary. I began to formulate a study plan that included all of my previous interests and integrated a whole new section-policy and law. I was particularly interested in the politics of environmental issues and how government and society view the environment and handle problems or issues that arise. Thus, when my senior project topic was due, the obvious choice for me was to research environmental justice within the United States. The Environmental Justice Movement has elements of my formulated major-communication, sociology, and political science; in every local/national issue there are social concerns, communication breakthroughs and barriers, and a very political atmosphere when dealing with policies and the environment. Throughout the course of my research I want to draw on my knowledge I have gained during my college career. I hope to obtain awareness of environmental justice issues by utilizing a holistic, integrated perspective; a view that will allow me to not only understand the root of the problem, but foresee some viable political solutions.

Definitions, Beliefs & Concerns

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Justice (or environmental racism, the terms will be used synonymously in this paper) is defined as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations,…… [Read More]

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Environmental Risk Analysis Process Essay

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86774057

Environmental Risk Analysis Process

Environmental Risk Analysis (ERA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). ERA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011).

The first goal in the ERA process is to determine how much exposure the environment or humans will have to the potential contaminant or pollutant. This involves examining the process and the risk of exposure that is inherent in the process. This consideration may involve an evaluation of risk management procedures, to see if it is possible to limit exposure and if the efforts to limit exposure are likely to be successful or unsuccessful. Determining the probability of success or failure of risk management procedures is part of determining the risk involved in a particular activity.

Once the assessor has evaluated the level of exposure that is likely to result from an activity, that information is combined with what is known about the toxicity of the chemicals that can be released into the environment. What complicates this process is the fact that not all of the impacts of chemicals are fully understood. Therefore, much of the assessment process has to depend upon the judgment of the assessor and how the assessor feels that the chemicals will interact with the existing environment. "For this reason, a key part of all good risk assessments is a fair and open presentation of the uncertainties in the calculations and a characterization of how reliable (or how unreliable) the resulting risk estimates really are" (United States…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.

Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website:  http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf 
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Environmental Concerns in 1900 the Essay

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3445105

Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. Everybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to a decrease in interest and the willingness to listen and change their views on the part of the population; this passivity induced by an afflux of information - neither useful nor concise - is a psychological truth which cannot be denied especially when trying to raise awareness on such an important topic. Thirdly, the main challenge of this program (and of environmental protection programs in general) is to change people's behavior towards the environment by improving their environmental performance. Nonetheless, ironically or not, the most difficult step in implementing a successful environment program resides in the fact that in order to determine people to act differently, legislators - national or international - need to change people's mentalities, i.e. To get people to understand why changes are needed and to believe in them.

Europa (2 May 2006). Sixth Environment Action Programme. Environment 2010: Our future, our choice. Environment General Provisions. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l28027.htm

Europa (June 2007). Our future, our choice. Overviews of the European…… [Read More]

References:
Europa (4 April 2007).

International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm

European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
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Environmental Conservation Policy Federal vs Essay

Words: 1616 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7178560



Getting the Facts Straight

After a meeting the public need to know that they have been 'listened to'. A good idea is to schedule enough meetings to a. Present the case you are making (such as Puget Sound is in dire trouble), b. Distribute this knowledge to the public, c. Ask for input from the public. It is important to have people whose sole job at the meeting is to jot down- capture -- the publics comments on data.

Give this captured knowledge to the 'experts'. Compile this knowledge into a series of easily understandable - logical - chunks. Plan a series of presentations back to the public after a short break - say three months to six months. Repeat as necessary. Members of the public may not attend all meetings.

Give a final meeting to the public that explains all the options. Note how the public reacts to each of the 'facts' that are explained.

Drafting the Proposed Law

Draft the proposed law. Give the public a presentation of the law - perhaps letting them get a copy of the law in advance. Publication on a web site may be a good idea, with optional mailed out copies (not everyone has an email account or knows how to use it.) Repeat.

Summary

Taking a hot button issue and making a law that prohibits it is almost an impossibly long task. It is easy to get frustrated (by the time it takes) but the longer it takes the better the law is by dint of the fact that the law takes into consideration more points-of-view, not just the points-of-view of a panel of experts.… [Read More]

Sources:
http://www.epa.gov/watertrain/cwa / http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/?

http://cfpub.epa.gov/compliance/cases/
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Environmental Case Study Ten Years Ago the Essay

Words: 455 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64953055

Environmental Case Study

Ten years ago, the United States Environmental Protection Agency established the Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control Requirements. The rule accomplished a comprehensive single national program to control emissions of heavy-duty vehicles by regulating the both the vehicles and the diesel fuel used in the engines. The aim was to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX ) by 2.6 million, non-methane hydrocarbons by 115,000 tons, and particulate matter by 109,000 tons by 2030. By 2006, most areas of the country sold only ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. By 2007, the only new diesel engines sold required ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. One looming problem was that diesel engines are durable and have a long product life -- the change to cleaner engines would take until about 2020.

Problem Statement

Diesel fuel is the cause of one-third of the nitrogen oxide (NOX) and one-fourth of the particulate matter that come from transportation. The connection between air pollution and respiratory disorders, including lung cancer, has long been established. The Puget Sound region was found by the National Air Transportation Association (NATA) to be in the national top 5 percentile for exposure to air toxins. An air toxics assessment found that 70% of the air toxics risk was due to diesel exhaust emissions. Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel is available as an alternative in public transportation and corporate…… [Read More]

References:
Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control Requirements, EPA420-F-00-057. (2000, December). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation Office of Transportation and Air Quality Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/otaq/highway-diesel/regs/f00057.pdf

Puget Sound Clean Air Agency Diesel Solutions Case Study, Pollution Prevention (P2). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/p2/
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Environmental Law Swancc vs US Army Corps of Engineers Essay

Words: 2968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 567474

Environmental Case Study

Case Title:

SWANCC v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Parties:

The Petitioner is the Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) and the respondent is the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

Facts:

The petitioner, SWANCC, is a consortium of 23 suburban Chicago cities and villages that united in an effort to locate and develop a disposal site for baled nonhazardous solid waste. SWANCC had purchased a 533-acre parcel, located in Northern Illinois that straddled the Cook County and Kane County line. The site had been abandoned by a sand and gravel mining operation in about 1960 and had given away to a successional stage forest with its remnant excavation trenches evolving into a scattering of permanent and seasonal ponds of various sizes and depths.

SWANCC was required by law to file for various permits from Cook County and the State of Illinois. Because the operation called for the filling of some of the permanent and seasonal ponds, SWANCC contacted the respondent, the Corps, to determine if a federal landfill permit was required under Section 404(a) of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Section 1344(a). Section 404(a) grants the Corps authority to issue permits "for the discharge of dredged or fill material into navigable waters at specified disposal sites" (531 U.S. 159).

The Clean Water Act defines 'navigable waters' as "the waters of the United States, including territorial seas" (531 U.S. 159). The Corps had issued regulations that defined the term 'waters of the United States' to include "waters, such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sand flats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds, the use degradation or destruction n of which could affect interstate or foreign commerce…." 33 CFR Section 328.3(a)(3) (1999) (531 U.S. 159). To clarify its jurisdiction, in 1986 the Corps stated that Section 404(a) extends to interstate waters: a. which are or would be used as habitat by birds protected…… [Read More]

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Environmental Security the Environment and Essay

Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46094940

The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while insecurity can impact the environment negatively as well. Specifically, refugees driven from their environment by political insecurity can place negative strain on their new environment, while war could result over a lack of resources.

It has also been mentioned above that environmental insecurity can provide a valuable resource for targeted and effective change. Dialogue and effective communication could for example lead to a greater mutual understanding among all who are dependent upon a particular environment or resource. In this way, humanity could learn that it is interpersonal similarities rather than differences that are important to secure the survival of the species rather than any specific nation.

Brown also addresses the impact of both the developed and developing world on the environment. While the developing world is often seen as the greatest culprit in the lack of environmental sustainability, Brown emphasizes that no small amount of responsibility should be at the threshold of the developed world. Indeed, the widely divergent countries at both sides of the economic fence need to take responsibility for their unsustainable habits. Indeed, this may…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
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Environmental Engineering -- Contrails Are Essay

Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23080508

Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.

The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)

The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment than emissions that are released on the ground." (Murray, 2006) the environmental impact from contrails is attributed to being a similar threat to that of the CO2 emissions speculation that is considered to be a trigger to Global Warming.

Contrails are one of many contributors to the supposed Global Warming problem (Special Report, 2006). Industrial manufacturing activity on the ground contributes pollutants directly into the atmosphere, known to also deplete the ozone layer when chloroflourocarbons and other ozone depleting gases are present. According to Special Report (2005), "Aviation is a relatively small source of the emissions blamed for global warming, but its share is growing the fastest. The evidence is strong that emissions from jet engines, including the streaks of cloud (called contrails) they leave behind in the sky, could be especially damaging. As a result, aviation is increasingly attracting the attention of environmentalists and politicians." (Special Report, 2006)

The evidence suggests that contrails do alter the environment and create an environmental impact at various levels. The environment in terms of habitat is known to affect the breathing quality of the air for biological entities and all species. The water supply is also indicated to be adversely affected. Such changes to the environment will cause considerable shifts to the ecology and the biology that will arise from the ecological environment.

Contrails…… [Read More]

Sources:
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.

Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
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Environmental Racism the Color of Essay

Words: 2243 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52802873

Poor peoples and poor nations in the world accept the false and harmful notion that the lack of development meant risky, low-paying jobs and pollution. The economically vulnerable and poor communities, poor states, poor nations and poor regions have succumbed to the notion. The movement demanded that no community, nation, whether rich or poor, whatever the color should be made dumping grounds for these deadly wastes. The movement also alerted the governments of these nations and regions to set up their own measures to protect the health and environment of their own people and areas (Bullard).

Citizen Action and Litigation

Many of the initial activities of the environmental justice movement were in the form of citizen action and litigation (Crossman 2005). Among them were the EPA's disparate-impact regulations, pursuant to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. These prohibited recipients of federal funding from engaging in racially discriminatory activities (Crossman).

Four Major Threats to Health

Four major environmental health hazards were identified as plaguing specifically the children in the United States (Bullard 2003). More specifically, the hazards were affecting people of color. These were lead poisoning, toxic housing, toxic schools, and the asthma epidemic (Bullard).

Reports said that lead poisoning was the top environmental health threat to children in the U.S. with 60% of American homes laced with lead-based paint (Bullard 2003). But the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that children from low-income homes were eight times more apt to be afflicted with lead poisoning than children from richer homes. Black children were also five times likelier than White children to be affected. Studies conducted by the National Institute for Environmental Health Services found that lead content in a child or young person was associated with lower IQ, higher drop-out rates and higher delinquency rates (Bullard).

Toxic…… [Read More]

References:
Bullard, R.D. (2007). Dismantling toxic racism. 4 pages. The New Crisis: Crisis Publishing Company, Inc.

2003). Environment justice for all. 6 pages
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Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Essay

Words: 3051 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96085136

Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation

With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.

There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their very being. There is need therefore to look at the various forms of safety law violations, the consequences as well as how to curb this trend of violations. Environmental crimes can therefore be referred to as the acts of man that are directed or intended at harming the environment (Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, 2012).

There are various criminal enforcement programs that are focused on the people who involve in negligent or willful violation of the federal laws that pertain to the environment conservation. There are some central acts that are purposefully geared towards ensuring that the environment is taken care of and protected at the highest standards possible.

The Clean Water Act which aimed at controlling the effluence that is emitted to the water bodies and in effect protect the water bodies. The main target of this Act is the criminal industries and manufacturing bodies that may tend to bypass the laws and instead of using all the required waste water treatment chemicals before they emit the effluence into the sewer systems most of which end up in the water bodies.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up

Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
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Environmental Policies and Problems in Essay

Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65016873

" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) Studies conducted in the United States have shown that "emission reduction programs provide much greater benefit than their costs." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) It is interesting to note that emission controls are generally not as expensive as first believed to implement and "appropriate programs can lead to economically efficient approaches for improving the environment, reducing costs further." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) It is stated that "control costs are not purely costs as they create opportunities..." such as the manufacture and sales of energy efficient pollution control equipment. Air pollution industries in the U.S. is said to have generated an additional $27 billion in revenues employment approximately 178,000 in 2001. (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007; paraphrased) Recommendations which arose from these findings include the recommendation that both the U.S. And China need to improve permitting policies and economic mechanisms that reflect the external costs of pollution that are being paid by others whether it be through adverse health effects and quality of life degradation and might include taxes high enough on emissions to make the adding of controls more attractive economically and rebates or subsidies are suggested as possible methods for encouraging higher efficiency as well as technologies of a renewable nature. (Committee on Energy Futures…… [Read More]

References:
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html