Eriksons Theory Essays

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Erikson According to Erik Erickson's Theory of Essay

Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24732687


According to Erik Erickson's theory of psychosocial development, there are eight stages through which an individual should pass in the development from infancy through adulthood. If someone does not achieve the goal of a particular stage, s/he will be unable to move past it and will suffer the consequences for life. The goal of a stage is considered a personality trait; failure to reach the goal is considered to be the lack of a trait. For example, the final stage in Erikson's construct is "integrity vs. despair." A person who reaches that stage successfully is said to have integrity, while one who is not successful does not. Erikson referred to each stage as a "crisis." He did not use the word in the pejorative sense, but rather to express the idea of a turning point in one's life (Atalay, 2007, p. 16). In the sad case study of the four-year-old girl, she is unlikely to reach this eighth and final stage in Erikson's scheme. Because of her circumstances at home, she is still in the first stage, trust vs. mistrust. She has learned that she cannot trust her mother to meet her most basic emotional needs and thus she is "stuck" at the lowest level of psychosocial development.

The four-year-old, whom we shall call "Sally," is not secure in her mother's love. The mother is poorly equipped to raise an emotionally healthy child. She was herself abused as a child and did not progress successfully through Erikson's eight stages. She may not have had any role models of healthy, loving parent-child relationships. She is an insecure adult who seeks the love she never had through a succession of men, some of whom treat her badly. Although she would probably say that she does not like or seek the abuse, it…… [Read More]

Atalay, M. (2007). Psychology of crisis: An overall account of the psychology of Erikson.

Ekev Academic Review 11(33), pp. 15-34.
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Erikson Leading in Times of Change Erikson Essay

Words: 2734 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23204931

Erikson Leading in Times of Change

Erikson: Leading In Times Of Change

The Leadership Style of Carl-Henric Svanberg

The leadership style of Carl-Henric Svanberg can be explained in terms of the context of the leadership situation. Svanberg's appointment as CEO of Erikson was an unprecedented move in the history of the company because he was the first CEO to be brought in from outside the industry. This created some discomfort to people within the organization. But most external to the company also felt optimistic about his taking control of the affairs of the company. The company itself was passing through a historic crisis in the form of declining profitability and a shrinking market. Network operators had ceased expanding their infrastructure which was a big blow to the growth Erikson had been experiencing for almost a decade. Svanberg was sensitive to the unique position he and the company were in and sought to make the best of the available resources. He leveraged on the optimism of those who expected him to bring a new perspective to the restructuring of the ailing company.

Through his positive outlook and framing of the situation along with his inclusive approach towards everything from strategy development to implementation, Svanberg helped to instill new values and a culture of conscious responsibility among the employees. This sensitivity to the context is reflected in the study of Osland et al. (2000). They state that leadership demands cultural sensitivity and an appreciation of the context (p. 70) on the part of the leader to bring about change in the organization without disrupting positive relationships. Svanberg's approach to leadership is based on participation and openness. Yukl (2007, p. 100) advocates a participative style of leadership that incorporates delegation over an authoritarian style of leadership. Jackson and Parry (2008, p. 84) also support that leadership is a shared transformational activity rather than an individual effort. Western (2008, p. 86) also decries the notion of the leader as a messiah or a controller in favor of a more inclusive and distributive concept of leadership. Even before he joined the company, Svanberg was seen on the premises interviewing employees and getting their ideas for how he could help the organization. This style created confidence among the employees who had been shaken with the massive layoffs in the company. It…… [Read More]

Adler, N.J., 1996. Global women political leaders: An invisible history and increasingly important future. Leadership Quarterly, 7 (1), pp. 133-161.

Alvesson, M. And Svenningsson, S., 2003. The great disappearing act: Difficulties in doing "Leadership." Leadership Quarterly, 14 (3), pp. 359-381.
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Erikson's Stage 4 Middle Childhood Essay

Words: 427 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32705578

At school, he struggled with math academically, and occasionally had conflicts with his teachers. These conflicts were not characterized by anger, but at his teacher's frustration at what they saw as his lack of attentiveness and lack of class participation. He was often described (and still is) as quiet and reserved by teachers, friends, and family. He recalls resenting going to school many years, and did not get much positive reinforcement in terms of his academic intelligence. Although his academic performance was adequate, he says he did not feel particularly intelligent. This began to change in junior high, when his performance in sports grew stronger after a growth spurt. The growth spurt, the esteem this garnered him on the team and at school translated into a greater sense of self-worth in the classroom, and greater engagement and confidence when dealing with others. For the first time he succeeded in school, was able to hold his own with his older brothers, and to feel better about his ability to show leadership towards others on the team and to his younger siblings.

Works… [Read More]

Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, & Ann LaFave. (1997). Erikson's stage 4: Latency.

Introduction to Stages. Erikson homepage. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at 
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Erikson Those Who Are Unclear Essay

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61710487

Erikson also states that the development of personality continued through the entire life cycle, rather than just during childhood as Freud has postulated. Finally, Erikson believed that each stage of development had both positive and negative elements.

Erikson's departure from the Freudian school was not readily accepted, even by those who were close to him and admired his work. In each of Erikson's developmental stages there is conflict with bipolar outcomes, as previously described. In Erikson's belief, each individual must experience both sides of the conflict in order to incorporate them into life and to synthesize these into a higher level of functioning. This differs from Freud's theory in that each stage has a name, rather than relation to pleasure from a body zone (oral, anal, etc.). According to Erikson, when the conflict is worked through in a constructive manner, this positive experience then becomes the more dominant part of the ego which then allows the individual to move toward further healthy and positive development in later stages. If the individual cannot move past the conflict or the conflict is not resolved in a positive manner, than the negative element of the stage will prevent or retard the individual's development. This negative element may be manifested as problems with self-esteem, adjustment, and in the most severe cases, may result in significant psychopathology.

Erikson has taken the basics of Freudian theory and expanded beyond the basics of psychosocial development placing emphasis on the social development and the development of the individual over the life cycle. His teachings moved away from man as a creature whose personal development was based upon his existence as a sexual being to that of the individual as a whole. Erikson was able to identify that personality differs from culture to culture, although it was his hypothesis that developmental tasks are similar to all cultures. Erikson took the initial psychological basis of Freud's work and was able to expand upon it, establishing a connection between childhood and adulthood (Leffert, 2007).

Erikson's hypothesis showed that individuals were not necessarily prisoners of their pre-cognitive development, but rather adaptable individuals who could use the restructuring of negative or missed opportunities to develop positive outcomes, no matter what the stage of life.


Chapman AJ, Foot HC, Smith JR. (1995) Friendship and Social…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Chapman AJ, Foot HC, Smith JR. (1995) Friendship and Social Relations in Children. Transaction Publishers, New York.

Wallerstein, R.S. (1998). Erikson's Concept of Ego Identity Reconsidered. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 46:229-247
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Erikson's Perspective on the Personality of Landon Carter Essay

Words: 5028 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30406685

Landon Carter's Character through

Erik Erikson's stages of development

Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (Rosenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)

A Walk to Remember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around the life of a school heart throb Landon Carter and Jamie Sullivan, who is complete opposite of Landon. The movie starts with a prank ending up wrong with Carter having to take part in the school play. Where Carter is not very serious about his life, Jamie is a much more focused and determined student. Preferring to stay alone and do her thing, Jamie has actually has plans for her life. Wanting to improve, Landon decides to ask Jamie for help and hopefully become a better actor. The play becomes the reason for their interactions to increase. In spending time with her, Landon changes as person and his feelings also change.

Regardless of what their intentions were in the beginning, they both fall for each other by the middle of the movie. The movie comes to a climax when it is revealed that Jamie has Leukemia and does not have much time left. Despite the troubles, Landon doesn't leave her side and works to make her wishes to come true. Landon is put to test and that is when he marries Jamie and proves he does truly love her. Over the course of meeting Jamie and loving her, Landon evolves as a person to a great extent.


A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.

Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.
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Theories in Psychotherapy Essay

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62395903

Psychosocial Development Theory

In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what it means to develop as a human being from childhood to adulthood today. Their major departure from Freud's theory rests on the fact that the social environment plays a significant role in human development.

Like Freud, Erikson's theory is based upon the belief that childhood plays a vital role in the development of the personality (Davis and Clifton, n.d.). While accepting Freud's ideas on the id, ego, and superego, along with the idea of infantile sexuality, Erikson's theory incorporates two major departures from the early philosopher. Erikson believes that the personality cannot be described solely on the basis of sexuality and that the personality continues to develop after the individual has reached five years of age.

The stages of Erikson's personality development theory unfolds according to an individual's upbringing and culture, along with the innate traits with which a person is born. The stages of development include the following:

Stage 1 is the development of basic trust vs. mistrust. This development is largely based upon the maternal relationship, since the relationship with the mother is the first that the child develops. The second stage is the development of autonomy vs. shame and doubt, which focuses on the increasingly complex familial and social relationships a child develops with others and with the self. Stage 3 is initiative vs. guilt, where autonomy develops further into initiative. Depending on the levels of initiative and…… [Read More]

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Erikson's Life Stages Still Applicable Essay

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37191771

Adulthood -- According to Erikson

Define Adulthood

Adolescence is a time of transition that is pivotal to the development of the adult psyche and identity. My definition of adolescence maintains continued brain development as central, as it important to recognize that the human brain does not keep up with the development of the human body in the period of adolescence. While an adolescent may appear to be an adult by conventional measures: as adolescents enter their early 20s, they typically cease growing in stature, give evidence of secondary gender attributes, and fundamentally take care of basic individual needs -- generally, short of earning a living. While societies provide highly variable grace periods for further maturing, much of the foundation for adulthood is in place by the time individuals transition from the teen years to the twenties. However, as the scientific literature indicates, the adolescent brain will continue to develop for several years, well into the twenties. This brain maturity will give evidence of better decision-making, less impulsivity, and an emerging sense of one's mortality -- primarily pre-frontal cerebellar activities.

Throughout his treatment of the stages of life, Erikson describes two extreme resolutions to each crisis, he recognizes that there is a wide range of outcomes between these extremes and that most people arrive at some middle course.

Birth -- 2 years (Infancy): Trust vs. Mistrust. Babies learn to trust others to care for them and help them meet their basic needs (nourishment, physical contact, warmth, cleanliness -- or they don't trust others and lack confidence that others will take care of them. This description of infancy seems to be spot on as a primary interaction between infants and parents is attachment, and this is exhibited very vividly in instances of separation anxiety.

11/2-3 years (Toddler): Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Children learn to be self-sufficient in many basic activities, such as eating, talking and communicating, walking and exploring, playing and toileting -- or their doubt their own abilities. This description of the toddler years captures the strong drive for developing an independent identity while still retaining strong dependency on and attachment to parents. Toddler strive to figure out their place in the family, especially struggling to balance jealousy and companionship with siblings.

3 -- 6 years…… [Read More]

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Psychology Theories of Personality Focus on Inner Essay

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37863305


Theories of personality focus on inner traits of individuals, which may or may not be viewed as static. The most important schools of personality psychology include Psychodynamic Theory, Freud's Theory of Personality, Humanistic Theory, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Personality, Social Learning Theory, and Evolutionary Personality Theory. While all these theories share in common their goal to explain, analyze, and understand human behavior in terms of personality explanations, there are important differences in these main approaches. The differences will affect theory but also practice of psychology.

Behaviorism was one of the earliest expressions of psychological inquiry. Therefore, it makes sense to begin with an understanding of behavioral theories of personality. Behaviorism suggests that individual behavior is the key to understanding personality. Because of its emphasis on behavior rather than emotion or cognition, behavioral theories of personality are relatively weak and limited in scope. However, it is still worth understanding the contributions of B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson to the study of personality.

Psychodynamic theories of personality are highly relevant to the study of psychology because they have become pervasive in the understanding of human nature. Sigmund Freud's theory of personality falls under the rubric of Psychodynamic theories of personality. However, other famous psychologists such as Erik Erikson and Alfred Adler also have developed personality theories that remain extant in the study of personality psychology ("Psychodynamic Theories of Personality," n.d.). According to Sigmund Freud, the person is a structure that comprises of three different dimensions or levels. Those dimensions include the id, or the childhood impulses that people need to keep under control; the ego, or the core identity of the individual and face a person shows the world; and the superego, or the conscience that tells a person right from wrong or good from bad. The way these three personality structures interact determines the gamut of the personality. There are dysfunctional and healthy dynamics between these functions.

Alfred Adler developed a different psychodynamic theory from Freud. Adler's theory suggests that individuals are born with the sense of being inferior, and that they will struggle to maintain identity in opposition to this sense of inferiority. Moreover Adler emphasized the importance of birth order in determining personality, ignoring or downplaying the experience of only children. Whereas Freud focused a lot on repressed sexual urges, and the death wish, in personality functioning,…… [Read More]

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Theories of Personality. Retrieved online:

McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: 
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Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Essay

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47489992

Franz and White (1985) argue that while Erikson's stages are generally sound, they could be made stronger by a discussion of the underlying process of interpersonal attachment. They argue that the tension of intimacy vs. isolation do not adequately account for how males and females form interpersonal attachments.

The writers are clear, however, that these shortcomings do not invalidate Erikson's theory.

Instead, they are looking for ways in which his theory could be made stronger and more nuanced.

In conclusion, Erikson's models remain quite relevant, as can be seen in the illustrations of these stages and in the body of research that his work has spawned. Erikson is among the first theorists who theorized continued psychosocial development past adolescence. For this reason alone, Erikson's work will continue to occupy an important space in Western psychology.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Asbury K, Dunn JF, Pike A, Plomin R. 2003. "Nonshared environmental influences on individual differences in early behavioral development: a monozygotic twin differences study." Child Development. 73:3.

Culp, R. 2000. "Relationships Among Paternal Involvement and Young Children's Perceived Self-Competence and Behavioral Problems." Journal of Child and Family Studies. 9:1.
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Erik Erikson a Summary of Biographical Information Essay

Words: 1764 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30207964

Erik Erikson

a summary of biographical information about the psychologist Erik Erikson

The work of Erik Erikson is like that of Freud it touches upon the individual growth but while Freud analyzed himself, and stated the growth in terms of the very infant, after which he assumed that the mind does not adapt or grow, in the sense of the personality, except ego, though himself an ego psychologist, Erik's works are different because unlike Freud he did not stop at the formative years. Freud did not have an identity crisis which Erik had, and which seems to have dogged him all through his childhood and adolescence. This can be noticed from his "career, his theories, and his impact on psychoanalysis, psychology, history, and the broader culture." (Douvan, 1997)

There are major elements in his theories that are threaded together. One is the growth during adolescence, and creation of internal values, building tastes, and nurturing one's own talents. This is based on the person's culture which also influences the creation of the individual identity, is basically based on his own life experiences. Nevertheless they have had absolute influence in the general thought in developmental psychology. Needless to say, he has gone far away from Freud when he extends not only the growth and change to adolescents but even to adults and very senior persons. He proves that life is in continuity and we change as we undergo various experiences based on our own individual identity. The origin of these concepts, as stated has a root in his own life. The impact of history and culture on development on which he basses the development of the ego psychology stems from his own personal history and individual qualities he cultivated. (Douvan, 1997)

Most of the theories like Freud, stems from his own life. He was marginalized in…… [Read More]

Berzoff, Joan; Flanagan, Laura Melano; Hertz, Patricia. (2011) "Inside Out and Outside In:

Psychodynamic Clinical Theory and Psychopathology in Contemporary Multicultural Contexts" Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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Meta-Theories and Aging Meta-Theories a Essay

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53732675

The theory describes stages as patterns of behavior which are typical for a certain development period and it leads to a different pattern that is more advanced and more unusual Olson & Byron, 1942()

The organismic meta-theory is represented by Erikson's theory of personality which illustrates an important feature of the development in an organismic viewpoint. At each stage of development, there is the resolution of a particular crisis which is a turning point and which serves as a healthy balance between the opposing traits of the particular stage of development. The resolution of this crisis leads to the development of a virtue which is a good thing. If the crisis goes unresolved, the person struggles with the crisis and this impedes the healthy development of the individual Hoogendyk & Richardson, 1980()

The organismic view is associated with the structural or qualitative changes. It states that a person is different in a qualitative view point as they continue to develop. The organismic view is also associated some sort of discontinuity which is market by the stages of development. It states that the organism is composed of various parts which are interconnected and interrelated to make the complete organized whole being. The difference between the mechanistic meta-theory and the organismic meta-theory is that the organismic meta-theory understands the whole and not just the individual parts that make the whole Hoogendyk & Richardson, 1980()

By looking at aging in an organismic view, we can see that development of the individual occurs in stages and so does aging. Aging occurs in distinct stages and it comes from within the person and is not directed by external forces. Aging is genetically prewired. Aging is also viewed as a progressive change in the structure of the individual and is directed towards a particular goal or end point. In the organismic view, aging is viewed as the endpoint in the development of human beings.

Contextual meta-theory

The contextual meta-theory looks at the act itself in its context. This means that it analyzes the dynamic event in terms of its setting.…… [Read More]

Courtright, J.A., Fairhurst, G.T., & Rogers, L.E. (1989). Interaction Patterns in Organic and Mechanistic Systems. The Academy of Management Journal, 32(4), 773-802.

Engel, M. (2004). What's Wrong with Contextualism, and a Noncontextualist Resolution of the Skeptical Paradox. Erkenntnis (1975-), 61(2/3), 203-231.
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Ecological Systems Theory How Children Essay

Words: 1467 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41045091

Conyne, Ellen Cook, and the University of Cincinnati Counseling Program. In a nutshell, Bronfenbrenner's theory points to environmental factors as playing a major role in human or child development (Derksen, Warren).

The Impact of the Theory on Career Goals

It teaches that children grow and develop with a series of different relationship systems like circles forming from within and moving outward (NACCE, 2012; Yngist, 2011). It shows how a child is affected by each system and how he affects it. In turn, each system affects, and is affected by, other oncoming systems. These are linked and interlinked among themselves. Moreover, each system contains risks as well as opportunities for a child's development and the stronger and more positive the connections between systems, the better it is for the child (NACCE, Yngist).

According to the Theory, the mesosystem consists of relationships between different microsystems between family and child care and between child care and community (NACCE, 2012; Yngist, 2011). The child is entrenched at the center. The microsystem is the inner system closest to the child. It consists of the family, the local community, play groups, child care and schools. The exosystem consists of relationships that do not affect the child directly. These are relationships at his parents' workplaces as well as family policies. The macrosystem consists of society's beliefs and values affecting children. These are those, which see children as valuable and deserving of care, safety, love and growth (NACCE, Yngist).

Putting the Theory into Practice

The Theory helps form efforts to prepare educators for practice and within practice (Derksen, 2010; NACCE, 2010). It fosters more than just an understanding of children as part of a cycle of ecological system contexts. It gives particular attention to the ways reciprocal interactions between systems impact human or child development. Additionally, ecological theory points to the much smaller interactional and attachment formation processes, which take place between children or youth and child and youth care workers. It also leads to the discovery of the ways by which it influences the family work and research on child and youth care (NACCE, Derksen).

In putting the Theory to practice, educators and counselors can develop specific aims or tasks according to the nature of each ecosystem (NACCE, 2012). Mindful of the microsystem, they can extend support to…… [Read More]

Yingst, N. (2011). Bronfenbrenner Urie. Nicole Lyingst. Retrieved on May 24, 2013 from 

Yorganop (2013). Theories and theorist. IPSUWA. Indigenous Professional Support Unit

Western Australia. Retrieved on May 24, 2013 from
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How Counseling Services Benefit People-Based on Theories of Human Development Essay

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8557938

(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)

Psychosocial Theory

Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (

VI. Benefits of Counseling and Development Theories

The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (Blocher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present to facilitate the meeting of developmental needs and the mastering of developmental tasks. Tasks and concerns encountered at specific stages are understood to be hindered, blocked, or resolved depending upon the presence or absence of environmental conditions and responses." (Muro, 2007, p. 7)

Develop mentalist hold that "relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment; therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present to facilitate the meeting of developmental needs and the mastering of developmental tasks. Tasks and concerns encountered at specific stages are understood to be hindered, blocked, or resolved depending upon the presence or absence of environmental conditions and responses." (Muro, 2007, p. 8)

It is additionally reported that when Blocher (1988) "credited constructivist, cognitive-structural scholarship as the most influential to elaborating understandings of human development and change. Cognitive-structural studies affirmed the individual's information-processing tendency, reflecting intrinsic motivations to establish order, predictability and control in one's environment as well as to construct personal meaning. Cognitive dissonance was explained as part of this progression." (Muro, 2007, p. 8) Cognitive dissonance is reported to result in a "state of tension, discomfort, and imbalance. This motivates the individual to seek resolution, consistency, or cognitive consonance in an effort to construct meaning and order reality." (Muro, 2007, pl. 8)

Achieving goals of meaning and goals…… [Read More]

Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from:

Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: 
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Eric Erikson Is a Founding Essay

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78020850

During this stage the child learns to feel either confident or inferior based on external and internal cues of success and/or failure with completing these tasks. (Marlowe & Canestri 112-114) This stage lasts between the ages of 6 years and 12 years of age and is dominated by school. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (

5. Identity vs. role confusion, is the stage that corresponds to the ability of an individual to resolve social and personal conflicts with identity, and especially that revolved around sexual identity. This stage dominates the adolescent years as individuals begin to have adult like relationships and conform or reject social roles assigned their gender. As this is the stage at which most children leave the education system it is the last stage discussed in Marlowe and Canestri reading of Erikson. (Marlowe & Canestri 114-116) This role last roughly corresponds with the ages between 12-18 years and revolves around peer relationships and gender roles. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (

6. Intimacy vs. isolation, is the stage that roughly corresponds with the ages 19-40 and revolves around the individuals ability to successfully navigate and learn from adult love relationships. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (

7. Generativity vs. stagnation, is the stage that roughly corresponds with the ages 40-65 years and revolves around parenting and the ability to satisfy and support the next generation. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (

8. EgoIntegrity vs. despair is the final stage which corresponds with age 65- death as the individual develops a retrospective since of his or her ability to feel fulfilled with what he or she has completed as an individual. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (

Within these stages, there are growth opportunities, as well as opportunities for fear and failure as an individual, and this is most important in the first 5 stages, or those that will become lasting strengths or obstacles for adult development and success and are guided by necessity through external control of caregivers, teachers and lastly peers. Erikson clearly defined the whole of ones life in a set of…… [Read More]

Marlowe, Bruce a. Canestri, Alan S. Educational Psychology in Context. New York: Sage Publications, 2006.

Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" Retrieved September 20, 2007 at " rel="follow" target="_blank">
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Personality Development Most Personality Theories Essay

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77661972

shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation; and ego integrity vs. despair. Like Piaget, Erikson's theory also explains the factors that influence personality development albeit through a framework of psychosocial factors. Thus, this theory too is immensely valuable as it enables parents and teachers to help a child successfully negotiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a healthy sense of self.

Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the focus is on explaining the process through which personality develops. Thus, both theories stop short of explaining final personality outcomes and their functioning. For this reason, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory more than any other since it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by itself, and in terms of its relation to the universe. In fact, I find that Jung's personality typology explains my own personality accurately as a "ESFJ" or "Extroverted Feeling with Sensing" type. With a score of extroverted 56%, Sensing 22%, Feeling 56%, and Judging 33%, the test results describe my personality as a highly expressed extrovert and feeling person, a slightly expressed sensing person, and a moderately expressed judging person. This matches my knowledge of myself as a person whose feelings are always transparent even while enjoying social interactions of all kinds. In line with the personality type description, I also agree that I have a strong sense of right and wrong. But since I like harmony, this often creates a great deal of internal conflict when I am forced to reconcile transgression with my desire for peace.

Thus, while Piaget and Erikson's work may help explain how personality develops, Jung's theory allows for understanding how various aspects of a psyche influence the final personality outcome. To that extent, I believe that Jung's theory takes a more comprehensive approach.… [Read More]

AllPsych. (2004, March 21). Personality Development. Psychology 101. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2004:
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Five Stages of Psychosexual Theory Essay

Words: 943 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72046610

In some cultures, social and moral development is more important than whether a child speaks with proper grammar. Therefore, culture plays a huge role in what things a child will learn.

A culture that emphasizes the arts will yield educational systems more sympathetic to and supportive of the arts. Similarly, cultures that stress science will be more likely to fund science programs in school. Thus, culture affects childhood education on an institutional level too. Finally, what a child values personally is a product of his or her culture. Professional goals and personal goals are shaped by culture, as Vygotsky suggests.

4. What are the criticisms of Kohlberg's theory regarding moral development? What do you think of his theory (your opinion and give examples to support your response). What do you think the criticisms (your opinion and give examples to support your response).

Kohlberg's theory of moral development is critiqued because of its assumption that moral reasoning is based on law and order. The efficacy of justice in determining morality is questionable. For example, some individuals may make moral judgments innately, instinctually, and independently of any external controls. Kohlberg assumes social contracts that may or may not exist in all societies. Therefore, one of the main reasons why Kohlberg's theory of moral development is criticized is because of cultural bias.

Kohlberg's theory has also been criticized for being applicable mainly to men, as Kohlberg researched mainly male subjects. However, the theory seems more culturally biased than biased toward male moral reasoning. Morals are more likely linked to culture than to gender. Any differences between the genders in terms of moral reasoning are more likely due to socialization than biology.

5. Compare and contrast the Behavioral theory of child development with that of Erikson's theory of psychosocial theory of child development. Give examples to support your response.

Behaviorists focus mainly on the development of self via traditional behavioral learning theories including reinforcement and conditioning. Erikson's theory of psychosocial development centers on stages of ego-development and is surprisingly similar to behaviorism in its emphasis on learning and reinforcement. Both behaviorism and Erikson examine how young egos develop and grow into a cohesive sense of self. Both stress the roles of adults and mentors in shaping the child's psychosocial development. Similarly, both theories note the importance of reinforcement in shaping a child's moral development.

The main difference…… [Read More]

Learning Disabilities Association of America (1999). "Early Identification - Motor Skills Milestones." Retrieved Oct 12, 2008 at 

Lev Vygotsky." Retrieved Oct 12, 2008 at
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Object Relation Attachment Theories and Essay

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.



The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to the fact verbal abuse signs prove more difficult to recognize and prove than the more obvious signs of physical abuse. (Vardiganm, 2008)

During this clinical case study dissertation's Literature Review chapter, this researcher presents information, as well as diverse contentions accessed from a barrage, more than 25, of credible sources, including books, journals and websites. Themes explored during this study's segment include emotional abuse/maltreatment, along with theories and techniques other than Freudian, specifically those relating to Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology.

2.2 Emotional Abuse/Maltreatment

According to Vardiganm (2008) in his web post article, reviewed by Bruce Linton, PhD, a psychoanalyst specializing in marriage and family counseling in Berkeley, California, the following denote signs that a child is or has been verbally abuse.

Negative self-image: This sign denotes "the most common and pervasive effect of verbal abuse." child may verbalize statements such as "I'm stupid," or, "Nobody likes me."

He/she may appear withdrawn, sullen, or depressed, other signs a person possesses a poor self-image. The National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse defines emotional abuse by explaining that "attacks a child's... sense of self-worth." (Vardiganm, 2008)

Self-destructive acts: "Cutting," using razor blades or knives to cut oneself, and…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.