Franklin Delano Roosevelt Essays

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Franklin D Roosevelt the United Essay

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55164303

More precisely even, in order to reach the highest position in the United States, he used his conceptions regarding the reorganization of the United States in order to defeat Hoover. In this sense, "the Hoover administration was accused of being the "greatest spending Administration in peace times in all of our history." It had "piled bureau on bureau, commission on commission..." At the same time Hoover was condemned for the modesty of his relief efforts" (Abbot, 1990, 22). Still, once he reached the President's office he dwelt on the need for the U.S. To recover and created the New Deal, a program that would ensure the recovery of the economy as well as that of the population. These discussions however made him one of the most popular presidents of the history of the U.S. especially taking into account the fact that at the moment of Roosevelt's election, there were over 13 million unemployed (Abbot, 1990, 4).

Concerning the reconstruction of the country, he introduced measures which were considered at the time to be of socialist nature. However, despite the general opposition he went forward with them because he believed in the power of his conviction and in the benefits the New Deal would bring for the national economy as well as for the citizens of the United States.

Winning the war and the emergence of a new peace would prove to be the most challenging and health consuming of all its endeavors as president of the United States. He proved to be a world leader at the moment of the meetings with Churchill and Stalin in order to establish the new equilibrium of power. Most importantly however, he knew when to enter a war in order to win it (Abbot, 1990). From this point-of-view, he accepted the advice of his counselors and offered the image of a diplomacy which followed the national interest in the first place.

The greatest challenge can be considered to be the establishment of peace. This is not necessarily from the point-of-view of the end of the hostilities, but rather from that of the peace that would be established. In this sense, Roosevelt tried along with his team to build a consensus around the idea of the United Nations as a global organization that would ensure peace and security for the decades to come. The engagement of the U.S. In the United Nations was considered a…… [Read More]

Abbott, Philip. The Exemplary Presidency: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the American Political Tradition. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.. 1990.

Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003.
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Franklin D Roosevelt Essay

Words: 1616 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9414453

William Leuchtenburg's Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal is a text that combines recent American history with a political and sociological analysis of American policy and government, and adds a healthy dose of biography of the president to give the mixture human drama. Leuchtenburg is able to accomplish this literary feat not simply because he is such a skilled historian, but because Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his cabinet exercised a unique degree of power over the American economy of his day. America was in an economic crisis when Roosevelt came to be elected the presidency. To remedy this crisis, Roosevelt essentially had to overhaul the American system of government and the relationship of the federal government to the citizenry. He created the modern social welfare system, the concept of the 'safety net' for the needy, and a sense of government's social obligations as well as a citizen's obligations to the nation.

Thus, from an earlier area of lasses-faire, the architecture of the social welfare state still in existence today came into fullest being under Roosevelt's command. Thus, the book is not merely a tale of the man who shaped the economic policies that began to give America hope and wrest America out of the economic grasp of the Great Depression. It is also a tale of America itself, of a time where America was questioning its relationship of government to the people. When "at least a million, perhaps as many as two millions were wandering the country" in search of work and "on the outskirts of town or in empty lots in the big cities, homeless men threw together makeshift shacks of boxes and scrap metal, called, after Roosevelt's predecessor, "Hoovervilles," it was difficult to justify the Horatio Alger ideology that anyone could prosper on America's golden streets without help from the government, provided he or she had a bit of luck and pluck. (2-3)

Instead, in the wake of the Great Crash and the even greater worldwide depression, "like a drowning swimmer struggling to keep his head above water, the middle-class man fought frantically to maintain his social…… [Read More]

Leuchtenburg, William. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Perennial, 1963.
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Franklin D Roosevelt American Icon Essay

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72511778

Era Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945: A Brief History With Documents Richard Polenberg -- 4 Polenberg quotes, brackets quote i.e [polenberg, page number] 2.Franklin Delano Roosevelt Alan Brinkley- 4 quotes brackets [Brinkley, page number] 3.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt has had a strong impact on U.S. politics for several decades during the twentieth century. The fact that he had influential roles throughout some of the era's most significant events made it possible for him to develop attitudes that put him in an advantage. Even with this, his leadership abilities are also remarkable when considering his background without taking into account events like the Second World War or the Great Depression.

One Roosevelt's most impressive early achievements involved the founding of the United States Navy Reserve. As a person in charge of this institution, he got actively involved in a series of dealings involving influential individuals and communities in U.S. politics. In spite of being defeated on several occasions as he tried to gain a more active role in politics, he cemented his position in the domain and made it possible for people to get a more complex understanding of his qualities.

By observing how Roosevelt reacted to the Great Depression, one can get a better grasp of his philosophy -- he was determined to assist the masses regardless of the gravity of the situation. "Roosevelt was acutely aware of these challenges to his leadership, and he responded aggressively with a wave of new initiatives that came to be known as the "Second New Deal." (Brinkley 1928)

To a certain degree, it would be safe to say that the U.S.' involvement in the Second…… [Read More]

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FDR's Use of Charisma During Essay

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29609708

While FDR's leadership and guidance saved many American lives, he also destroyed many lives of American citizens, simply because of their ethnic origin.

However, without FDR's independence and firm guidance, which motivated America to support providing aid to England during the bombing of Britain, it is very likely that World War II would have turned against the European Allies. The congress was intent upon keeping America out of another world war, and the Lend-Lease program was the only way to prevent the balance of power from going against England. Jenkins demonstrates that it is highly unlikely that FDR 'knew' and permitted the Japanese to bomb Pearl Harbor, but he stresses that long before much of the nation and the congress were aware of Hitler's danger to America's interests, Roosevelt made a commitment to making America an international partner in the fight for freedom and justice abroad.

Thus, Roosevelt occasionally used his positive relationship with the American people to circumvent the checks and balances of legal authority of the Constitution, particularly during extreme national conditions of stress. He undercut the legal system, although not to the degree he wished to, although he bolstered the value of democracy in a broader sense. He made such choices partly out of self-interest, but also because of the extremity of the historical circumstances he presided over, and the fact that his charisma gave him a popular mandate that made them willing to sacrifice, ration, and risk their lives for America's future. Roosevelt dared many things that a less popular president could not have gotten away with, and succeeded because of his own ability and the historical circumstances of the period.

Works… [Read More]

Jenkins, Roy. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The American President's Series. New York:

Times Books, 2004.
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Roosevelt Theodore Essay

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49859960

American Morality

The Rooseveltian Nation was initially envisioned by Theodore Roosevelt during the epoch in which the U.S. triumphed in the Spanish American war and heralded its largely Anglo-Saxon nation of limited diversity as the most dominant race of a particular nation on the face of the earth. This concept was further solidified by the efforts of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who strove to reinforce the notion of such a national consciousness, character, and racial makeup with his New Deal efforts. However, the Rooseveltian Nation ultimately crumbled due to a plethora of developments near the midway point of the 20th century. A close examination of those factors reveals that they were ultimately linked to the Cold War and to what many Americans believed was an inherent hypocrisy evinced by their country -- which left a number of new ideologies among them in their wake.

The Rooseveltian Nation was able to withstand the throes of the Civil Rights movement, yet it could not endure the backlash of the Vietnam War. Both of these disturbances as evinced in the domestic state of affairs of the country were inevitably linked to the Cold War. Despite the grumblings of segregated African-American ranks during World War II, America's hegemony was most dominant during the years immediately preceding it -- which helped to justify the conception of the Rooseveltian Nation. However, with the onset of the Cold War, numerous Americans began to perceive and, on a certain level, even resent the hypocrisy evinced by a country touted as ethically and morally superior during this martial encounter, yet which still enforced Jim Crow laws and rampant racist, prejudicial practices representing "the corruption of American ideals" (Gerstle, 312). This disillusionment ultimately resulted in the Civil Rights movement which was countercultural to the effect that it did involve numerous Americans outside of African-Americans and challenged the very definitions of Rooseveltian Nation's racial makeup.

The disillusionment and counterculture that fostered in the wake of the Vietnam War directly led to "the collapse of the Rooseveltian Nation" (Gerstle, 312). Firstly, it was the first war that America did not win. Additionally, it provided a prolonged instance for Americans to get acquainted with the bureaucracy and falsehoods upon…… [Read More]

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Roosevelt S Impact on America Essay

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33933542

New Deal's Consequences

There are some truly poignant ways in which the New Deal profoundly changed American life. The vast majority of these changes had ramifications in political, social, and economic spheres of life. Perhaps even more importantly, many of these changes created by the New Deal were able to effect American life across these different spheres, creating cumulative effects that eventually resounded through all of three facets of life.

In terms of economics, it is notable that despite its intention to produce the opposite effect, the New Deal actually begat the trend towards economic conservatism and laissez fare economics that still typifies the country to this day. Ironically, the New Deal programs -- which were based on the simple notion that the government was responsible for generating spending and business to stimulate the economy during the Great Depression -- had the immediate impact of producing a heavily regulated economy. National programs in various walks of life including the arts, writing, farming, and others ensured that the government was involved in most areas of economic production during the depression. From that point on, numerous conservatives made dedicated efforts to reverse the government's influence on the economy. Once the U.S. economy stabilized during the Second World War, those interests (which combined the political and economic to inherently affect the social) ensured that the jobs were offshored during the 1960's and 1970's, and that there was a definite distinction between the government and the U.S. economy. Although some of these events took place well after the New Deal, the sentiment towards conservative economics and a laissez fare government actually sprang from the surplus of government involvement in the economy during the New Deal.

From a social perspective, the New Deal helped to change the lot of America during one of its worst economic time periods.…… [Read More]

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Eleanor Roosevelt Served Effectively as the First Essay

Words: 1630 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47567705

Eleanor Roosevelt served effectively as the First Lady in the administrations of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but her legacy goes far deeper than her advocacy activities as First Lady. This paper briefly reviews Eleanor Roosevelt's career, her advocacy as First Lady, and more fully her profoundly important involvement in the creation and adoption of the United Nations' Declaration of Human Rights.

Eleanor Roosevelt's Brief Biography -- and Involvement as First Lady

Eleanor Roosevelt was born in New York City on October 11, 1884 (she died November 7, 1962). Her father was Elliott Roosevelt (brother of President Theodore Roosevelt) and her mother was Anna Hall. She lost both her parents when she was a child and lived with her grandmother, Mrs. Valentine G. Hall; she was tutored privately until the age of 15 when she attended a boarding school for girls in England, according to the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum.

Eleanor and Franklin were married in 1905 and parented six children; when Franklin was stricken with polio (in 1921) Eleanor -- who had already become heavily involved in volunteer work for the American Red Cross during WWI -- she became "…increasingly active in politics" to help her husband cover all the necessary political bases. Her passion for service became very obvious to the American public even before she became first lady; she was involved with the League of Women Voters, Women's Trade Union League, and she taught at a private girl's school in New York City (Todhunter School) (FDR Presidential Library).

During her husband's service as president, Eleanor traveled extensively around the nation as "the president's eyes, ears, and legs"; she advocated for the poor, for minorities, and for women's rights. There had never been a First Lady who held her own news conferences but Eleanor did just that. Moreover, only female reporters were allowed to attend, "who were traditionally barred from presidential press conferences" (FDR Presidential Library).

She was bold and steadfast when it came to racial justice, and when the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) (of which she was a member) refused to allow African-American icon Marion Anderson to sing in their auditorium,…… [Read More]

American Decades Primary Sources. "Letter of Resignation from the Daughters of the American Revolution. February 26, 1939. Gale Biography in Context. 2004.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. "Eleanor Roosevelt Biography."
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Judicial Agenda of President Franklin Essay

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71889255

If Chief Justice Hughes and his five aged associates had chosen to remain, the membership of the court would have been enlarged from nine to fifteen" (Pusey 1995).

A small group of constitutional lawyers advised Roosevelt in the construction of the bill, assuring him that the Democratic majority in both Houses of Congress would pass it. When Roosevelt introduced the bill, Roosevelt used the euphemism of judicial 'reform' rather than said it was an attempt to circumvent the recent rulings of the Supreme Court. He framed his plan as a way of relieving the pressures of overcrowded court dockets. However, some of the phrases he used made his feelings clear, namely his reference to the problems of lifetime appointments, or "aged or infirm judges," (Menaker 2008).

When he spoke of justices of advanced ages, the President was obviously speaking of his opponents on the Court, the so-called anti-government Four Horsemen of the New Deal Apocalypse, all over the age of seventy: Justices Butler, McReynolds, Sutherland and Van Devanter. Roosevelt said older men often lack "mental or physical vigor" which "leads men to avoid an examination of complicated and changed conditions" (Menaker 2008). He added: "older men, assuming that the scene is the same as it was in the past, cease to explore or inquire into the present or the future" (Menaker 2008). Hence, the need to reduce the influence of old judges.

The Senate hearings on the Bill, particularly after the testimony of Chief Justice Hughes about how an enlarged court would be more unwieldy and inefficient, roused the ire of both legislators and the public against Roosevelt's plan, especially after Chief Justice Hughes showed that the court's docket was not overcrowded. Yet while the doomed bill was debated, the Supreme Court suddenly decided that their previous conclusion in the New York minimum-wage case had been wrong. In December of 1936, the Court voted four-to-four to uphold a similar Washington minimum-age law and to reverse its previous decision. Roosevelt had said he wanted his new justices to be more responsive to the needs of the public. While the justices decried this on principle, in action they began to move to support Roosevelt's desire for change. On April 12 the Court upheld the National Labor Relations Act and confirmed the power of Congress to regulate industrial relations having a direct impact…… [Read More]

Lord, Lewis. "An eagle that didn't take off." U.S. News and World Report.

August 10, 2003. Full text of print article available March 6, 2009 at
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Imperialism Roosevelt Gentlemen We Have Essay

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31481993

Napoleon: The United States stands as a perfect example of the benefits of Imperialism, as it is one of the most successful colonies that ever existed and given that it supplied the British Empire with resources for a long period of time.

Roosevelt: Matters have changed ever since the colonial era, as the U.S. is known solely interested in promoting the concept of freedom and in emphasizing the wrongness related to imperialism. We currently want to spread our ideology, not our influence.

Kipling: This sounds strange coming from someone who lived most of his life trying to protect the interests of his country instead of looking into the well-being of nations who experienced suffering.

Bismark: You are essentially not very different from us, Mr. Roosevelt. While our perspective in regard to Imperialism relates to physical aspects of the act, you and your people have simply advanced this concept and have made it possible for countries to feel that they are being assisted when they are actually being tricked into serving the U.S. I, for one, am not ashamed to admit that I perform many acts of decadence at the time when I focused on exploiting other nations. However, I was primarily concerned in helping my nation, considering that nationalism is one of the most effective ideologies.

Napoleon: I personally believe that Imperialism is unlikely to suffer severe change in the future. It is very probable that it will change its appearance, but its character will remain the same, with people being focused on expanding their influence over territories and nations that have little to no power to stop authoritarian forces from doing so.

Roosevelt: I see nothing wrong with influencing others in adopting positive attitudes, as long as they learn more regarding morality as a consequence. Thinking present in the U.S. is solely concerned with promoting moral beliefs and liberty in general.

Kipling: Yes, but doesn't this mean that you impose your point-of-view on other nations? Considering that many individuals are unwilling to change their thinking, the U.S.'s determination to influence them is somewhat similar to attitudes expressed in the early Imperialist era. People are still people and changing the way that they think means that you are changing their character and that you are denying the importance of their cultural values.… [Read More]

Ellis, Geoffrey, "Napoleon," Pearson Education, 2000.

Feuchtwanger, E.J., "Bismarck," Routledge, 2002.
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Succeeding Presidencies of Herbert Hoover and Franklin Essay

Words: 1122 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33268478

succeeding presidencies of Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt seem to be categorically and diametrically antithetical from every conceivable angle. Entering the office in 1929, Herbert Hoover's administration marked the end of America's most prosperous period to date. Within nine months of his assumption of office, the country began its tumble into the Great Depression. Clearly, the nation was paying for the good times of the Roaring Twenties. Roosevelt, however, took on the unenviable responsibilities of the president in 1933, and with them, he received a nation ravaged by unemployment, homelessness and starvation. During the worst economic times in recorded American history, he would become the warm, fatherly figure ordained to comfort the citizens. Where Hoover was reserved and conservative, Roosevelt was engaging and progressive. Hoover's reaction to the initial blow of the Depression was one of patience and calculated inaction. He was confident that the problem would right itself. Roosevelt's administration began with a blitzkrieg of policy ratifications and medicinal initiatives. His actions were quick and resourceful as he adopted a troubleshooting approach to ending the economic crisis. Hoover, a businessman at heart, left office as anathema. Shouldering the blame for the Depression, he entered history a perpetual goat, forever associated with his ineffectuality and his critical failure to remedy the nation's problems. Roosevelt stands as the likeliest candidate for induction into Mount Rushmore. His popularity afforded him four consecutive electoral victories and a reputation as the hero of the Great Depression, the champion of the common man and the father of democratic progressivism.

So Parrish's assertion as to the similarity of their ideological tendencies may seem somewhat apocryphal. But the facts speak well to his claims, in spite of the great disparity in their apparent successes and historical standings. While they may have had very little in common in terms of effectiveness, they both attacked the Depression with the measures…… [Read More]

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WW2 for FDR the Second World War Essay

Words: 425 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49435703


For FDR, the Second World War served as a vital opportunity to revitalize the American economy after years of depression. Therefore, a large part of Roosevelt's justifications, ideas, and visions of the war centered on the economy. The war boosted employment levels, helped involve more women in the workforce, and propelled the industrial development of the nation. The war machine offered impetus for financial investments in industry as well as impetus for developing new technology. In fact, the war era led directly to the consumer culture that was to rise to the fore in the Truman years. Roosevelt had also promoted a bigger federal government even in the years prior to entering the war. The war gave the president the ultimate excuse to further his New Deal plans for greater federal powers.

The bombing of Pearl Harbor served as a convenient excuse to shed America's neutrality and enter into the war on the Allied side in December 1941. Roosevelt has been often accused of wanting to go to war far before the Japanese attack: Hamilton Fish, a Republican congressman who stood in direct opposition to Roosevelt's war polices, stated of the President, "He would have gotten us into the war six months or a year before Pearl Harbor."

During the course…… [Read More]

Schultz, Stanley K. "World War Two: The Impact at Home." 1999 Ameircan History 102: Civil War to the Present. Online at <>.
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President Roosevelt's New Deal and Essay

Words: 1971 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33892087

The plan also calls for contributions to improve public education, to modernize schools and to improve Pell Grants. There is also money for research in science in technology to improve the broad band capabilities of the Internet infrastructure. Money has also been allocated for small business owners.

This infusion will be over several years. Critics of this plan concur that the amounts of money spread out over several years will not be sufficient to achieve the results the plan puts forth. Also, a lot of money has been given to banks, financial institutions and lending agencies. Money has also been given to the auto industry so that they can be more competitive with foreign auto manufacturers. But soon after, what the critics feared happened. The President asked the CEO of General Motors Rick Wagoner to resign. Critics believe that such an unprecedented rise of the power of the Federal government goes against everything that a successful capitalist system has achieved.

The first salvo against federal intervention has been fired by the state of Texas. On April 14, 2009, Governor of Texas, Rick Perry in a press conference invoked the 10th Amendment of the United State Constitution, declaring that Texas was a sovereign state. He averred that he would not accept any federal funding as part of the stimulus. He indicated that the capitalist system that was successful in Texas could be a beacon for the rest of the country. He did however mention that the only money that would be acceptable would be money that Texans had paid in taxes as long as the money was given without any conditions. (Perry, 2009)

There are several entities that believe that a market-based economy would have fixed the problems of the Great Depression, and that it was the first break from individualism. It remains to be seen whether Obama's stimulus plan will help the country (Fox, 2009) or further erode individual freedoms. (Kaeters, 2009)… [Read More]

Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: Fdr's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Aravosis, John. Summary of Final Stimulus Package. 2009. America Blog. Available:
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Dinner With Leaders Set the Essay

Words: 429 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24798557

They each impacted the world in unique yet powerful ways and therefore I chose to invite these three leaders to dinner.

Hitler was of course one of the most nefarious men in history. I did not invite him to dinner to hear him rant about enemies to the Aryan people. Rather, I wanted to understand who Hitler was, to recognize what qualities could turn a human being into such a monster. Hitler was enormously successful at his military campaigns too, and I thought it would be interesting to pit him and his foe, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, together. Both impacted the course of World War Two. To Roosevelt I would like to ask more about his disability and about how he felt about the current state of affairs in America.

Similarly, I would like to ask Dr. King what he thought about America today. He would probably be proud of his legacy but would also be dismayed to learn that African-Americans still suffered from poverty and discrimination. He might not have much to say to Roosevelt and Hitler, who would likely be arguing with each other enough so that I could spend more time with the eminent Dr. King.… [Read More]

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Disability the Americans With Disabilities Essay

Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93904681

Disability1 Rights Activists Demand that MDA. Retrieved September 16, 2005 from

This page lists the demands from the Disability Rights Activists upon the MDA concerning the Jerry Lewis Labor Day Telethon.

Disability Rights Movement. Retrieved September 16, 2005 at

This Web site describes a brief history of the disability rights movement within the United States.

Facts About the Americans with Disabilities Act. Retrieved September 16, 2005 from The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission web site:

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Web site provides a wealth of information regarding employment practices, as well as information not only on the ADA, but also on any Act regarding employment, such as age discrimination, civil rights, and equal pay.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. Retrieved September 16, 2005 at

This National Park Service Web site proves information about Franklin D. Roosevelt, including his struggle with physical disability.

Jerry Lewis: Muscular Dystrophy Association. Retrieved September 16, 2005 from

This is the official Web site for the Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Association Labor Day Telethon. The site provides information concerning the disease as well as the telethon information.… [Read More]

ADA: A Brief Overview. Retrieved September 16, 2005 from Job Accommodation

Network web site: