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Grand or Mid Range Theory Essay

Words: 3055 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90388700

Range Theory


Middle Range Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness

Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.

History of Theory Development in Nursing

The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described the theories focused on the overall nursing practices. Many nursing theory conferences were organized and held by the nurses to discuss the use of these theories in research and practice. The key theorists presented the methods and ways of practically applying these conceptual frameworks in the practical settings.

Some of the nurse researchers also tried to use the grand theories of nursing in their studies but found their application difficult due to the wide breadth of the models. Therefore, meta-theorists worked further on this area and introduced the middle range theories of nursing. These are the theories that focus on specific phenomena of interest to the practicing nurses and therefore nurses find it easy to practically apply these theories in the work settings.

The concept of middle range theory was initially introduced in the sociological literature by Robert Merton during 1950s (Chinn and Kramer, 1995, p.9). These theories were considered more useful because these were the bodies of knowledge that focused on a limited number of variables than the grand theories…… [Read More]

Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic

Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.
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Interpersonal Relationship Theory Essay

Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39696996

Grand Theory in Nursing

Nursing theory

Classification of nursing theories

Nursing theories are classified into there broad categories. These theories are grand theories, middle-range theories and situation specific theories. Grand nursing theories are very broad in scope and present general propositions and concepts in the nursing discipline. The theories at this level give both a reflection and provide insights that are useful in the nursing practice but they are not designed to be used as empirical testing tools. This gives a limit to the grand theories when it comes to giving directions, explanations and predictions of nursing in specific situations. The grand theories have the intention of being pertinent to all instances in the field of nursing. One such Grand theory as will be used in the context of this paper is the interpersonal theory whose main theorist or proponent behind it is Hildegard E. Peplau.

Second are the Mid-range theories which have a narrower scope as compared to grand theories. They are often used to bridge the gap that exists between grand theories and the actual nursing practice. They are only concerned with a specific area of interest within the discipline of nursing. They give propositions and concepts at a level that is lower when it comes to abstraction and at the same time hold a promise for an increase in theory-based research as well as nursing practice strategies (Shakeel, 2010).

Nursing Practice theories are most limited when it comes to their scopes as well as their level of abstraction. They are only developed to be used within specific range of nursing situation. They address only particular problems that patients have since they are the least abstract compared to other nursing theoretical frameworks. The nursing practice theories give a framework for inventions in nursing, outcome predictions and the impact that the nursing practice has.

Nursing theories are significant in that they effectively describe, predict and explain the nursing phenomena as it is today. They give a…… [Read More]

Antipuesto, J.(2008). Nursing Theory and Theorists. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from 

Olin, J.(2011). 7 Nursing Theories to Practice By. Retrieved September 13, 2014 from 
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Grand Strategy and Theory There Essay

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83503880

With the widening of economic interdependence and spread of democratic norms, liberalism envisions a slow journey away from the realists' vision. Liberalists do not view a state as a single actor in war, but rather as a coalition of coalitions that is representing different individuals and groups. Limitations of state power, rule of law, transparency of democratic and government processes will make it easier for the sustenance of international cooperation.

In terms of security, liberalists differ from realists as they not only view it in military terms, but also as the promotion and protection of individual rights. In the fight on terrorism, the liberal approach would emphasize on application of legal instruments instead of military force. The liberal approach to the United States war on terrorism would involve issues like organized crime and its potential for creating terrorists.

This would be in contrast to the realist approach of force on the state where terrorists come from. Analyzing organized crime would allow for the discovery of links between terrorism and organized crime. This liberal approach would reduce the use of force and instead push for the investigation of how terrorists are crossing borders and the influence they have on other criminals.

The fight on terrorism has been successful due to the use of military force. Using liberalism theories, the United States would not have attacked terrorists as it would have been infringing on the rights of the individuals. Protection of individual rights would not have facilitated the successful fight on terrorism. The use of force has resulted in civilian casualties, which could have been avoided had the liberalism theory been adopted. The liberalist theory would have required that as military force is used consideration for the civilians should be considered. There should be a promotion and protection of individual rights.


Constructivism has gained prominence in international relations debates especially in recent years. Constructivism is a more contemporary strand of idealism. The constructivist theory promotes the use of identities and ideas, but it should be noted that the constructivist approach is quite diverse and does not offer a single prediction to any of the issues.

Constructivists take a state and regard it based on its identities and interests thus creating a highly malleable product. They do not just assume a state seeks to survive. Constructivists emphasize…… [Read More]

Drezner, Daniel W. "Does Obama Have a Grand Strategy? Why We Need Doctrines in
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Grand Jury Needed Essay

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23664261

Grand Jury: Needed or Not?

The United States is the only common law jurisdiction in the world that still uses the grand jury for purposes of screening criminal indictments. The grand jury issues an indictment for crime only if based on the evidence that has been presented it finds that there is a probable cause for one to believe that a crime has been committed by the suspect .this is unlike a petit jury that only resolves a specific type of criminal or civil cases, a grand jury serves as a group for a particular period of time in all or many cases that come up in the jurisdiction which is under the supervision of the federal; state attorney, a court district attorney or even a state general attorney and listens to the evidence without having suspect or person of interest being involved in the proceedings (Leipold, 2005).

The question that arises is whether the grand jury system should be abolished, reformed or retained as currently as it is. The grand jury is in place to ensure that innocent people are protected and given a fair trial and the federal law there is a grand jury clause which states whereby the Fifth Amendment of the United States constitution provides that "No person shall be held to answer for capital or infamous crime unless on presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger…."from this clause we clearly see that the Grand jury is really advocating for an opportunity for a fair trial in a criminal court. This means that the grand jury is for citizens and therefore a very good thing. The grand jury is very important hence it should not be abolished in the legal justice system.

However, the Grand jury…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Leipold, A.D., (2005). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from 

Farlex, Inc., (2014). Grand Jury. Retrieved February 21, 2014 from 
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Grand Juries the Purpose of Essay

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77304092

Moreover, because of the secrecy surrounding the grand jury system, there is a very real concern that a defendant may not have the opportunity to actually confront his accusers. While improper evidence may not come in at trial, it is a fallacy to assume that simply protecting someone from conviction is protecting him or her from all of the possible negative effects of an improper indictment. The very real time, expense, and risk of trial means that even an actually innocent person who is indicted may consider a plea bargain rather than face the risk of trial.

While there is some merit to the idea that grand juries listen to prosecutors, individual grand juries behave in different manners. Some of them simply act as rubber stamps for prosecutors, while other grand juries more carefully consider the charges before them. However, the secrecy surrounding the proceedings makes it difficult to know the details surrounding a particular grand jury. Therefore, while the criticism may not appropriately apply to every grand jury, there certainly appears to be merit in the criticism.

Trial Continuances

1. There are a number of reasons that a defendant may seek several continuances. First, the defense may need more time to investigate the crime, seek out its witnesses, and generally prepare a defense. This is particularly true if the defense will be an affirmative one, which requires the defendant to bear the burden of proof. Second, the more continuances the defense seeks, the less likely it is that the state will be able to produce all of its witnesses, which weakens the case against the state. Finally, public outrage against the alleged crime lessens over time, so that a defendant who… [Read More]

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Range Theory Nursing If Accepts Premise Grand Essay

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24736764

range theory nursing. If accepts premise grand theories nursing longer, implications nursing education, practice, research? Question 2: due 11/29/11 There controversy nursing direction development nursing knowledge .

There is an emphasis at present on the development and use of mid-range theory in nursing. If one accepts the premise that grand theories of nursing are no longer necessary, what are the implications for nursing education, practice, and research?

Nursing theories can be classified in many different ways, but one of the most common methods is to group them into grand and middle range theories. A grand theory "provides a conceptual framework under which the key concepts and principles of the discipline can be identified," while, in contrast, a "middle range theory is more precise and only analyzes a particular situation with a limited number of variables" (Nursing theories: An overview, 2011, Nursing Theories). Mid-range theories of nursing do not attempt to define what 'nursing' is as a concept in a universal fashion. Rather they tend to give more practical, hands-on guidelines for nurses in the field dealing with specific medical issues, spanning from eldercare to obesity prevention.

Nursing as a profession takes many different forms -- the duties of a nurse in a small doctor's office may be very different from a nurse-midwife in private practice, a nurse at a busy hospital, or a nurse dealing with mainly geriatric patients. Examples of mid-range theories include "Huth and Moore's Pain Management (Children); Barnard's Child Interaction; Ruland and Moore's End of Life Care; Ulbrich's Exercise as Self-Care" (Nursing theory, 2011, Nursing theory). Simply listing the range and diversity of these theories highlights the need for mid-range theories in the manner in which they show the many contexts in which nurses operate today.

For example, 'exercise as self-care' stresses the healing power of exercise and self-empowerment and the possibilities of change. These theories have a very different emphasis than theories dealing with end-of-life care, which stress the need for privacy and respect for the cultural and religious beliefs of…… [Read More]

Entry-to-practice competencies. (2011). College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta.

Retrieved September 25, 2011 at
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Middle Range Theory Essay

Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92092960

Range Nursing Theory

A clinical nurse is generally involved with specialized research; for example, a clinical nurse specializing in oncology would likely be heavily involved in the treatment of patients with cancer, according to Andrea Santiago. That clinical nurse specialist (CNS) working with cancer patients may also create helpful protocols or other strategies to improve the delivery of services in a hospital (Santiago, 2013). This paper delves into the reasons why the CNS can (and will) benefit from the use of the middle range theory.

What are middle range theories?

Judy Davidson (RN, DNP, CNS) explains that middle range theories are designed to "guide practice" for nurses (including clinical nurse specialists) and are "more focused than grand theories" because they zero in on a "single aspect of practice" and are not as general as grand theories (Davidson, 2010, p. 28). Moreover, because grand theories only offer a framework in terms of descriptions and prescribing within the nursing practice -- and middle range theories are "directly applicable to patient care and more prescriptive" -- middle range theories are easier to test (Davidson, 29).

Why would a CNS embrace the middle range theory?

The middle range theory has proven to be useful "…in both research and practice," according to the book Middle Range Theories: Application to Nursing Research (Peterson, et al., 2009, p. 36). The middle range theory can serve a "heuristic function" [a way of ranking various alternatives] in order to "…stimulate and provide rationale for studies" (Peterson, 35). Also the selection of the most important research questions can be guided through the use of the middle range theory, Peterson explains.

Through use of the theory a clinical nurse specialist can gain a deeper understanding of the patient's behavior, and from that deeper understanding the clinical nurse specialist can make suggestions as regards possible interventions along with an understanding as to how effective the intervention turned out to be (Peterson, 35). Peterson aims to show…… [Read More]

Andershed, Birgitta, and Olsson, Kristina. (2009). Review of research related to Kristin

Swanson's middle-range theory of caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23(3),
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Medical Theory Ever Since the Essay

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24024442

As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort are significant indicators that are given by the patients, are altered by the kind of nursing care being given to the patient and are associated with the health care system and its integrity. For example, this theory is particularly very significant for application by nurses that interact with the patients before they are being taken to the OR, or when they are in the OR. This is important to reduce the anxiety level, which can hinder the smoothness of any procedure that is being performed.

Application in Research

It has been around a decade since this theory has come up to the surface and during this time it has been subjected to empirical testing. Studies have shown that when the caretaker or the nurse starts giving the patient a comfort measure in the form of any intervention, so as to meet the holistic comfort of the patient, the comfort level of the patient is elevated over a former baseline value. At the moment, Kolcaba is devising ways to test the last part of the theory so that she can establish a relationship, if it exists, between the community or institutional setting and patient comfort. She also seeks to demonstrate the extent of the patient satisfaction with the application of this theory in the healthcare system. She wished to do so by making…… [Read More]

Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.

Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.
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Nursing Theory Imogene King Essay

Words: 7913 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41921604

Nursing Theory Analysis

Theory-based nursing is the phenomenon that has been researched much during the past two decades. Nursing theory has become the foundation for nursing practice with its own knowledge base. The current paper is an analysis of King's theory of goal attainment. King acquired her goal attainment theory model from an interpersonal system and a behavioral science. The nurse and patient communicate to achieve a common goal of patient satisfaction and better health outcomes. To achieve this goal, there is a need for nurses to explore patients' perceptions and expectations. It has been found in research that patients' satisfaction with healthcare is strongly linked to their satisfaction with nursing care. King attained that if the nurse is aware of patients' expectations of care that they can achieve the goal of patients' satisfaction. This theory is also applicable in the nursing education program for those nursing students having poor academic performance and for those at-risk students. Students and mentors can communicate to achieve the shared goal of student's academic improvement.

I. Examination of the origins of nursing theory

Modern nursing practice officially started from Nightingale and she also described that nursing knowledge and medical knowledge are different disciplines. Nursing practice based on theory is the phenomenon that has been researched extensively. Wold (1981) noted that "as a result of the broad client systems to be served and the duality of the school nurse's expected allegiances; school nursing today is a complex practice specialty" (p.30). In recent times, it has been necessary to base nursing and clinical practice on a theory or conceptual framework. Indeed, today's nursing theorists truly stand on the shoulders of giants in the field, and it is not surprising that new evidence-based approaches continue to be developed and refined today. In this regard, the origins of modern nursing theory can be conceptualized as existing along a continuum beginning with Nightingale and continuing to the present with theorists such as Dorothy Johnson and Dorothea Orem dominating the early stages of nursing theory evolution, and others such as Virginia Henderson and Imogene King building on their seminal work during…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Abramowitz, S., Cote, A.A., & Berry, E. (1987). Analyzing patient satisfaction: a multianalytic approach. QRB. Quality Review Bullenin, 4, 122-130.

Ahmad, M.M., & Alasad, J.A. (2004, October). Predictors of patients' experiences of nursing care in medical-surgical wards. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 10(5), 235-241.
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Watson's Nursing Caring Theory the Essay

Words: 3295 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16302880

Jean Watson and in reality "belonging becomes an ethic in itself and guides how we sustain our being in the world." Dr. Watson emphasizes the fact that the practices of nursing have experienced evolution and this has allowed certain distortions in the nursing practices. Dr. Watson brings to attention 'Palmer's epistemology as ethics' yet the epistemology, in the view of Palmer to be 'informed by cosmology' has great power in that it may either "form of deform the human soul" and thereby also form or deform the nurse's "way of being/becoming more human and humane (Palmer 1993; as cited by Watson, 2005)

III. Brief Analysis of Watson's Caring Mode

The model of caring in nursing model as proposed by Dr. Jean Watson is one that is fairly simplistic in nature that has as its key concepts the factors of love, kindness and empathy. In making an identification of the applications of Dr. Watson's model the work of Chantal (nd) is reviewed in which Chantel relates that the application of Watson's Caring in Nursing Model may be through interaction with the patient by asking pertinent questions that will engage the patient while at the same time convey to them that the nurse genuinely cares about them as a 'whole' person. Example of questions are stated by Chantal (n.d.) as follows:

Tell me about your health?

What is it like to be in your situation?

Tell me how you perceive yourself in this situation?

What meaning are you giving to this situation?

Tell me about your health priorities?

Tell me about the harmony you wish to reach?

These specific questions according to Chantal may be used to assess the patient's perspectives about their own healthcare.

As Watson's theory evolved into what she refers to her 'Caritas' processes which have replaced the carative factors one is able to "observe a greater spiritual dimension in these new processes." (Chantal, nd) Caritas is stated to "originate from the Greek vocabulary, meaning to cherish and to give special loving attention." (Ibid) Watson's 'Caritas' are stated as follows:

Practice of loving kindness and equanimity within context of caring consciousness.

Being…… [Read More]

Levinas, E. (2000) Totality and Infinity. Pittsburgh, PA; Duqesne University Press (Original work published in 1969)

Fawcett, Jacqueline (2005) Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and Theories. Davis Company, Philadelphia. Online available at
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Role of Theory and Philosophy Essay

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70782494

nursing is both a discipline and a profession

All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.

Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)

The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing

Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field of nursing's inquiry. There is a need to articulate the nature and characteristics of philosophical inquiry for researchers new to this perspective. We begin by addressing a common question that surfaces when one begins a work that is philosophical in nature, how does one differentiate between nursing philosophy and nursing theory? (Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson, 2008)

Unlike science, which relies upon investigative methods, philosophical inquiry relies upon the capacities to think and reason. Problems characteristic of philosophical inquiry include conceptual clarification, analysis of arguments and problems related to the ontology, epistemology and ethics of nursing.

Although methodological approaches to philosophical inquiry are diverse, common tools include assumptions and the intellectual processes of conceptualizing, judging and reasoning within a context of wonder. Some have argued that to neglect philosophy in nursing is to place the discipline at risk. However, there is little guidance available to researchers new to this method of inquiry. (Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson, 2008)

Within modern nursing philosophy, care is conceptualized in a number of ways, depending on philosophical stance and world view. What seems absolutely necessary is to differentiate between the concept of care on the super ordinate level and each individual philosopher's unique perspective on care. As a super ordinate term, nursing care encompasses the patient's fundamental needs, as well as the patient's values and experience. Typical basic characteristics associated with nursing care can be grouped into three mutually reinforcing areas: the notion of excellence in nursing care, the relationship between nursing care and moral…… [Read More]

Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.

Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.
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Grounded Theory Examining a Specific Essay

Words: 2659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25228765

Still, they published their theory in a coauthored work and there were not large differences in the overall theory at this point (Hart & Gregor 2005).

As the two scholars' careers diverged, however, they continued to develop their thinking on grounded theory independently from each other. What has become known as the Glaserian approach (developed, of course, by Barney Glaser) stresses the non-prescriptive nature of inquiries that occur utilizing grounded theory, with much broader categories of conceptualizations inherent to this version of the theory (Hart & Gregor 2005). Glaser also asserted that rigorous verification methods, such as might be more typical in the traditional scientific method, were suitably applied only to a very few of the central theoretical hypotheses that developed in the course of a grounded theory inquiry, which was another aspect of the Glaserian grounded theory that makes it more open to adjustment from the observations themselves and an incredibly non-prescriptive research method (Manteuffel 2009).

The Straussian mode of conducting grounded theory research -- the theory that Strauss developed along with other collaborators later in is own academic career -- is much more rigid in its method of coding categories as they arise through observation, and also asserts that more rigorous verification methods are necessary for these codings (Hart & Gregor 2005; Manteuffel 2009). This makes the Straussian version of grounded theory far more prescriptive than the Glaserian version, and Glaser has actually gone so far as to say that, while Strauss' research methodology has merits of its own, it is not truly grounded theory anymore (Manteuffel 2009). Some side wholly with either one or the other researcher, while others find that the two different approaches have differing utilities in various applications (Hart & Gregor 2005).

Current Applications for Grounded Theory

Grounded theory was first developed or discovered in the 1960s, with the joint publication by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss of the theory in its original form occurring in 1967 (Borgatti 2010). The schism between the researchers did not occur until relatively recently, and came most explicitly with Glaser's 1992 publication of a commentary on Strauss' recent book, co-authored by Juliet Corbin, which came out in 1990 (Hart & Gregor 2005). These facts relay far more information than the mere scientific disagreement that cam eto exist between two colleagues that nonetheless retained a great deal of respect and even…… [Read More]

Borgatti, S. (2010). "Introduction to grounded theory." Accessed 6 November 2010. 

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: a practical guide. London: Sage.
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Orem S Self Care Theory and the Movie Awakenings Essay

Words: 1615 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59906186

Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory

There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Orem's self-care deficit theory. This theory is predicated a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problems is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action. The movie Awakenings can be used as an example of how this can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions.

Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory

Dorothea Orem was a staff nurse, and later moved onto educational positions within nursing. She developed her concept of self-care deficit theory to explain nursing in terms of a key interpersonal relationship between nurse and patient, where the nurse helps the patient to take care of him/herself. The underlying assumptions are that the patient is a distinct individual, and should be self-reliant. It is insufficient for a patient to simply rely on medical professionals for their health. The patient should have knowledge of his/her own health problems, and understand what they can do to address those. Understanding the issues helps the patient with self-care. Orem believed that self-care or dependent-care are learned behaviors, and that nurses can play a role in creating patients who are better able to take care of themselves. Prevention is a critical element of care in this theory.

Nursing, therefore, is a helping service. The goal of nursing is to "render the patient or members of his/her family capable of meeting the patient's self-care needs" (, 2016). Ideally, this will help the patient to regain normal function following illness or injury, and to minimize the effects of the illness or injury. One of the roles that nurses play is to take patients who are incapable of caring for themselves and getting them to a state where they are capable of self-care. This occurs through deliberate, purposeful action on the part of the nurse, including educating the patient (, 2016).

Staff Nurse

The staff nurse under Orem's theory should focus on educating the patient and the patient's family with respect to self-care. Health care in this theory has a strong preventative element, so the nurse must educate patients about how they can take care of themselves better, to avoid making trips to the medical system. The nurse would highlight ways to change diet, exercise, medications and other…… [Read More]

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Orem S Self Care Theory and the Movie Awakenings Essay

Words: 1873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29533031

Nursing Theory

Application of Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory to Awakenings

There are several grand theories of nursing, and among them is Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory (SCDT). This theory has established a set of assumptions, including that people are distinct individuals, that they should be self-reliant, that a person's knowledge of potential health problem is necessary for promoting self-care behaviors, and that nursing is a form of action (, 2012). The movie Awakenings (Parkes, Lasker & Marshall, 1990) can be used as an example of how this theory can be applied even to the most difficult of nurse-patient interactions. The focus here will be on the scene where the patients awakened. Dr. Sayer was present, as was the nurse manager and a staff nurse. At this point, there is a transition in the type of care that needs to be provided to the patients from wholly compensatory to partially compensatory.


All individuals need to take care of themselves in one way or the other, depending on their need at any point in time. There will be instances when the assistance that is required is beyond that of the family members or the lay caregivers within the society, thereby requiring the need for specialized caregivers. Hence, from the SCDT perspective, the care of the assistance that is provided by the nurse is associated with the health-related actual or potential healthcare deficits of the persons, individually or collectively (Taylor & Renpenning, 2011).

Orem's SCDT claims that there are three aspects that are basic to nursing practice: self-care, self-care deficits, and the nursing systems (Rice, 2006). In this theory, the main focus is on the families and the individuals to maintain a healthy state of well-being through acquisition of different requirements. She classifies these requirements as being universal, developmental, or health-deviation requisites (Geyer, Mogotlane, & Young, 2009). For the universal requisites, they are those that are universal to every person and basic to daily life functioning such as air, water or food. Developmental requirements are those that arise from the developmental process, and they occur throughout the lifecycle of a person. Finally, the health-deviation requisites are those that arise from the individual's normal structure…… [Read More]

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Grand Strategy Liberalism and How Essay

Words: 1893 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46507194

Consistency, coupled by approval generates legitimacy. A government system is only legitimate if it receives the support of plural citizens. Therefore, a good example is Hosni Mubarak's one party, which was illegitimate. Any policy enjoying the majority approval of the citizens is said to be a legitimate policy. In this context, the United States invasion into Iraq has been perceived as illegitimate. This is not because many citizens of Iraq disapproved the policy but also due to the fact that majority of the Arabs recorded substantial support. As the global military utility continues to decline, a country perceived as consistent and legitimate will encounter minimal resistance from the new Arab world while the U.S. continues to execute its policies.

The occurrence of the Second World War is reflected from the relations between the American grand strategy and the initial existence of the realism, constructivism, and liberalism. Moreover, it is evident from the factors of production that there are many features of performance that have to be used in accordance to the set standards in the society. The grand strategy failed to explore more of the liberal and constructive ideas that were used in the past. Nonetheless, the entire aspects of liberalism, realism, and constructivism had an immense contribution to the realization of the American grand strategy as applied to the Second World War.

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Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons, 2012.

Gray, Colin. Why Strategy is Difficult. Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1999, 6-12.

Howard, Michael. The Forgotten Dimensions of Strategy. Foreign Affairs 57, no. 5

(Summer 1979): 975-986.

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Review 60, no. 4, (Autumn 2007): 111-124

Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons, 2012.

Betts, Richard K. Is Strategy an Illusion?

International Security 25, no. 2 (2000): 5-50.

Gray, Colin. Why Strategy is Difficult. Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1999, 6-12.

Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons, 2012.

Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy.…… [Read More]

Betts, Richard K. Is Strategy an Illusion?

International Security 25, no. 2 (2000): 5-50.

Howard, Michael. The Forgotten Dimensions of Strategy. Foreign Affairs 57, no. 5 (Summer 1979): 975-986.
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Theory About Something but Not Many People Essay

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23534994

theory about something, but not many people realize exactly what defines a theory. While there are as many definitions of a "theory," "generally speaking, a theory is an abstract system of concepts with indications of the relationships among these concepts that help us understand a phenomenon." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") When discussing a theory, it is important to understand that the application of a theory is dependent upon the level of generality. For instance, a theory about communications can apply to the all humans in general, or a specific group of people, or just very specific people in specific circumstances. But whether the theory is "Grand," "Mid-Level," or "Narrow," it must contain a number of specific goals which "can include explanation, understanding, prediction, and social change…." ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Theories attempt to explain certain phenomena, then based on patterns recognized by the theory, predict something, and finally can cause social change based on the theory.

Because of this definition, theory, which may be an abstract idea, can be used to explain and understand concrete experiences. Furthermore, they not only allow for predictions about phenomena, but the ability to cause change in that phenomena. Therefore, human experience is often interpreted by whatever theory the individual is using, either consciously or not. This means that a person's experiences are dependent upon the actual circumstances of the moment, but also the way a person views that experience. And the way a person views a phenomena can be in one of three ways: positivistic, interpretive, or critical.

When one "assumes that objective truths can be uncovered and that the process of inquiry that discovers these truths can be, at least in part, value neutral," then one is following the "positivistic" approach. ("SPC3210, Chapter 1") Researchers using this approach strive for complete objectivity and control over the theoretical…… [Read More]

"SPC 3210: Contemporary Human Communication." McGraw Hill/Florida

State University. Retrieved from http://ezto.mhecloud.mcgraw-
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Theory of Nursing Essay

Words: 2135 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88861122

Nursing Theory

One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The health status, compliance and satisfaction of a patient are greatly impacted by the bedside manner of the provider and how that manner is perceived by the patient. In order to provide effective patient care it is very important for the Advanced Practice Nurses (APN) to have an effective bedside manner. In order to understand the expectations of the patients and to improve the relation between the patients and providers there is a need for more research (Finch, 2008).


This paper assesses theories related to nursing and pertinent fields with regards to their elements, associations amid the elements, logic of the propositions given, completeness, and usefulness to the nursing profession. This paper additionally communicates the assessment of the use of a theory within nursing practice and illustrates logical and critical thinking in the analysis and application of a theory to nursing practice.


Interpreting the perceptions that the patients have regarding the shift-to-shift bedside manner is the aim of this study. The intention of conducting this study was to use its findings in helping the nurses adjust…… [Read More]

Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from website:

Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
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Theories of Criminal Justice Essay

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73487615


Criminal Justice System

Crime and the law

Crime, from the perspective of the criminal justice system, may be defined as violations of the law. What constitutes a criminal violation in one nation is not necessarily the case in all nations; also, an action may be unethical without actually being criminal. The social determinant of what constitutes crime requires a balancing of the rights of the individual to freedom with the need for society to maintain some sense of social order. Those who seek personal freedoms and civil rights are often at war within the criminal justice system with those who desire social order (Schmalleger 2015: 9). The goals of the criminal justice system are to create a sense of justice or fairness but this ideal must likewise be balanced with the need for order (Schmalleger 2015: 10). For example, it might be necessary to let an obviously guilty person go free because the evidence against him or her was extracted in an illegal fashion to uphold constitutional principles: this is not necessarily moral but it is required to preserve individual liberties.

The American justice system is made up of police, courts, and corrections components (Schmalleger 2015:14). The criminal justice process often involves canvassing the scene of the crime, gathering evidence, making an arrest, the grand jury and trial proceedings, the sentencing, parole hearing (or two), and other post-corrections activities (Silver 2014). The consensus model suggests that the justice system arrives at a consensus between these different interconnected authorities about what constitutes a crime and how to enforce it; the conflict model suggests that society determines what is a crime in a self-serving fashion (Schmalleger 2015: 14).

Consensus vs. conflict theories are based upon different assumptions as to what constitutes a 'choice' for an individual in terms of committing crime.…… [Read More]