Health Care Law Ethics
Health care over the years has become one of the most important debates to take place within the United States of America. This fact holds particularly true for the major part of the Obama Administrations whose New Health Care policies has been criticized extremely (Zhi Qu, 2010). The world, however, is still waiting for the final curtain to rise and to witness the climax which would be a while since the complete form of the plan will be implemented in the year 2014. The full effect of the Bill therefore is still something that will be witnessed in the near future but that doesn't mean that the criticism with regards to the bill is going to subside anytime soon.
The Center that has been presented in this situation, which functions under the heading of "The North Florida Women's Center" has been defined as a not for profit organization as the mention of sliding fee scale has been made quite clear which asserts to the nature of the organization. However, since there is board of directors also involved in the description, this means that the organization, despite…… [Read More]
With that in mind, even more changes will be coming to the planet in the near future. Even within the next 10 years, those changes are going to become more obvious and the health of people who are ingesting these chemicals and modified foods will likely begin to decline. When that gets coupled with the obesity epidemic, there will be a generation that will not live as long as their parents did (Simmons, 2009). This will be the first time that has happened, and obviously is not the way the U.S. population wants to go with longevity numbers and health issues. It is possible to make changes to avoid these kinds of problems, but so far nothing is being done to make those changes and soon it will be past the time to do anything differently.
Technology is highly important in health care, and will continue to play a role in the care of patients well into the future (Tulenko et al., 2009). There are a large number of different ways in which technology can play a part, so each and every aspect of health care could be affected. The majority of technological advances in health care are involved with diagnosing diseases and other health problems. As these diagnostic devices advance and continue to develop, more money will be spent on them and more people will be diagnosed with disease more easily and at earlier stages (Tulenko et al., 2009). That is very significant, because it can save lives and also prolong the quality of life for individuals with all types of diseases and conditions. However, technology can also cause health scares in the sense of false positives due to oversensitive equipment and can result in unnecessary testing and worry for patients. The extra expense of this additional testing can also be a serious factor for patients.
While technology has improved many lives, there are ways in which the technology is causing difficulty, and most of those ways are financial.…… [Read More]
Health Care Professionals
The paper is based on the healthcare professionals. It starts by analyzing the reasons why there may be physician shortage rather than a surplus in the United States. The paper as well analyses the factors that contribute to the nursing shortage in the U.S. And the roles of health professionals within the health care system. Lastly it covers the roles of a health service administrator within health care system of U.S.
There are various reasons why there may be a shortage of physicians rather than a surplus in the United State: In 1990s the main concepts was that physicians were to be trained in numbers that were much greater than the demand for medical care in the U.S. could support. Mixed reaction came from different corners, as majority recommended cutting down of about 20 to 25% of the physician-generating capacity of the country, a section of researchers warned of an impending oversupply, yet on the other hand others supported physician surplus, for example the media as well as organizations like American Medical Association were for the surplus number of physicians, (Williams, S. & Torrens, P., 2010). But today many look at it in another angle as they are now keen on the shortage as per the stand taken by such organizations like AMA, Association of American Medical Colleges among others.
The workforce related discussion which dominated 1990s was whether Medicare was to go on with its frequent funding of billion dollars for resident training. In an attempt to address the issue, Congress commissioned the Council on Graduate Medical Education (CGME) and the council came up with a report that the expected staffing ratio of one physician for every 370 citizens in the year 2000 was more than adequate and it was important for the country to scale back on residence funded programs. CGME did not do clear demonstration to show that rising physician supply will have a positive impact on health outcomes but believed that there should be cutting…… [Read More]
Healthcare Information Technology
Electronic Medical Record:
User friendliness is among the significant factors- probably the most essential factor- hampering extensive usage of Electronic Medical Record EMRs in respiratory therapy within my organization. User friendliness features a powerful, usually direct connection with my organization's efficiency, error level, operator exhaustion and operator satisfaction- are all essential elements for EMR usage. Moreover, within my organization, it's been observed that efficient coaching and execution techniques impact user adoption of EMR rates also, but coaching is both tougher and much pricier, and execution is a lot more complicated and challenging when user friendliness is missing. It has proven challenging for Respiratory therapists to gauge EMR user friendliness as part involving the purchase procedure for a number of factors. Correct evaluation by buyers has resulted in-depth research inside our organization utilizing new abilities (HIMSS, 2009).
SAMHSA has worked to improve use of health information technologies (HIT) to ensure that Americans with behaviour health disorders can gain from all of these innovative developments. SAMHSA has backed the usage of interoperable electronic health records (EHRs) from the behavioural health system, emphasis on adding data systems using the wider health programs, and function via its applications to push advancement and also the usage of HIT as well as EHRs. SAMHSA is concentrating on HIT generally and EHRs exclusively to make sure that behaviour health is incorporated within the Nation's wider health program (Clark, 2011)
Additionally, non-urban residential areas might don't have any access to the World-wide-web, particularly higher speed Internet access; poor residential areas might discover HIT to be too expensive; and residential areas of colour differ in utilization of technological innovation. Damages in technological innovation also impact Tribal residential areas and rural towns. Due to previous problems with Tribal records, additional level of sensitivity is required all-around the security and utilization of information located in EHR programs and just how such data is aggregated or described. ONC has financed the National Indian Health Board (NIHB) to make the American Indian/Alaska Indigenous National Localised Expansion Centre (AI/AN National REC) to help Tribal health companies with attaining meaningful utilization of EHRs (Clark, 2011).
Simpleness in design describes everything from insufficient graphic clutter as well as concise data display to addition of only those features that may be…… [Read More]
The amendments have had practical impacts such as repealing the tax mandate of the employer, health insurance tax of small businesses and decreasing the burdens on individuals and businesses. The compliance cost for small business owners has risen by 36% higher than that of larger corporations. Similarly, the average U.S. citizen has already been overtaxed.
Since the passing of the Affordable Care Act, Americans have not enjoyed the benefits that come with it. While the country is characterized by a highly partisan political climate, the congress is full of voice of reason. These voices claim that the Act should be amended so that the pain can be reduced in the future. More policy makers have been encouraged to pull in their efforts. After years of the groundbreaking changes on the Care Act, one of the advantages associated with this law is that it supports a low rate of uninsured Americans. The law has enhanced the possibility of people accessing health care with improved costs and enhanced quality. Without the changes, the healthcare industry and most Americans argue that the rising costs would have unraveled the country's universal health care coverage. This is commendable because it might have resulted in a crushed national budget due to bankrupt businesses. In the next ten years, experts have projected that the law will save approximately $100 billion.
On the other hand, the changes have a number of notable disadvantages, too. It is obvious that the new healthcare Act has not adequately lowered the costs of health care. However, it has incorporated provisions that seek to limit the expansion of Medicare costs to hospitals. For instance, the Act has been financially penalizing health care institutions for excess re-admissions of patients who had been previously released. Further, it has tied providers' increase of prices in the overall national economic growth rate. These restrictions suggest that the leading providers must make major adjustments. The most evident disadvantage is that the law is unenforceable. If the financial performance of the industry exceeds…… [Read More]
Health Care IT
Health Care Information Technology
The days of paper-based records in health care are fading. It is widely believed that the broad adoption of clinical applications such as computerized physician order entry (CPOE) can lead to major health care savings, help eliminate medical errors, and improve healthcare outcomes for patients (Lynn, 2011). Because of such benefits, the Obama administration included automated adoptions in health care as a part of its overall agenda calling for "the immediate investments necessary to ensure that within five years, all of America's medical records are computerized" (Obama, 2009).
Our organization moved to PharMerica's paperless administration system after a very careful analysis and assessment of the best solution for meeting the needs of the organization's specific clinical and business practices. The new clinical system eliminates the needs for peel-and-stick labels, faxes, handwritten documentation and manual processes. The outcome has been improved workflows and overall patient outcomes. By turning to technology, we have been able to extend health information technology into the realm of patient record keeping and automated healthcare processes (Kumar & Aldrich, 2010). Today, a patient's entire medical history can be converted to digital format and stored securely for use by various entities over time. This has allowed us to eliminate massive paper trails -- condensing relevant information into electronic form. Records are easily retrievable and enable patient's to navigate through the healthcare and pharmaceutical system in a safer and more efficient manner (Lynn, 2011). There is a higher level of standardization, security and improved privacy for patient information.
The PharMerica system allows us to work with new patient information as well as older records, generally pre-2000, which have been scanned and stored in a graphic format or as Adobe PDF documents (Gagnon, et al., 2010). This includes x-rays, test results, prescription histories, ultrasounds and MRIs which were formally recorded by hand and often illegible and subject to fading and damage over time (Kumar & Aldrich, 2010). Records are updated real-time for immediate access. This has meant an improved ability to manage more patients more efficiently (Lynn, 2011).
Some of the primary elements of the PharMerica system include computerized orders for prescriptions, computerized orders for tests, reporting of test results, and physician notes. Eliminating manual process in these areas has truly helped improve healthcare delivery; however, there are still areas that require a great deal of monitoring against human…… [Read More]
One of the most contentious social issues in the United States today is the debate over the responsibility of the state to provide basic health care services for its people. Normal Daniels argues that "if social obligations to provide appropriate health care are not met, then individuals are definitely wronged. Injustice is done to them." The essence of Daniels' argument is correct. This paper will extend Daniels' argument using philosophical tradition. I believe that there is a social obligation to provide appropriate health care for people.
In this essay, I will summarize Daniels' argument, lend it support using a range of philosophical traditions and will address the most critical counterargument against the provision of health care by the state. Daniels' argument can be rooted a utilitarianism or deontological ethics with equal strength. His proposition that libertarian philosophy also supports universal health care is weaker, and indeed the libertarian case is the main counterargument to the provision of health care. However, I believe that the utilitarian perspective offers the strongest case for the provision of health care. This conclusion rests on understanding the basic role of government in our society.
The utilitarian case that Daniels makes for the provision of health care rests on his interpretation of the link between "normal functioning and opportunity." Daniels argues that "social obligations to provide individual only with those services that are part of the design of a system, which, on the whole, protects equal opportunity." Equal opportunity to pursue the life one envisions rests on a few different fundamentals - legal equality, safety and the provision of the basics of life. It can be interpreted from this understanding that government exists to provide, among other things, law enforcement, clean water and a legal framework for equality; Daniels extends this argument to health care. His point is that without health, one cannot pursue one's other rights, such as the right to work, to raise a family or to own land. In this, Daniels is correct; good health is generally a prerequisite to these things. Daniels understands that government cannot guarantee good health for all, but his point is that the provision of basic health care gives most people equal footing with respect to their health. Nobody's pursuit of life, liberty and happiness will be undermined…… [Read More]
Health Care in the U.S. And Singapore
Healthcare in the U.S. And Singapore
This paper compares the U.S. healthcare system with the Singapore healthcare system. It starts with a brief description of both healthcare systems and then explains and compares the issues in both the systems. The number of underinsured in both systems are also compared in the paper. The paper also gives the pros and cons of both the system. It ends with a brief conclusion about which system is the best.
The healthcare system in the U.S.A. consists of both private and public insurers. The key feature of this system is the dominance of the private sector over the public sector. The U.S.A. healthcare system offers a wide variety of insurance policies for adults, children and elderly. The insurances provided by the public sector include Medicaid, S-chip and VA. The private sector insurance, on the other hand, includes the insurance given to the employees by the employer and other private insurances. In the U.S.A., many people seek employers who offer insurance and that's the reason why the private sector insurance comprises a bigger part of overall health insurance. (Kao Ping, 2006)
The financing of the healthcare activities is done by government and the private insurers. The government receives taxes from consumers and businesses and it then makes payments to the healthcare providers. The private insurers, on the other hand, receive a premium from their customers and pay their dues to the healthcare providers. (Kao Ping, 2006)
Singapore Healthcare System
The Singapore healthcare system also has the same basic structure. The health insurance industry is run by the private and the public sector. There is a balance between both in the case of Singapore though. The healthcare system basically provides primary healthcare, hospital care, integrated care and long-term care. This is achieved with the help of the network of many small clinics. The clinics are private most of the time. However, the scenario…… [Read More]
Healthcare System in South Africa
Influences on public health outcomes
Critical analysis of the pressures on the health care delivery
It is observed that there are numerous cultures, societies, political systems in the world. The governments regulate the social systems according to the political, cultural, and economic condition of a country. The structure of healthcare systems is also an extension of the country's political system. It is observed that the characteristics of each society and culture are major factors defining the healthcare system followed in a country. There are multiple models available in the world for healthcare systems. All have their own advantages and disadvantages for societies living in respective countries. An example can be quoted that United Sates healthcare system is different from most followed system in European countries. Similarly the systems followed in other parts of the world are also significantly different including Asia, Africa, and Middle East. These differences can also be investigated in terms of the economic, political, and social differences present among various countries. The culture of a country is also a notable factor in defining the basic organizations of a healthcare system. The countries have a distinct healthcare system which ranges from developed countries e.g. United States, Scandinavian region to the developing countries e.g. Thailand, South Africa, and under developed regions e.g. Ghana and Bangladesh (Matcha 2003).
Furthermore the differences among industrialized, developed, developing, and under developed nations exist in relation to the healthcare systems. These differences are also fueled through a divide in economic conditions to a large extant. A country facing challenges on economic fronts struggle to provide adequate healthcare support for their citizens. The healthcare systems followed throughout the world can be categorized as primary, seconder, and tertiary. The purpose of the division is based on defining the structure, management, organization, resources, and delivery of…… [Read More]
Healthcare System of Norway
Health Policy of Norway
Analysis of Health Policy
Pressures on Health Care Delivery
The healthcare systems are developed to provide necessary healthcare facilities. It is also aimed to maintain health of their citizen in compliance with the state and international regulations. Norway is considered as one of the country, holding prominent place in global economy as well as growth rate and per capita income (Pontusson2011). It is also observed that the country is also similar to other states in Scandinavian region governed on the principles of a welfare state. In such context the importance of healthcare policies and systems is increased. The research is focused to investigate the policies, regulations, and healthcare system of Norway. The impacts of these polices are also reviewed in analysis and discussion sections. Finally the conclusion is formulated on the basis of secondary research.
There are two major healthcare system used in the world. These systems are based on social insurance system and Beveridge model. It is observed that both systems have their own benefits, limitations, and significance. The impacts of the system adopted in the country are also reflected on the public healthcare. It is also stated that the countries e.g. United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden etc. follow a Beveridge model to provide healthcare for their citizens. However all these countries have a varied structure for their healthcare system but the principles are derived from Beveridge model. The citizens are provided the basic healthcare according to the system adopted by the country (Schmid, Cacace, Gotze&Rothgang2010). The outcome is also directly proportionate to system dynamics. There is also a system adopted in relation to the Soviet state owned structure of healthcare facilities. In this structure the country's government owns the major healthcare facilities and it is also responsible for providing required healthcare to their citizens. Norway has also adopted this system since the year 2000.
The research…… [Read More]
Health Care Systems
In today's advanced and modern society, which is dependent upon new and emerging technologies in almost all fields of life, the importance of health care systems cannot be denied in any case. Health care is being associated with the technological advancement as because of several new medical techniques, it has become possible to devise the treatments of many such diseases which were considered deadly in older times. On the whole, from diagnosis to treatment and to make preventions from the disease, health care systems have now become an essential part of today's civilized nations, particularly those having an economic boom and strong financial sector. It is a common observation that stronger the economy of the country, greater would be the number of facilities provided to the citizens. Good health care systems are too, associated with strong and developed nations like U.S., UK, Canada and Germany etc. These countries spend a heavy amount and expenditures for the welfare of its citizens as far as the health care is concerned. Different policies are implemented according to the entire system and particular demography.
While describing the health care systems, the structure is the important thing. Some countries have a centralized structure in which the choices of production, consumption, and distribution of health care services are done by a centralized authority, which could be the government itself who makes a committee or an individual as the authority. Some have a decentralized structure in which the choices are made by the individual consumers and health care providers by their mutual interaction in the marketplace. There are also some third-party payers which are actually private/public health insurance companies that act as a middle-man between the consumer and the health care producer. They are responsible for financial issues and risks involved in health care products and to keep the costs under control. The public health insurance companies make finances of medical insurance through taxes, while private health insurance companies do it by the methods of premiums, deductions, co-payments or co-insurance plans (Santerre and Stephen 3, 6, 7). All or some of these methods…… [Read More]
The United States Health Care System is probably the worst organized system. It expends double than other developed countries on health care system but face worse outcomes. The Government is running healthcare programs but still lagging behind the rest of industrial world. The healthcare expenditures are rising year by year with no significant outcomes.
Current National Health Expenditures
The national health care expenditures of United States have increased at an alarming rate since the past decade and it is still growing at a rate of 10% every year. According to the recent statistics, U.S. expend more than any industrial country on healthcare systems that is about $2 trillion or $8,000 per person but still unable to provide quality health care. These expenditures accounts 17% share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and it is expected to reach at 21% by 2020.
According to the report of Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD), U.S. expend two and half times more than the average healthcare expenditures of OECD. Among the developed countries Australia, New Zealand, UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, Canada, Japan and France, U.S. spends the most on health care system Even then stands in the row of Mexico and Turkey that are unable to provide Universal Health Care Coverage.
United States is paying the high cost for controlling asthma fatalities among the people aging 5 to 39 and diabetes but still ranked at a lowest position in prevention. Though, United States stands at the top in treating heart attacks, strokes and breast cancer.
Despite the large allocation of GDP to health care, Americans doesn't have an easy access to physicians as compared to other developed countries where there are even quite less number of doctors. Since, there are high prices for hospital and prescription drugs. When an American patient is discharged from the hospital, he/she is billed $18,000 on average whereas in other countries it is quite less like in…… [Read More]
Health Care Delivery Systems
The structure and organization of the resources that make it possible to provide health care services to target populations is referred to as a health care system. The variety of health care systems is very wide with strong evolutionary histories tied to the governments, religious organizations, charitable organizations, labor unions, and for-profit market participants.
Five Health Care Delivery Systems
Reid set out around the world to study healthcare systems in countries across the globe. He identified five distinct healthcare delivery systems. They are as follows: (1) The Bismarck model; (2) the Beveridge model; (3) the national health insurance model; (4) the out-of-pocket model; and (5) the American model for health.
The Bismarck model. Otto von Bismarck is credited with establishing the first form of this model that is followed in Germany. Private companies and private initiatives provide the medical services and insurance coverage under this model. The insurance companies are non-profits and must enroll all German citizens unconditionally. With the exception of a very rich minority, all German citizens and people living or working in Germany under special Visas are required to sign up for health insurance coverage. Costs are control is dependent on the central role that the German government takes in determining the payments permitted for various medical and health services.
The Beveridge model. This British model is very similar to socialized medicine as most healthcare providers are government employees. In essence, the British government acts as a single-payer for all medical and health services in the United Kingdom. Patients currently do not incur any out-of-pocket costs, but the system is experiencing substantive pressure as medical and healthcare costs continue to rise.
The national health insurance model. This Canadian model functions like the system in Britain with the government acting as a single-payer for medical…… [Read More]
Health Care in the U.S. And Spain
What Can the U.S. Learn About Health Care from Spain?
In 2009, Spain's single-payer health care system was ranked the seventh best in the world by the World Health Organization (Socolovsky, 2009). By comparison, the U.S. health care system ranted at 37 (Satiroglou, 2009). The Spanish system offers coverage as a right of citizenship that is constitutionally guaranteed. Spanish residents pay no expenses out-of-pocket, with the exception of a few select services. They do pay for drug costs themselves and many complain about long waits to see specialists to get certain procedures. However, on average the Spanish health care system ranks better than that of the United States in many categories. Almost everyone is an agreement that the U.S. health care system is in need of serious reform. However, deciding exactly what these reform should be as a point of contention among providers, lawmakers, and average citizens. This research explores both the U.S. And Spanish health care systems. It will address the issue of whether a national health care system, such as that which is found in Spain is the solution for the ailing system in the United States.
The U.S. System
Health care economists in the United States assert that although health care spending per capita may be higher than in any other OECD nation, the long-term rates of spending have been similar. However, White (2007) demonstrates that long-term growth rates have been exceptionally high as well. The author surmised that institutional features were responsible for high long-term growth rates in health care spending. This trend has been occurring steadily for close to the past three decades. White considers several factors to be causal in this growth rate. They are an aging population, general economic growth patterns, expansion of technological capabilities in medicine, and other factors such as expansions in health insurance coverage and financing…… [Read More]
Healthcare Reform Revised
We know that the burden of diseases is increasing all over the world. The percentage of people suffering from diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases has considerably increased in the last decade. It is noteworthy here that the importance of preventive care now comes at par with the importance of curative care. Considering the prevalence of diseases and the health status of the American population, President Obama introduced a health care reform that is known as the Affordable Care Act or Obama Care. The role of medical care as a determinant for health has not been established as a fact yet it has been proved that early intervention, preventive care and the required management can go on to reduce the severity and even cure chronic disease. Due to this reason, medical care does have a very crucial role to play in the health status of the population. (Bunker, Frazier & Mosteller, 1995)
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the aforementioned reform on the healthcare facilities that are being provided in the southeastern region of Massachusetts. The target of this study will be a community hospital that is located south of the city of Boston. The emergency room of this hospital has been recorded to have a turnout of 200,000 patients every year.
Role of ACA in Massachusetts
As mentioned earlier, the prevalence of diseases is becoming a global issue of increasing concern. Needless to say, the percentage of people who are suffering from chronic illnesses like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases as well as pulmonary diseases in this area has also increased in the past couple of years. In this part of the paper, we shall focus on impacts of ACA on the health status of the people and whether or not it has been…… [Read More]
Health Care Information System
The study looks into the importance of health care information system and its latest innovation system. In this paper, I also analyze various innovated health care system which improves the delivery of services to patients. IT further looks at the case study of hospital or clinic which already using the said system. In this case the study looked at Brigham and Women's Hospital, and its pros and cons, then make a recommendation to the community health care management for adoption.
Information Technology (IT) is the best avenue, with a great potential to improve quality, safety and efficiency of Health care in the community. However, Health care information system (HCIS) can be defined as the gathering of programs and procedures, which can enable data entry, storage and the use of health care and administrative data about the patients, health care workers, health institution and other institutions connected with healthcare (Pesti?, Ozren, 2000).
Moreover, it's significant to emphasize that the goals for developing "Information System," is to improve health care. It also to make health care available to all people, regardless of geographical local and social -- economic status as stated by the World Health Organization (W.H.O) (Hawryluk, M. 2004). However, this system for health care normally compost of different components such as primary health care information system, outpatient management information system, public health care information system, pharmacies information system, health care funding system and Information system for the ministry of health. This makes the entire health care management system in most hospitals or clinics (Pestic, Ozren, 2000).
Besides, both public and private health care providers have agreed that "Health Care Information System," is a new way for providing patients with readily access information on their medical details, which could improve the quality, safety and efficiency of health care. Unfortunately, there are relatively few health care providers which have fully adopted the health care information system. This is due to certain complexity of IT investment which goes beyond acquiring technology to change work process in our health facilities (Wager, Karen, 2004). But, it changes even culture of operation, it also compels physicians, nurses and other staff to use it (). It changes several…… [Read More]
Health Care Systems
Over the last several years, America's health care system has been undergoing a tremendous amount of changes. At the heart of these transformations is the role of the federal government in regulating the delivery of various services. For some this is troubling, as it will lead to a larger form of socialized medicine. This is when consumers will have less choice and the underlying quality will decrease. While others think that the government can protect consumers and negotiate lower prices for everyone. These contrasting views are highlighting how America's health care system is a combination of government and private entities working together. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at: the definition of the health care system, the impact of beliefs / values, providing examples of models for health care delivery and explaining how these areas are used in the U.S. Together, these different elements will highlight the way these services are provided to stakeholders in America.
Definition of a health care system
A health care system is all of the different pieces that help to deliver the various products and services to customers. These include: the facilities, insurance companies, health care provider, doctors, nurses, suppliers, the government, nonprofit organizations, the general public and manufacturers. The combination of these factors is designed to effectively deliver specific health solutions to consumers (in a cost efficient manner). (Matcha, 2003, pp. 4 -- 5)
Implications of beliefs and values on a health care system
The different beliefs and values will have an impact on the health care system. In America, these ideas are based upon personal freedom and the size of the federal government. Like what was stated previously, these views will influence the intensity of the debate and the kind of programs that have been enacted. A good example of this can be seen with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. When the law was going through congressional debate, many groups approached members of Congress in their districts. At the heart of their arguments, were the role that…… [Read More]
Health Care Economics
Medical Care is never free, although the individual may pay nothing?
Medical Care is both a commodity and a service. The process of consuming medical care has a cost, even if the after insurance price is zero to the consumer. For instance, there are hard costs that include the buildings, equipment and supplies that house the medical care or office. There are the wages that are paid for the administration and provision of healthcare, and a cost for every procedure, every drug, and every minute of healthcare operations. In an economy in which there is insurance coverage, costs are not static, but variable. The "cost" of something may be $100, but because of economies of scale and negotiations, the payment for that service may only be $60 once the insurance company has verified the claim. The individual may pay nothing of that if their firm pays their premium, or may pay only a very small portion of the overall bill based on co-payment arrangements. Similarly, if someone comes to the Emergency Room and cannot pay, there may be no out of pocket cost to them, but someone does have to pay, or absorb, the cost of doing business.
In the medical field, equipment is expensive, pharmaceuticals are expensive, and often, after 10-12 years of schooling and expertise, physician and specialist care is expensive. If we think of medical care as a tangible commodity, while we may not consume it in the traditional manner, we do consume it by using it; whether needed or unneeded. Then, when we add ancillary healthcare costs to the mix, we end up with the five major health risks brought upon by lifestyle costing over $135 billion to the American economy per year. The "costs" of medical care spiral -- if 30% of a given population use the product but cannot pay, their bill may be $0.00; but the…… [Read More]
It could occur through customization, whereby the manufacturer works with the health care provider to build something, or it could occur as the result of competition. In that scenario, the manufacturer needs to offer a higher level of service and better quality of product to the health care provider in order to win contracts. Increased competition drives changes in the way that the manufacturers do business, and these changes result in a more value-oriented approach, while retaining an emphasis on providing supplies to the customer.
Beyond that, a search of "supply oriented service" turns up nothing, and since all suppliers are in the business of supplying things to their customers, it is hard to envision how that element of the business could possibly be de-emphasized. Value and supply are not mutually exclusive, and can readily co-exist, such that a health care manufacturer would compete by offering supplies at a good value.
Question 2, Student #2. There is no apparent transition at work here. The term "supply oriented service" yields zero hits on Google, which means that the term does not exist in any useful form. Further, the term "value oriented service" is utterly devoid of meaning. All transactions have "value" to both parties. If the transaction did not offer value to one of the parties, then that party would never have entered into the transaction. All companies, by definition, that complete transactions are using a value-based business model. A company that sells nothing to anyone might lack a value offer, but that does not describe any serious ongoing business.
"Supply process" is equally empty. Basically, if some sort of transition in the way that health care materials manufacturers are doing business, this transition needs to be described using accepted terminology, and it needs to be described in such a manner than can be understood.
Obviously, the second question was a major problem.
Given that no transition is coherently described, clearly this "transition" is not necessary. Without backing materials that could support the idea that this industry has changed anything, it is impossible…… [Read More]
During the ten-year period ending with 2009, the administrative costs and the profits of health insurance companies rose slower than other healthcare costs and came to represent an ever-shrinking proportion of healthcare premiums. Much of the increase in administrative costs can be ascribed to inflation, especially during the years prior to the recent recession, and ongoing expansions of healthcare coverage and legislation during the period also required some increases. The cost of care and the amount of care provided increased substantially during this period, however, and it is the increased demand that this placed on health insurance administrative efforts that accounts for the increases in these costs. In other words, health insurance has actually become more efficient and less costly in administrating care during this period, able to continue providing necessary administrative services for rapidly expanding healthcare needs with a relatively modest expansion of administrative needs. Health insurance companies are doing more with less, and this is why the percentage of each healthcare dollar spent that ends up goes towards health insurance administrative costs and profits has diminished year after year during this period.
Should data show an increase in the percentage of healthcare dollars going towards administrative costs and possibly profits in the years following 2009, in a reversal of the trend of a decreasing proportion of each dollar going towards these areas, much if not all of the change could almost certainly be ascribed to the major overhaul of healthcare legislation that took place in 2010 with the signing of the Affordable Care Act. Though not all of the changes written into the Act have gone into effect, those that have already created new mandates and preparation for those that are to come would necessarily create an increase in…… [Read More]