History In the Making: Fight for Rights
There are numerous definition of history that are adapted by different groups. Of interest though is the fact that they share a period that is in the past. Among the many definitions fronted by Word Net (2011) is "the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future." This definition arouses interest in our case study as it spans from the past into the present happenings in the world.
It is apparent that history can be made and it is never static but is continually being made by people and events that surround us. Among the most recent noticeable events of our time in the history making are the events in Asia and China. In these two political demography there have been numerous fight for rights that have taken place in the past decade to the recent years and months, these events are worth noting since they have contributed immensely in the historical development of the rights of the people in these regions.
One of the makers of history in China is Kadeer who is the most popular leader coming from the Western China province of Xinjiang. She once wanted a separate state but has since changed tune and is pushing for a self-determination in place of autonomy. She heads the Uighur movement and is currently going round the world strengthening the support for the group (The Australian, 2009). The movement pushes for illegalization of discrimination against Uighur and its religious and cultural rights and the like groups.
Lan Yimin is another immigrant Chinese who gives face to the struggle for the rights of the factory workers in China. She is pushing for fair working conditions and a better wage in commensurable ration to the economic trends in the country. She makes it clear that the demands made by the workers in China are economic and not political, lest someone in authority construes it to that (The China Post, 2010).
The UN has also been involved in participation and activism for the rights of those living with HIV / AIDS in China. Many NGOs and HIV activists have also been involved in ensuring the government does not discriminate against those with HIV / AIDS. They have pushed for due compensation of people who…… [Read More]
It was an important event in the nation's history because it was the first time that America was dominated by internal conflicts that challenged its democracy (Fortuna, n.d.). However, once the fighting came to an end, its significance became clear because of its effects on the American society.
Despite of taking more than 60,000 lives, the American Civil War contributed to the establishment of the Democratic South and Republican North. Secondly, the war enabled a reassurance of power in the national government through overturning concepts of secession and nullification. Third, the American Civil War brought the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution through its legislation. It also cemented Abraham Lincoln and other leaders into the historical glossary of the people of the United States. The Civil War is considered as a major factor that led to the increase in America's economic power to an extent that it rivaled and eventually surpassed that of other countries. Through this conflict, Americans gained a new sense of being part of a single country rather than members of a conglomerate of states with individual histories and institutions.
Importance of the Civil War to America's History:
The significance of America's deadliest conflict can be found in many arguments regarding the ending of slavery in the country. The war remains to be an important component of understanding America's history of the 19th Century because of the way it profoundly altered the attitudes of American citizens regarding how they envision their own nation. The fabric idea that is the United States was profoundly changed by the war since Americans could no longer view the country as a group of independent states but one indivisible country. This is an impact that not only occurred in the 19th Century but is felt today, especially in the manner in which Americans describe the country. Actually, no war in the nation's history had such effects as the Civil War that led to three constitutional amendments, freed millions of people from slavery, affected the election of five presidents, and eliminated the main economic and social institutions of half of America (Smith, n.d.). The significance of this event in America's 19th Century history is because it contributed to other major historical events in the nation.
In conclusion, America's Civil War remains…… [Read More]
Therefore, the triple threats of physical violence, sexual violence, and disruption of the family were probably the most serious daily complaint of 19th century slaves.
Many of the complaints that slaves had were based on the limitations that they faced in their daily lives. In the early days of slavery, slaves had much more practical freedom than they had after the growth of plantations and the related dependence on slave labor. Although there were exceptions, almost all slave owning territories became more limited during the 19th century. As a result, slaves were forbidden from doing many of the things that seemingly separate man from lower animals, in an attempt to justify treating them like chattel. For example, slaves were prohibited from pursuing their own religious ideology or practicing traditional religions, and the religion taught to slaves preached that it was God's plan that they be enslaved. Slaves were prohibited from learning to read and write. Slaves had previously been able to travel and practice trades, as long as they had their masters' permission to do so, but those rights became restricted in the 19th century. Slaves could not officially marry, and they had no legal recourse when their families were divided by their owners. Slaves had no recourse when they were physically or sexually assaulted. Once whites began to fear slave uprisings, slaves could not gather in large groups, which limited their social abilities. Of course, as slaves, they… [Read More]
As many historians admit, his skills in argument and rhetoric were instrumental in getting the Declaration accepted by the American people. As mentioned, this was not an easy task, as there were many who were opposed and some leaders even threatened that "...their states would secede from the fragile union if independence were declared. Leaders of the Congress, such as Adams, risked being executed as traitors to the Crown" (Leopold).
It is possibly more correct when evaluating Adams as an individual to say that he was "... respected but not popular..." (John Adams: biography) However he is regarded as one of the founding fathers of the United States, whose contribution to the reception and drafting of the Declaration of Independence was extremely significant, as would be his contribution as the second president of the country. (the Religious Affiliation of Second U.S. President John Adams) as David McCullough states; "He was a living embodiment of New England virtues and idiosyncrasies, a brilliant attorney, and a determined patriot. Stubbornly independent of spirit, his demanding conscience was truly his guide" (McCullough). Historically much can be said about Adams, both positive and negative. His character is often described as being overly meticulous and vain. In the final analysis these minor flaws are of little significance and history accepts that he played an invaluable part in the freedom and independence of America. It should also be remembered that his contribution to the country went beyond the Declaration of Independence. "Adams' dedication to his country never wavered. In succeeding years he would serve, with varying degrees of success, as diplomat, ambassador, vice president, and president" (Leopold).… [Read More]
History As Myth
This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.
Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae
Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One day, he promised the virgin goddess Artemis that he would sacrifice his best lamb to her, if he could be king. Amongst his flocks, he saw a lamb with a beautiful golden fleece. He killed the lamb, but could not bear to part with the fleece and instead hid it away.
Artemis was outraged, and urged Thyestes to make a bet with his brother that whoever had a golden lamb fleece would have the throne for life. Atreus confidently made the bet, but when he went to the chest where he had hidden the lamb fleece, it was gone. Unbeknownst to him, Artemis had helped his brother find it. Now that Atreus was no longer king he was disconsolate. He prayed to Zeus for assistance. Zeus, who favored Atreus, told Atreus to make a bet with his brother that he would give up all claims to the throne, if he could not make the sun run backwards. Thyestes agreed, and with Zeus' help, Atreus made good on his bet.
Atreus thus became king of Mycenae again, but he understandably still held a grudge against his brother. He was sure that…… [Read More]
History Of Native Americans
How did Native responses to European activities affect the direction that colonies took?
In 1585, Richard Hakluyt guaranteed that the economic potential of the North America is strong enough to provide the basis for the creation of a grand English commercial empire. He assured that the colonization by Englishmen would open profitable and productive new American markets. The next 178 years proved really beneficial for the Native Americans and settlers who transformed North America into a central part of the British North Atlantic commercial system. The businesses flourished and made an intense impact on the fiscal life of the Native Americans who started to import European goods that displaced "traditional tools, weapons, utensils, apparel, and ornamentation" (Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History 2000). Everything related to the Native American life altered when they started trading with Europeans. It not only disordered and transformed the patterns of traditional trading but the natural environment also got strained due to over-hunting and over-trapping. It changed the clothing, cooking, cultivating and hunting styles of the American Indians (Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History 2000).
Due to the colder northern climate, it was not possible for the farmers to cultivate the English staple crops. However, the land was fertile enough to support traditional English farming methods. By 1650, the English colonies generated commercial output that was large enough to improve the status of many English planters and the Dutch merchants. These planters and merchants transported tobacco and sugar from the markets of English West India and Chesapeake to the ports of Europe. In 1660, Charles II was restored to the throne of England. It was at that time that the Parliament and royal officials set out to construct a policy of colonial commerce that was to favor English merchants and shippers and slice the Dutch away of Anglo-American trade (Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History 2000).
During the earlier period of the 18th century, the economic condition of the colonies prospered slowly but gradually. With the market roads' construction river channels' clearing, the imported English goods began to occupy more and more space within the colonies.…… [Read More]
History of Building Construction and Changes Related to Fire Safety & Prevention
History of Building Construction and Changes Related to Fire Safety and Prevention
Major Cases in the United States That Have Led to Changes in Fire Safety and Prevention in Building Construction
Though numerous tragic fires have contributed to our current Fire Safety and Prevention measures, a few cases dominate our country's collective memory in the establishment and refinement of the "Life Safety Code."
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
One hundred years ago, government did not exert much safety control over business, so the types and extent of fire safety were freely controlled by employers (Pinkerson, 2011). For example, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, employing hundreds of immigrants and was insured for fire damage to benefit the owners but had little concern for its workers (Pinkerson, 2011): Triangle arbitrarily provided 27 buckets of water to extinguish fires, doors that were either locked to prevent employee theft or opened inward, an elevator that was inadequate for the weight of many individuals, and fire escapes that were also insufficient for a great number of people escaping fire at the same time (Yaz). In addition, the fire department itself amazingly did not have fire ladders and/or hoses that could reach the highest floors of the Factory (Pinkerson, 2011). On March 25, 1911, the combination of careless fire safety measures and overcrowded conditions led to one of the most tragic fires in U.S. History. As approximately 275 employees, mostly women with the average age of 19, left work for the day, a fire broke out (Yaz) in the Factory. With an inadequate amount of water to douse the fire, fire ladders and hoses too short to reach the Factory's upper floors, locked escape routes, doors opening inward that trapped onrushing employees attempting to escape, and an elevator and fire escape that collapsed under the weight of many panicked would-be escapees (Rosa), many trapped individuals simply jumped to their deaths. In all, 146 employees were killed in the fire…… [Read More]
History As Art
The past is not real, nor tangible. We cannot revisit the past as we are forever placed here, in the eternal now to navigate our existence. History provides our imaginations with concepts and ideas that allow us to seemingly describe the past. It must be remembered and heavily emphasized that history is in fact an art. It is not a science and it has no capability of being inductively reasoned and scientifically applied.
Although these limitations are often ignored by many historians and scholars, who feel that history is a guiding force, ignores the pulling forces of the needs of the future for mankind. The purpose of this essay is to explain the various considerations of diverse groups and how these themes impact the way we see the past. This essay will attempt to explain the thinking of other groups as it relates to history by giving several examples. The inevitability of history's forcing of multiple opinions and the perceptions surrounding these opinions will be discussed to help frame the many problems that history has as a relevant intellectual approach and its failures to capture a true reality.
History Is Not Real
History is the art form of essentially controlling the thoughts and emotions of the present, using the events of the past as a stimulus for hopes of a certain future. To suggest that the totality of any one single event may be captured in a document or written expose, sells the human experience short in so many awful ways. The hubris attached with most historical documents suggest that something bigger is at work. Some may argue that history is nothing more than propaganda. It is a historian's job to produce compelling imaginations from research, based on other compelling imaginations, to develop new and relevant ideas that can be applied in the present, in order to justify or negate a particular idea, person or action. It is not…… [Read More]
History Of General Motors:
General Motors is one of the major companies that have played an integral role in the international auto industry for over 100 years. The company has been able to establish itself in the global auto industry because of its rich history and innovative business strategies. An analysis of General Motors' history reveals that there was point it was the largest corporation in the United States. In addition to this, there was a point in the company's history that it was the single largest employer across the globe. The history of the company can be divided into various phases including creation, acceleration, emotion, revolution, globalization, innovation and challenges, and the modern GM.
Important Periods in General Motors History:
There are various important periods in the history of General Motors that can be classified into several major categories i.e. pre-era-2007 and before as well as during and after 2007 as explained below:
This is basically the period between the inception of the company and the period of harsh economic times that resulted in General Motors adopting innovation and challenges from 2000-2008. The beginning of this company is traced back to early 1900s when it was founded by William Durant, a shrewd business man who recognized that the future was not in carriages but rather in cars (Halliday, 2009). During the initial years of its inception, General Motors was founded as a holding firm for Buick that resulted in the acquisitions of Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Elmore, and Oakland. As many motor companies were experiencing difficult times during this period because of financial stress, General Motors' founder saw this as a huge opportunity to buy smaller car builders and companies manufacturing car parts and accessories.
While Durant founded the company, he was only involved for a few years in two relatively brief spells but was forced out by financial problems in both instances. Most of the companies that Durant had acquired were subsequently…… [Read More]
History Of the Peloponnesian War
Thucydides asserts that the Peloponnesian War was caused by "…the rise of Athenian power and the fear this caused in Sparta." Does this argument place the blame for the start of the war on Athens or on Sparta? That is the thesis question to be approached in this paper. Using quality references -- books and scholarly articles -- this paper will answer the thesis question and provide the necessary research to verify any scholarly assertions. Indeed, the answer to the thesis question is that while Athens put pressure on Sparta's allies -- and hence, Sparta felt the heat of Athenian policies that harmed Sparta's allies -- it was Sparta that actually launched the war. So it can be said that Athens laid the groundwork by irritating and angering Sparta over a long period of time in many instances. But Sparta cast the first stone -- lit the fuse that Athens had put in place -- in the Peloponnesian War.
The Tensions between Athens and Sparta
There had been friction and tension between the two powers for many years, Author Donald Kagan explains in his book On the Origins of War (Kagan, 1995, p. 27). The Spartans were "suspicious and resentful at the growth of Athenian power," Kagan asserts (27). Some leaders in Sparta had been bitterly opposed to the Athenians decision to rebuild their city walls once the Persians had left, but requests by Sparta for Athens to cease rebuilding those walls were rejected, Kagan points out (27). Moreover, the Athenian attack on the island of Thasos (then allies with Sparta) in 465 B.C. further agitated Sparta, which was part of the reason that the association between Sparta and Athens (developed when the two powers were allies against Persia) had ended. As to the outcome of those specific tensions (vis-a-vis the Thasos attack), the Spartans "…were afraid of the boldness and the revolutionary spirit of the Athenians (this is Thucydides' quote presented by Kagan on page 28).
The Athenians went about further angering the Spartans during the battle between two allies of Sparta, Corinth and Megara. While Sparta chose not to become involved in that war (which Megara was losing), Megara announced it would "…secede from the…… [Read More]
History Of Central Banking in the United States of America
History of Central Banking
This paper discusses the history of central banking system in the United States of America. It analyses the establishment, operations and functions of the central banks that existed in the history of the United States of America. The closing of these historic central banks is also being discussed in the preceding paper. It also puts light on the main functions of the central banks.
History of Central Banking in the United States of America
A central bank can be defined as an authority that is responsible for formulating strategies that directly affect the supply of money and credit in a country. In specific terms a central bank uses its monetary policy tools, including open market operations, discount window lending and changes in reserve requirements, in order to adjust the rates of interest and the monetary base in the short run to achieve the key goals of the monetary policy, such as, price stability, high employment and stable economic growth. ( Bordo, 2007)
History of Central Banking in the United States of America:
It has been proved by a number of studies that in the past years central banks were established to support the countries in times of wars. Unlike the present era, in the past era the central banks were not established to support the countries in monetary terms or to act as the lender of the last resort instead they were established to improve the country's ability to issue loans in the times of wars. It was mandatory for such banks to invest their funds in the government bonds. All the central banks that came into existence before 1850 were established in the context of wars. (Broz, 1998)
The two major central banks that existed in the United States of America between 1791 to 1850 were the first and the second bank of the United States of America. ("First bank of," 2000)…… [Read More]
Histories of the World in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)
The History of the World in Six Glasses by Tom Standage
'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'
The History of the World in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and nations have defined themselves according to what they drink, more so than what they eat. The British define themselves as tea-drinkers, as do the Chinese. Hard-drinking America is the nation of the cocktail -- and Coca-Cola.
The central, driving thesis of Standage's book is that even more so than food, if you 'tell me who you drink, I will tell you who you are.' A civilization's beverage of choice is revealing because it denotes the environmental and economic pressures to which the society was subject, and reflects existing class divides and social norms. (Consider the divide between beer drinkers and wine drinkers in contemporary America). But the choice of beverage is also a 'two-way street' -- beverages help shape and create a society. (Consider how the availability of Starbucks and coffee has helped create our contemporary 24-7 society or how the availability of cheap and caloric sodas has contributed to our obesity crisis).
The economics of beer: How the elixir of the gods became the beverage of the poor
Contrary to what most might suspect to be the logical start to his tale -- wine -- Standage starts with beer. Beer is a surprisingly old beverage, with roots in early human agriculture. It marked the shift from a hunter-gatherer existence to an agricultural lifestyle defined by manufactured tools. Gradually, many tribes abandoned the hunting existence that required humans to rely…… [Read More]
History Of Photography: From Ancient Times Into the Present Day
Photography can be traced back to ancient times. Camera obscuras were "used to form images on walls in darkened rooms...via a pinhole" and the use of shadows (Greenspun 1999). This primitive technology remained unchanged until the 18th century. Then, one day, Professor J. Schulze mixed "chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask," which caused him to notice the "darkening on [the] side of [a] flask exposed to sunlight," leading to the "accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound" (Greenspun 1999). Nicephore Niepce followed by combining the camera obscura with photosensitive paper, creating the first permanent reproduction on paper and the first 'photographic' image in history (Greenspun 1999).
Technology advanced rapidly afterward, particularly after the innovations of Louis Daguerre who created images "on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and 'developed' with warmed mercury (Greenspun 1999). Less involved methods of reproducing images included the process of using glass, rather than copper, to create images, and even less expensive methods evolved using iron and paper. The use of paper finally allowed photography to be transmitted to the masses ("History of 19th century photography," Photo Tree, 2010.).
The capacity of photography to provide a great service to humankind for its ability to record history became manifest during the American Civil War. At the time, "the process of taking photographs was complex and time-consuming," requiring one person to mix the chemicals for a clean glass plate that would then be "positioned and focused by the other photographer. Exposure of the plate and development of the photograph had to be completed within minutes; then the exposed plate was rushed to the darkroom wagon for developing. Each fragile glass plate had to be treated with great care after development" ("Taking photographs at the time of the Civil War," Civil War Photographs Home Page, 1997). Despite the challenges, many photographs were taken and remain as a recording of the catastrophic battles fought during the era.
Photography was regarded as a way of 'truthfully' portraying history and recording the human…… [Read More]
History Of Personal Computer
Ceruzzi, P.E. (2010). "Ready or not, computers are coming to the people": Inventing the PC. OAH Magazine of History 24(3), pp. 25-28. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
In late 1974, a young Boston-based electronics engineer read an article in Popular Electronics about small personal computers. He showed the article to a friend, Harvard undergrad William "Bill" Gates III, and the two soon formed a company to write software for an industry that was still in its infancy. The history of Gates' company, MicroSoft, is well-known; the purpose of Ceruzzi's article was to put the development of the personal computer into historical context. The early 1970s were a time of economic downturn in the U.S., following more than two decades of growth and prosperity. Environmental concerns were beginning to gain public attention. A war in the Middle East contributed to a gasoline shortage. Americans began to lose faith in the political system with the scandals surrounding Watergate as well as Vice President Spiro Agnew. The computer industry was dominated by IBM Corporation and was geared toward governmental and scientific uses. Despite seemingly overwhelming odds, young entrepreneurs like Gates prospered.
Ceruzzi begins the article with a description of a newsstand in Harvard Square, famous for more than half a century for its expansive stock of magazines and newspapers representing myriad interests and global origins. As the author points out, however, in today's internet age, with twenty-four hour access to news feeds and the World Wide Web, the prospect of visiting Out-of-Town News is much less exciting. For journalists, writers, editors, photographers and artists, there are fewer print markets available to showcase their work, but a great number of virtual markets. The personal computer can provide new ways for artists to create their work as well as new ways to get it into public view. Writers and artists who limit themselves only to print publications may find they are limiting the exposure of their work. Those who embrace new technology and its place in the market will find that there are not fewer venues for their work, but different ones. Writers and artists, to be seen and heard, will need to adapt. Adapting to the new technology seems essential for one who is determined to make his…… [Read More]
History Of Softball
Softball has its origins in the game of baseball, the bat-and-ball sport which was first played in America with a codified set of rules in Hoboken, New Jersey on 19 June 1846. The game of softball appeared in the U.S. just over thirty years later in 1887. While the two sports are similar in many ways, they also contrast in a number of ways -- as does their history. This paper will examine the history of softball and show how and why it developed out of the game of baseball.
With the first known game of softball being played on Thanksgiving Day in Chicago between Yale and Harvard football fans. The game began quite by accident and quite spontaneously when, after the results of the football game between the two rivals were announced and winning parties were awarded their money, a graduate from Yale hurled a boxing mitt at a fan of the school of Harvard. The man at whom the boxing mitt was hurled did not hesitate but reacted as any sporting fan with a stick in his hands would have: he swung at it with a stick.
Just then a man named George Hancock cried out, "Play ball!" And a good-natured game of a make-shift baseball was immediately begun. The boxing mitt was wrapped up and knotted and used as a make-shift ball. A broom stick served as a bat. And Yale and Harvard supporters served as the players. Hancock used to chalk to outline the baseball field diamond (inside the boat club where the men proposed to play, no less), and the men fielded the "ball" with their bare hands. An hour later, when the game was over and the score stood 41-40, Hancock was determined to make softball a real sport. That very same week he set about making it one.
Taking his cue from the sport of baseball (but also from the fact that the game he had played had taken place indoors as opposed to outdoors), Hancock decided that players would use an undersized bat and keep the…… [Read More]
History Of Zionism
is the political movement that arose in Europe in the late 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. It asserted that the Jewish people were a separate nation and were entitled to have a country of their own and succeeded in its objective with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. Since then, the Zionist movement has concentrated on strengthening Israel and encouraging Jews from around the world to migrate and settle in the Jewish state. This paper traces the history of Zionism from its origins to the present time.
Origins and Background
Although the Zionist political movement started in the late 19th century, its roots lie as far back as 70 AD when Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended with the destruction of the Temple and the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. The land of Israel was re-named Palestine and the entry of Jews in Jerusalem remained banned until the capture of the city by the Muslims from Byzantine control in 638 AD. The Jewish religious tradition held that Eretz Israel (the Land of Israel) had been given to the ancient Israelites by God and it was God's will that the Jewish people would one day return to their homeland. The Jewish people of Diaspora (exile) also linked such a return to the coming of a Messiah, a savior whom God, who shall lead them to the Holy Land. For this reason, many religious Jews opposed the Zionist movement and considered it a blasphemy to establish their homeland through human effort without divine intervention.
Jews had lived in small groups in different parts of the world since their expulsion from Jerusalem and had suffered through periodic prosecution due to a long tradition of anti-Semitism
. Throughout the centuries, the Jews maintained their separate identity, clinging to the belief that they were the God's chosen ones and were ordained to one day return to the Promised Land.
Jewish Nationalism: Precursor of the Modern Zionist Movement
Europe was swept by the ideas of Enlightenment and liberalism in the 18th and 19th centuries. Various national struggles, such as those for German and Italian unification, and for Polish and Hungarian independence were also taking shape at the time. A number of European Jews were also inspired by the ideals of Enlightenment and this gave…… [Read More]
This is not always the case. Some may be educated and economically well off, within particular fundamentalist sects, but use an idealistic vision of the past to provide a solution to what they see is lacking in the contemporary world. This was true of the Muslim Brotherhood of 1929, which used religion as part of its ideology of colonial resistance -- and is also true of many of the terrorist leaders of the modern groups threatening America today. (Gelvin, 2004, p.295) An advocacy of a return to origins has provided a powerful way for Muslims to advocate regional solidarity, national resistance to a hated leader or colonial power, or simply for a cause that is supposed to remedy the present.
The difficulty of articulating a liberating ideology within a fundamentalist mindset, however, should not be dismissed. Even the contemporary Egyptian author of The Committee, which portrays an Middle Eastern government secretly dominated by oppressive blond Westerners, provokes a comparison in the reader's mind with similar autocratic and oppressive Arab leaders in Iran. Fundamentalism may provide a source of self-definition, but it offers a means of ideologically justifying autocratic and oppressive control.
American Civil War: Finally established America as a unified nation and world actor, under a central, federal authority, and brought the South into the modern, industrial world.
Article 22 of the Charter of the League of Nations: Gave freedom to former colonies of the Ottoman Empire to exist as independent nations but with administrative advice and assistance by outside powers.
Balfour Declaration (1918): This partitioned British-controlled Palestine into two territories, one dominated by Jewish residents, the others by Arab Palestinians.
Bretton Woods System: The Bretton Woods System established the need for all nations to abide by a single, unified monetary system, which was first tied to the price of gold.
Cairo Conference of 1921: A March 1921 a…… [Read More]
History Of Understanding the Science of Meteors
When did scientists first begin to understand what "falling stars" really were? What did humans originally believe about those flashing lights that darted across the night sky -- and who were the scientific individuals who made and recorded the first accurate observations of meteors? These issues and others related to meteors will be presented in this paper.
Brief Review of Ancient Beliefs about Meteors
Author Tamra Andrews explains in her book Dictionary of Nature Myths: Legends of the Earth, Sea, and Sky, that ancient people apparently associated meteors with evil. In particular, Tamara writes, "people believed these flaming rock fragments were demons" that were flying down to earth for "some malevolent reason" (Andrews, 2000, p. 123). Some ancient civilizations had a fear of fire and as Andrews mentions, seeing a "strange occurrence in the sky" seemed to be upsetting the universe in some way so it was a cause for a "sense of doom" (123).
To some ancient peoples, the meteor falling from the sky might have been Thor, the Norse thunder god, hurling a hammer from deep space, Andrews explained. The Mongols of China -- when they found meteorites that had made it to earth -- used the rocks as tools, and ancient peoples in Scandinavia believed the rocks that made it to earth were pieces of "Thor's hammer" (Andrews, 123). The Hindu peoples believed that meteors offered a link to "the severed body of Rahu, the eclipse demon" and the Native Americans in California believed that meteors were from the moon -- calling them the "moon's children" (Andrews, 123). In Queensland ancient people thought the meteors represented "the ropes their dead relatives used to climb to Heaven, and then dropped when they arrived safely" (Andrews, 123).
Science Begins to Come to Terms with Meteors
In the book Meteorites And the Early Solar System (Lauretta, et al.,…… [Read More]
The French in particular, as they are to this day considered to be one of the greatest losers of the war (and the most important battle field of the war)
were in desperate need of men to reconstruct the country. Therefore, the immigration policies changed and allowed for an increase in the labor force flow. More precisely, "due to a perceived demographic insufficiency and labor market needs, the French government had long authorized or allowed extensive recruitment of foreign workers and colonial workers. In 1945, there was a broad consensus in governmental circles that large-scale immigration should resume. To this end, a National Immigration Office was created and given a legal monopoly over recruitment of foreign workers. (...). It welcomed the immigration and settlement of Italians and Spaniards, judged to be assimilable, while pursuing temporary foreign worker policy when North African Muslims were recruited for employment."
Similar policies were adopted not only by the French state but also by the German and the Swiss ones. The French justified its encouragement of the immigration policy as there was need for a new policy in relation to the Algerian war. After the independence of Algeria, the legal situation of the Algerian muslims had to be decided and the population was allowed to either retain their French nationality or gain the Algerian one. However, even if it was not a majority, a lot of Muslims arrived in France in the framework of the new immigration policies and the right to work in France. This led to the establishment of clear cut Muslim communities throughout France. At the same time, this was considered to have been the price paid by France to free the Algerian country
. In Germany and Switzerland, the situation was different in the sense that their immigration policies had a very particular aim which was strictly related to the improvement of the workforce with cheap, quality labor. The concept had been one dependent on the periods of economic growth and recession. More precisely, the working permits would be renewed during times of economic boosts and would be withdrew in moments of stagnation or regress. However,…… [Read More]
Histories of Herodotus
In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.
Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability to separate fact from fiction was hampered to a great degree by not having access to any major primary sources, thus making it difficult to determine which narrative was based on actual events and which was pure mythology.
As to the portraits that emerge from Herodotus' Histories, the Persian empire, founded by Cyrus the Great in the sixth century B.C.E. As the Achaemenid empire which lasted more than twelve hundred years, was a truly faith-based culture under the guise of Zoroastrianism with the "Zend Avesta" as its predominant religious text. Along with Cyrus the Great, revealed by historical sources to have delivered the Jews from persecution in Babylon, King Darius was one of history's great lawgivers who made legal reform in his empire a main priority while adhering to
traditional laws and the laws based on his imperial control and authority as the king of ancient Persia.
In contrast, the culture of ancient Greece was composed of city-states based at Sparta and Athens with their leaders supporting much pride in their citizens with an emphasis on the individual. One of Greece's greatest leaders was Solon, who much like Darius, took up the task of social and political reform. Solon altered much of the existing Greek laws and formed his own legal-based codes which resembled those of Hammurabi, the great lawmaker of Babylon; yet those of Solon were far more secular in…… [Read More]