It was an important event in the nation's history because it was the first time that America was dominated by internal conflicts that challenged its democracy (Fortuna, n.d.). However, once the fighting came to an end, its significance became clear because of its effects on the American society.
Despite of taking more than 60,000 lives, the American Civil War contributed to the establishment of the Democratic South and Republican North. Secondly, the war enabled a reassurance of power in the national government through overturning concepts of secession and nullification. Third, the American Civil War brought the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution through its legislation. It also cemented Abraham Lincoln and other leaders into the historical glossary of the people of the United States. The Civil War is considered as a major factor that led to the increase in America's economic power to an extent that it rivaled and eventually surpassed that of other countries. Through this conflict, Americans gained a new sense of being part of a single country rather than members of a conglomerate of states with individual histories and institutions.
Importance of the Civil War to America's History:
The significance of America's deadliest conflict can be found in many arguments regarding the ending of slavery in the country. The war remains to be an important component of understanding America's history of the 19th Century because of the way it profoundly altered the attitudes of American citizens regarding how they envision their own nation. The fabric idea that is the United States was profoundly changed by the war since Americans could no longer view the country as a group of independent states but one indivisible country. This is an impact that not only occurred in the 19th Century but is felt today, especially in the manner in which Americans describe the country. Actually, no war in the nation's history had such effects as the Civil War that led to three constitutional amendments, freed millions of people from slavery, affected the election of five presidents, and eliminated the main economic and social institutions of half of America (Smith, n.d.). The significance of this event in America's 19th Century history is because it contributed to other major historical events in the nation.
In conclusion, America's Civil War remains to be one of the deadly but significant events in the nation's 19th Century history. The conflict…… [Read More]
History As Myth
This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.
Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae
Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One day, he promised the virgin goddess Artemis that he would sacrifice his best lamb to her, if he could be king. Amongst his flocks, he saw a lamb with a beautiful golden fleece. He killed the lamb, but could not bear to part with the fleece and instead hid it away.
Artemis was outraged, and urged Thyestes to make a bet with his brother that whoever had a golden lamb fleece would have the throne for life. Atreus confidently made the bet, but when he went to the chest where he had hidden the lamb fleece, it was gone. Unbeknownst to him, Artemis had helped his brother find it. Now that Atreus was no longer king he was disconsolate. He prayed to Zeus for assistance. Zeus, who favored Atreus, told Atreus to make a bet with his brother that he would give up all claims to the throne, if he could not make the sun run backwards. Thyestes agreed, and with Zeus' help, Atreus made good on his bet.
Atreus thus became king of Mycenae again, but he understandably still held a grudge against his brother. He was sure that Thyestes would be scheming to overthrow him in yet another way -- so he was determined to terrify his brother into submission. To do so, he invited Thyestes to a banquet, along with his brother's…… [Read More]
History Of Native Americans
How did Native responses to European activities affect the direction that colonies took?
In 1585, Richard Hakluyt guaranteed that the economic potential of the North America is strong enough to provide the basis for the creation of a grand English commercial empire. He assured that the colonization by Englishmen would open profitable and productive new American markets. The next 178 years proved really beneficial for the Native Americans and settlers who transformed North America into a central part of the British North Atlantic commercial system. The businesses flourished and made an intense impact on the fiscal life of the Native Americans who started to import European goods that displaced "traditional tools, weapons, utensils, apparel, and ornamentation" (Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History 2000). Everything related to the Native American life altered when they started trading with Europeans. It not only disordered and transformed the patterns of traditional trading but the natural environment also got strained due to over-hunting and over-trapping. It changed the clothing, cooking, cultivating and hunting styles of the American Indians (Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History 2000).
Due to the colder northern climate, it was not possible for the farmers to cultivate the English staple crops. However, the land was fertile enough to support traditional English farming methods. By 1650, the English colonies generated commercial output that was large enough to improve the status of many English planters and the Dutch merchants. These planters and merchants transported tobacco and sugar from the markets of English West India and Chesapeake to the ports of Europe. In 1660, Charles II was restored to the throne of England. It was at that time that the Parliament and royal officials set out to construct a policy of colonial commerce that was to favor English merchants and shippers and slice the Dutch away of Anglo-American trade (Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History 2000).
During the earlier period of the 18th century, the economic condition of the colonies prospered slowly…… [Read More]
History In the Making: Fight for Rights
There are numerous definition of history that are adapted by different groups. Of interest though is the fact that they share a period that is in the past. Among the many definitions fronted by Word Net (2011) is "the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future." This definition arouses interest in our case study as it spans from the past into the present happenings in the world.
It is apparent that history can be made and it is never static but is continually being made by people and events that surround us. Among the most recent noticeable events of our time in the history making are the events in Asia and China. In these two political demography there have been numerous fight for rights that have taken place in the past decade to the recent years and months, these events are worth noting since they have contributed immensely in the historical development of the rights of the people in these regions.
One of the makers of history in China is Kadeer who is the most popular leader coming from the Western China province of Xinjiang. She once wanted a separate state but has since changed tune and is pushing for a self-determination in place of autonomy. She heads the Uighur movement and is currently going round the world strengthening the support for the group (The Australian, 2009). The movement pushes for illegalization of discrimination against Uighur and its religious and cultural rights and the like groups.
Lan Yimin is another immigrant Chinese who gives face to the struggle for the rights of the factory workers in China. She is pushing for fair working conditions and a better wage in commensurable ration to the economic trends in the country. She makes it clear that the demands made by the workers in China are economic and not political, lest…… [Read More]
History of Building Construction and Changes Related to Fire Safety & Prevention
History of Building Construction and Changes Related to Fire Safety and Prevention
Major Cases in the United States That Have Led to Changes in Fire Safety and Prevention in Building Construction
Though numerous tragic fires have contributed to our current Fire Safety and Prevention measures, a few cases dominate our country's collective memory in the establishment and refinement of the "Life Safety Code."
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
One hundred years ago, government did not exert much safety control over business, so the types and extent of fire safety were freely controlled by employers (Pinkerson, 2011). For example, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, employing hundreds of immigrants and was insured for fire damage to benefit the owners but had little concern for its workers (Pinkerson, 2011): Triangle arbitrarily provided 27 buckets of water to extinguish fires, doors that were either locked to prevent employee theft or opened inward, an elevator that was inadequate for the weight of many individuals, and fire escapes that were also insufficient for a great number of people escaping fire at the same time (Yaz). In addition, the fire department itself amazingly did not have fire ladders and/or hoses that could reach the highest floors of the Factory (Pinkerson, 2011). On March 25, 1911, the combination of careless fire safety measures and overcrowded conditions led to one of the most tragic fires in U.S. History. As approximately 275 employees, mostly women with the average age of 19, left work for the day, a fire broke out (Yaz) in the Factory. With an inadequate amount of water to douse the fire, fire ladders and hoses too short to reach the Factory's upper floors, locked escape routes, doors opening inward that trapped onrushing employees attempting to escape, and an elevator and fire escape that collapsed under the weight of many panicked would-be escapees (Rosa), many trapped individuals simply jumped to their deaths. In all, 146 employees were killed in the fire (Rosa).
The resulting outrage initially had little or no effect: the owners of the factory were tried for manslaughter but were acquitted (Yaz) and…… [Read More]
History As Art
The past is not real, nor tangible. We cannot revisit the past as we are forever placed here, in the eternal now to navigate our existence. History provides our imaginations with concepts and ideas that allow us to seemingly describe the past. It must be remembered and heavily emphasized that history is in fact an art. It is not a science and it has no capability of being inductively reasoned and scientifically applied.
Although these limitations are often ignored by many historians and scholars, who feel that history is a guiding force, ignores the pulling forces of the needs of the future for mankind. The purpose of this essay is to explain the various considerations of diverse groups and how these themes impact the way we see the past. This essay will attempt to explain the thinking of other groups as it relates to history by giving several examples. The inevitability of history's forcing of multiple opinions and the perceptions surrounding these opinions will be discussed to help frame the many problems that history has as a relevant intellectual approach and its failures to capture a true reality.
History Is Not Real
History is the art form of essentially controlling the thoughts and emotions of the present, using the events of the past as a stimulus for hopes of a certain future. To suggest that the totality of any one single event may be captured in a document or written expose, sells the human experience short in so many awful ways. The hubris attached with most historical documents suggest that something bigger is at work. Some may argue that history is nothing more than propaganda. It is a historian's job to produce compelling imaginations from research, based on other compelling imaginations, to develop new and relevant ideas that can be applied in the present, in order to justify or negate a particular idea, person or action. It is not that history does not have its place, it is just that there is too much belief that history is "real" and should be taken as fact.
When considering the incestuous actions by most academic groups when it comes to protecting their own point-of-view and dismantling others', history is more a less a rhetorical competition that seeks to mesmerize and hypnotize…… [Read More]
History Of General Motors:
General Motors is one of the major companies that have played an integral role in the international auto industry for over 100 years. The company has been able to establish itself in the global auto industry because of its rich history and innovative business strategies. An analysis of General Motors' history reveals that there was point it was the largest corporation in the United States. In addition to this, there was a point in the company's history that it was the single largest employer across the globe. The history of the company can be divided into various phases including creation, acceleration, emotion, revolution, globalization, innovation and challenges, and the modern GM.
Important Periods in General Motors History:
There are various important periods in the history of General Motors that can be classified into several major categories i.e. pre-era-2007 and before as well as during and after 2007 as explained below:
This is basically the period between the inception of the company and the period of harsh economic times that resulted in General Motors adopting innovation and challenges from 2000-2008. The beginning of this company is traced back to early 1900s when it was founded by William Durant, a shrewd business man who recognized that the future was not in carriages but rather in cars (Halliday, 2009). During the initial years of its inception, General Motors was founded as a holding firm for Buick that resulted in the acquisitions of Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Elmore, and Oakland. As many motor companies were experiencing difficult times during this period because of financial stress, General Motors' founder saw this as a huge opportunity to buy smaller car builders and companies manufacturing car parts and accessories.
While Durant founded the company, he was only involved for a few years in two relatively brief spells but was forced out by financial problems in both instances. Most of the companies that Durant had acquired were subsequently closed because he made more bad deals than good ones despite being a prolific wheeler and dealer. Consequently, he lost control…… [Read More]
History Of Photography: From Ancient Times Into the Present Day
Photography can be traced back to ancient times. Camera obscuras were "used to form images on walls in darkened rooms...via a pinhole" and the use of shadows (Greenspun 1999). This primitive technology remained unchanged until the 18th century. Then, one day, Professor J. Schulze mixed "chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask," which caused him to notice the "darkening on [the] side of [a] flask exposed to sunlight," leading to the "accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound" (Greenspun 1999). Nicephore Niepce followed by combining the camera obscura with photosensitive paper, creating the first permanent reproduction on paper and the first 'photographic' image in history (Greenspun 1999).
Technology advanced rapidly afterward, particularly after the innovations of Louis Daguerre who created images "on silver-plated copper, coated with silver iodide and 'developed' with warmed mercury (Greenspun 1999). Less involved methods of reproducing images included the process of using glass, rather than copper, to create images, and even less expensive methods evolved using iron and paper. The use of paper finally allowed photography to be transmitted to the masses ("History of 19th century photography," Photo Tree, 2010.).
The capacity of photography to provide a great service to humankind for its ability to record history became manifest during the American Civil War. At the time, "the process of taking photographs was complex and time-consuming," requiring one person to mix the chemicals for a clean glass plate that would then be "positioned and focused by the other photographer. Exposure of the plate and development of the photograph had to be completed within minutes; then the exposed plate was rushed to the darkroom wagon for developing. Each fragile glass plate had to be treated with great care after development" ("Taking photographs at the time of the Civil War," Civil War Photographs Home Page, 1997). Despite the challenges, many photographs were taken and remain as a recording of the catastrophic battles fought during the era.
Photography was regarded as a way of 'truthfully' portraying history and recording the human form for posterity in the 19th century, but gradually, with the growth of the Impressionist movement, the capacity of photography to be 'art' was realized. In the 1880s, Henry Peach Robinson was one of the first photographers to develop his own, distinct technique. Robinson "began focusing directly on the subject, letting the foreground…… [Read More]
Therefore, the triple threats of physical violence, sexual violence, and disruption of the family were probably the most serious daily complaint of 19th century slaves.
Many of the complaints that slaves had were based on the limitations that they faced in their daily lives. In the early days of slavery, slaves had much more practical freedom than they had after the growth of plantations and the related dependence on slave labor. Although there were exceptions, almost all slave owning territories became more limited during the 19th century. As a result, slaves were forbidden from doing many of the things that seemingly separate man from lower animals, in an attempt to justify treating them like chattel. For example, slaves were prohibited from pursuing their own religious ideology or practicing traditional religions, and the religion taught to slaves preached that it was God's plan that they be enslaved. Slaves were prohibited from learning to read and write. Slaves had previously been able to travel and practice trades, as long as they had their masters' permission to do so, but those rights became restricted in the 19th century. Slaves could not officially marry, and they had no legal recourse when their families were divided by their owners. Slaves had no recourse when they were physically or sexually assaulted. Once whites began to fear slave uprisings, slaves could not gather in large groups, which limited their social abilities. Of course, as slaves, they… [Read More]
History Of the Peloponnesian War
Thucydides asserts that the Peloponnesian War was caused by "…the rise of Athenian power and the fear this caused in Sparta." Does this argument place the blame for the start of the war on Athens or on Sparta? That is the thesis question to be approached in this paper. Using quality references -- books and scholarly articles -- this paper will answer the thesis question and provide the necessary research to verify any scholarly assertions. Indeed, the answer to the thesis question is that while Athens put pressure on Sparta's allies -- and hence, Sparta felt the heat of Athenian policies that harmed Sparta's allies -- it was Sparta that actually launched the war. So it can be said that Athens laid the groundwork by irritating and angering Sparta over a long period of time in many instances. But Sparta cast the first stone -- lit the fuse that Athens had put in place -- in the Peloponnesian War.
The Tensions between Athens and Sparta
There had been friction and tension between the two powers for many years, Author Donald Kagan explains in his book On the Origins of War (Kagan, 1995, p. 27). The Spartans were "suspicious and resentful at the growth of Athenian power," Kagan asserts (27). Some leaders in Sparta had been bitterly opposed to the Athenians decision to rebuild their city walls once the Persians had left, but requests by Sparta for Athens to cease rebuilding those walls were rejected, Kagan points out (27). Moreover, the Athenian attack on the island of Thasos (then allies with Sparta) in 465 B.C. further agitated Sparta, which was part of the reason that the association between Sparta and Athens (developed when the two powers were allies against Persia) had ended. As to the outcome of those specific tensions (vis-a-vis the Thasos attack), the…… [Read More]
History Of Central Banking in the United States of America
History of Central Banking
This paper discusses the history of central banking system in the United States of America. It analyses the establishment, operations and functions of the central banks that existed in the history of the United States of America. The closing of these historic central banks is also being discussed in the preceding paper. It also puts light on the main functions of the central banks.
History of Central Banking in the United States of America
A central bank can be defined as an authority that is responsible for formulating strategies that directly affect the supply of money and credit in a country. In specific terms a central bank uses its monetary policy tools, including open market operations, discount window lending and changes in reserve requirements, in order to adjust the rates of interest and the monetary base in the short run to achieve the key goals of the monetary policy, such as, price stability, high employment and stable economic growth. ( Bordo, 2007)
History of Central Banking in the United States of America:
It has been proved by a number of studies that in the past years central banks were established to support the countries in times of wars. Unlike the present era, in the past era the central banks were not established to support the countries in monetary terms or to act as the lender of the last resort instead they were established to improve the country's ability to issue loans in the times of wars. It was mandatory for such banks to invest their funds in the government bonds. All the central banks that came into existence before 1850 were established in the context of wars. (Broz, 1998)
The two major central banks that existed in the United States of America between 1791 to 1850 were the first and the second bank of the United States of America. ("First bank of," 2000)
The First Bank of the United States
The First bank of the United States of America was given a charter to operate by the United States…… [Read More]
Histories of the World in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)
The History of the World in Six Glasses by Tom Standage
'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'
The History of the World in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and nations have defined themselves according to what they drink, more so than what they eat. The British define themselves as tea-drinkers, as do the Chinese. Hard-drinking America is the nation of the cocktail -- and Coca-Cola.
The central, driving thesis of Standage's book is that even more so than food, if you 'tell me who you drink, I will tell you who you are.' A civilization's beverage of choice is revealing because it denotes the environmental and economic pressures to which the society was subject, and reflects existing class divides and social norms. (Consider the divide between beer drinkers and wine drinkers in contemporary America). But the choice of beverage is also a 'two-way street' -- beverages help shape and create a society. (Consider how the availability of Starbucks and coffee has helped create our contemporary 24-7 society or how the availability of cheap and caloric sodas has contributed to our obesity crisis).
The economics of beer: How the elixir of the gods became the beverage of the poor
Contrary to what most might suspect to be the logical start to his tale -- wine -- Standage starts with beer. Beer is a surprisingly old beverage, with roots in early…… [Read More]
As many historians admit, his skills in argument and rhetoric were instrumental in getting the Declaration accepted by the American people. As mentioned, this was not an easy task, as there were many who were opposed and some leaders even threatened that "...their states would secede from the fragile union if independence were declared. Leaders of the Congress, such as Adams, risked being executed as traitors to the Crown" (Leopold).
It is possibly more correct when evaluating Adams as an individual to say that he was "... respected but not popular..." (John Adams: biography) However he is regarded as one of the founding fathers of the United States, whose contribution to the reception and drafting of the Declaration of Independence was extremely significant, as would be his contribution as the second president of the country. (the Religious Affiliation of Second U.S. President John Adams) as David McCullough states; "He was a living embodiment of New England virtues and idiosyncrasies, a brilliant attorney, and a determined patriot. Stubbornly independent of spirit, his demanding conscience was truly his guide" (McCullough). Historically much can be said about Adams, both positive and negative. His character is often described as being overly meticulous and vain. In the final analysis these minor flaws are of little significance and history accepts that he played an invaluable part in the freedom and independence of America. It should also be remembered that his contribution to the country went beyond the Declaration of Independence. "Adams' dedication to his country never wavered. In succeeding years he would serve, with varying degrees of success, as diplomat, ambassador, vice president, and president" (Leopold).… [Read More]
History Of Personal Computer
Ceruzzi, P.E. (2010). "Ready or not, computers are coming to the people": Inventing the PC. OAH Magazine of History 24(3), pp. 25-28. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database.
In late 1974, a young Boston-based electronics engineer read an article in Popular Electronics about small personal computers. He showed the article to a friend, Harvard undergrad William "Bill" Gates III, and the two soon formed a company to write software for an industry that was still in its infancy. The history of Gates' company, MicroSoft, is well-known; the purpose of Ceruzzi's article was to put the development of the personal computer into historical context. The early 1970s were a time of economic downturn in the U.S., following more than two decades of growth and prosperity. Environmental concerns were beginning to gain public attention. A war in the Middle East contributed to a gasoline shortage. Americans began to lose faith in the political system with the scandals surrounding Watergate as well as Vice President Spiro Agnew. The computer industry was dominated by IBM Corporation and was geared toward governmental and scientific uses. Despite seemingly overwhelming odds, young entrepreneurs like Gates prospered.
Ceruzzi begins the article with a description of a newsstand in Harvard Square, famous for more than half a century for its expansive stock of magazines and newspapers representing myriad interests and global origins. As the author points out, however, in today's internet age, with twenty-four hour access to news feeds and the World Wide Web, the prospect of visiting Out-of-Town News is much less exciting. For journalists, writers, editors, photographers and artists, there are fewer print markets available to showcase their work, but a great number of virtual markets. The personal computer can provide new ways for artists to create their work as well as new ways to get it into public view. Writers and artists who limit themselves only to print publications may find they are limiting the exposure of their work. Those who embrace new technology and its place in the market will find that there are not fewer venues for their work, but different…… [Read More]
History Of Softball
Softball has its origins in the game of baseball, the bat-and-ball sport which was first played in America with a codified set of rules in Hoboken, New Jersey on 19 June 1846. The game of softball appeared in the U.S. just over thirty years later in 1887. While the two sports are similar in many ways, they also contrast in a number of ways -- as does their history. This paper will examine the history of softball and show how and why it developed out of the game of baseball.
With the first known game of softball being played on Thanksgiving Day in Chicago between Yale and Harvard football fans. The game began quite by accident and quite spontaneously when, after the results of the football game between the two rivals were announced and winning parties were awarded their money, a graduate from Yale hurled a boxing mitt at a fan of the school of Harvard. The man at whom the boxing mitt was hurled did not hesitate but reacted as any sporting fan with a stick in his hands would have: he swung at it with a stick.
Just then a man named George Hancock cried out, "Play ball!" And a good-natured game of a make-shift baseball was immediately begun. The boxing mitt was wrapped up and knotted and used as a make-shift ball. A broom stick served as a bat. And Yale and Harvard supporters served as the players. Hancock used to chalk to outline the baseball field diamond (inside the boat club where the men proposed to play, no less), and the men fielded the "ball" with their bare hands. An hour later, when the game was over and the score stood 41-40, Hancock was determined to make softball a real sport. That very same week he set about making it one.
Taking his cue from the sport of baseball (but also from the fact that the game he had played had taken place indoors as opposed to outdoors), Hancock decided that players would use an undersized bat and keep the use of the "soft" ball. The boat club (named Farragut Boat Club)…… [Read More]
History Nazi Party
Cabaret (1972): History
The 1973 film Cabaret is set during the era of the Weimar Republic, just before the Nazi Party assumed control over Germany. Its main protagonist is Sally Bowles, an expatriate American who vaguely dreams of entering the film industry and becoming a singer and an actress. She performs nightly at the Kit Kat Club, a sleazy nightclub where women wear scanty clothes and dance in front of ogling men. Sally shares a room with Brian, a British, bisexual English teacher. Two of Brian's students, a man who conceals his Judaism and a woman who is a rich Jewish heiress, fall in love over the course of the film. The dangers of being open about one's religion in a society that seems so 'open' about everything else highlights the dangers on the horizon for Berlin and the rest of Germany.
Sally tries to ignore politics, and does not care about the political affiliations of her lovers. She merely wants to have a good time. She and Brian have a brief affair, but after Sally has an abortion, Brian is crushed and leaves Berlin, which is growing more hostile to foreigners, gays, and Jews by the day. One of the most chilling scenes of the film depicts a young man singing "Tomorrow Belongs to Me." The camera first shows the young, blond man's beauty and then pans down to reveal the swastika patch he is wearing on his shoulder.
Cabaret shows how subtly the Nazi Party came to power, at least in the eyes of many Berliners. The German postwar poverty, depression, and desolation caused many people to turn inward and focus upon their own personal dramas and 'divine decadence' (as Sally Bowles calls her green nail polish) rather than the real threats affecting their country. People looked for easy solutions -- sex, money, drink, and the simple racist promises made by the Nazi Party. Outside the Kit Kat Club, Jewish people are being shown beaten in the streets, but no one cares because…… [Read More]
With the discovery of gold and other valuable minerals, a wave of Easterners started to pour into the West. These people believed that it was their right and duty to expand. The idea of Manifest Destiny played a big role in America's political actions overseas. People believed that they were uniquely positioned to spread democracy throughout the world and this idea could clearly be seen as playing a role in twentieth century American foreign policy (What is Manifest Destiny, 2009).
The Civil War and the period following it had a great influence on immigration and transportation in this country. New inventions and technologies that came about because of the war, led to many people relocating in order to better themselves and their families. This trend led to many other problems that the nation then had to face, including the settlement issues in the west and conflicts with the Indians over land rights. This was new time in this country and a very important one for the successful growth and prosperity that followed.
Works… [Read More]
History Of Suburbs
The term suburb is defined as an area that is adjacent to the town and it is occupied. It is a small community as compared to the town community that commune to and from town on a daily basis or regular basis (Meriam-Webster, 2012).
In the U.S.A., the Levittowns are noted to have been the root of the suburbs by a large extent. This was the event after the WWII when the population suddenly increased upon the return of the soldiers who had gone abroad to fight the war. This upsurge of the population prompted a bill known as the GI bill of 1944 that approved the provision of money for the education and building of houses for the returning population. It was at this point that a man called William Levitt set out to buy vast pieces of land outside of the main cities like Philadelphia and New York and built fabricated houses therein. His firm Levitt and Sons Inc. embarked on mass-produced housing complexes in areas like Long Island, Hempstead Town as well as New York. This was between the years 1946 and 1951 and they became the symbol of suburbs during the post WWII building boom. These units contained playgrounds, shopping centers, swimming pools, schools and even community halls (Colin Stief, 2012).
The term sprawl is often used to refer to the absolute change in the manner of land usage and the shifting demographics within a particular geographical location. Sprawl can also be defined as the increased land development in the suburban areas that are distinguishably outside the urban centers. In the case of sprawls, the expansions are usually accompanied by redevelopment, lack of development as well as reuse of land within the urban centers.
Urban sprawl refers to the slow yet continuous decentralization of the occupation of people, with communities requiring more land and space to cater for the homes, shopping locations, workplaces as well as recreation areas for the very same population in…… [Read More]
History of Assessment/Testing in the United States
Assessment practices in the United States are not something that started yesterday. Assessment and testing in the United States began many years ago and they have taken several transformations throughout time. For over a century use of standardized testing for the assessment of aptitudes and achievement has played a major role in shaping the educational thinking in America. Today such tests are quite common .The paper will look at the history of assessment or testing in the United States from 1900 to 2010.a timeline of dates, significant events and the importance of these dates and events in the history of assessment and testing in the United States.
Assessment practices began in early 1900's with the United States government being the predominant driver. In public schools, IQ tests and other standardized tests became quite popular. The main focus of these early tests was the determination of a student's ability as opposed to the assessment of learning which the trend is today. The first standardized test in United States was Thorndike Handwriting Scale developed in 1910 used to measure the level of mastery in students handwriting (Fletcher,2009).1920 saw the creation of SATs which were used to determine the ability of potential students to benefit from higher education. SAT and ACT tests are still currently being used for the same purpose. However, this standardization tests has been opposed by many who claim that the test are bias against race, gender and socio-economic background (Cobb, 2004).
There were five waves of educational reforms that took place between 1950's and 1990's.In 1950's there was the emphasis of the role of tests in selection and tracking. In the 1960's tests were used for program accountability. Emphasis on use of test to make important decisions regarding students, teachers and administration in secondary…… [Read More]
History Of Zionism
is the political movement that arose in Europe in the late 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. It asserted that the Jewish people were a separate nation and were entitled to have a country of their own and succeeded in its objective with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. Since then, the Zionist movement has concentrated on strengthening Israel and encouraging Jews from around the world to migrate and settle in the Jewish state. This paper traces the history of Zionism from its origins to the present time.
Origins and Background
Although the Zionist political movement started in the late 19th century, its roots lie as far back as 70 AD when Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended with the destruction of the Temple and the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. The land of Israel was re-named Palestine and the entry of Jews in Jerusalem remained banned until the capture of the city by the Muslims from Byzantine control in 638 AD. The Jewish religious tradition held that Eretz Israel (the Land of Israel) had been given to the ancient Israelites by God and it was God's will that the Jewish people would one day return to their homeland. The Jewish people of Diaspora (exile) also linked such a return to the coming of a Messiah, a savior whom God, who shall lead them to the Holy Land. For this reason, many religious Jews opposed the Zionist movement and considered it a blasphemy to establish their homeland through human effort without divine intervention.
Jews had lived in small groups in different parts of the world since their expulsion from Jerusalem and had suffered through periodic prosecution due to a long tradition of anti-Semitism
. Throughout the centuries, the Jews maintained their separate identity, clinging to the belief that they were the God's chosen ones and were ordained to one day return to the Promised Land.
Jewish Nationalism: Precursor of the Modern Zionist Movement
Europe was swept by the ideas of Enlightenment and liberalism in the 18th and 19th centuries. Various national struggles, such as those for German and Italian unification, and for Polish and Hungarian independence were also taking shape at…… [Read More]