Information Technology Change Management in Home Health Care
I hope enjoyed time holidays. Now back work . In team task week, a topic weekly focus debate paper labor unions change process. There sufficient information argue sides. Let . See: The labor union change process difficult employees management; I labor union make process a bit easier parties.
Implementing Information Technology Change in a Health Care Facility
There is a shift from the traditional institutionalized health care provision to home-based care provision. The shift comes amid increasing cases of chronic and terminal diseases that require constant monitoring and timely diagnosis for quick recovery. In the health care arena, the need to uphold quality of care to patients and their immediate family members is paramount. This need can fail to be met if the global advancements in management system that facilitate service delivery are not embraced. The potential to improve home health care lies in the ability to embrace information technology (IT) advancements to ease in service provision (Cohen D., 2005).
In the organization it has been observed that service provision to home-based patients is inefficient. There is lack of proper record management and the time taken to attend to patients does not reflect the desirable quality of care. Access to patient records is possible only through accessing files in the hospital an aspect that slows down service delivery mechanisms. Patients' recovery time is also compromised by the slow pace of diagnosis and treatment delivery. Physician and clinical nurses tend to spend most of their time on road trying to collect and relay information for appropriate responses.
It is proposed that an IT patient record management system should be developed and implemented to resolve the observed inefficiencies. The IT-based system will allow information on patients to be relayed easily without necessitating visits to a healthcare facility. Additionally Nurses and physicians can easily receive insights about patients' development through the system and relay treatment and prescriptions to the patients. Consultations between medical practitioners on patient case can also be made possible to increase the speed and accuracy in treatment. The system will also contribute to the overall treatment procedures by provide easy reference points for future cases. The IT
Organizational and Individual Barriers
Apart from observed potential that IT record management system can do to improve home health care delivery some challenges waylay its implementation. First is the challenge to the…… [Read More]
Processing examples are conversion of encoded or typed words to printable format or running of computer programs such as the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Lastly, controlling ensures that all other four operations of the computer are efficiently working together, while at the same time, ensuring also that each operation does not interfere with the other operations. Examples of control measures in the computer are warnings or prompts that pop up whenever an operation is detected to overlap with another operation and the System Task Manager to monitor the activities and determine the speed and efficiency of processing within the computer.
4. Ergonomics is the science wherein technical fields such as engineering and industrial design are used to develop ideas, devices, and solutions that are suitable to the working conditions of the user. In the field of information technology and computer-mediated jobs, ergonomics is critical because it ensures that the users achieve a certain level of comfort physically that would make computing or computer-related work more manageable and ultimately, more efficient. Recognizing the importance of ergonomics is important for both home and office work, since the primary objective is to increase efficiency in working through ergonomically-designed devices and workplace environment conducive to computer users.
5. Computer-based information systems are intangible structures that are composed of collected, processed, and stored data that came from different sources and transmitted through different hardware and software. Three kinds of information systems are geographic information systems or GIS, data warehousing, and enterprise systems. GIS is the conversion and visualization of physical topographical data, converted into electronic (visual) format for surveillance of a specific geographic area. Data warehouses are massive structures of collected data used for general data analysis, coming from different sources and converted from and to different formats. Enterprise systems are integrated systems developed within businesses and companies, which include not only data collection, but also data analysis from the most basic to the most complex level.
6. The different types of memory chips are DRAM, SRAM, EPROM, and PROM. DRAM or dynamic random access memory is memory chips that constantly need refreshing…… [Read More]
Information Technology Acts
What were the advances in information technology that resulted in new ethical issues necessitating the creation of each act?
One of the common challenges that most regulations will face is keeping up with the changes in the technology. As the law, is designed to provide everyone with some kind of protection against potential abuse. However, improvements in technology have transformed the way that everyone is living their daily lives. This is when the laws must be updated to reflect these advancements. In some cases, this involves taking existing regulations and addressing specific issues. While at other times, this requires implementing new guidelines that will address specific moral and ethical issues. Two such regulations are: the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970 and the Do Not Call Implementation Act of 2003.
Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970
The Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970 was implemented to address the large amounts of information that were being collected, stored and evaluated about consumers. This was part of an effort to provide lenders, employers and other organizations with a history of the person (based on their ability to pay their bills / residential history / employment related issues). However, the fact that large amounts of personal data were collected raised concerns about possible civil rights abuses. As a result, the federal government enacted the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970. ("The Fair Credit Reporting Act," 2004)
This required that certain provisions must be followed at all times for various entities such as: credit bureaus, consumer specialty reporting agencies and information fund raisers. Under the law, credit bureaus are required to provide consumers with: all information about them inside the agency's files, take steps to verify accuracy and they cannot hold onto negative information for more than 10 years. In the case of consumer specialty reporting agencies, they are required to disclose to the individual all information they have about them to include: medical records, check writing history, work experience, residency…… [Read More]
Information Technology (IT) is a broad-based term that includes a combination of the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of information in a computing or telecommunications platform. In terms of a scientific discipline, it is relatively new, appearing in a 1958 article in the Harvard Business Review in which the authors said, "this new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)" (Dunn, 2011). The field has been part of the tremendous growth in computing and telecommunications, and remains vital -- it is behind the recent emergence of next generation web technology, bioinformation, cloud computing, global information systems, and large scale databases.
The IT area manages technology in a wide variety of fields that include software, hardware, information systems, and programming languages. IT professionals perform a wide variety of functions from installation of applications and hardware to designing and maintaining complex networks and information databases. Part of the job may be data management, networking, engineering, database and software design and now into more conventional personal computers and the integrating of cellular and smart phones, television and entertainment systems, automobiles and more and more personal and business applications that require greater technological innovation. One of the more interesting issues when dealing with IT deals with what is commonly called the "1/2 life of technology." Essentially, computing information and power per capita has doubled every 14 months between 1986 and 2007, with the global telecommunication capacity doubling every 3 years. After 2007, however, growth dropped to every 10-12 months, with sources beginning to believe that after 2013 the power and densities, combined with memory and sophistication will double only every 18 months (Kanellos, 2005).
IT as change agent- The world's capacity for bidirectional communication grew at 28% per annum since 1986. Since 1990, telecommunication has been dominated by digital technologies since 1990 and the majority of human technological memory has been in digital formats since the early 2000s. General purpose computing grew at almost 60% per annum, making Information Technology one of the most vital change agents since World War II, literally permeating…… [Read More]
Information Technology (IT) CSR
The modern day businesses are more globalized based on which economic and corporate concerns have given rise to the concept of corporate social responsibility. The new economy has had a great effect on the knowledge that the stakeholders now have. One of the main aims of corporate social responsibility is that corporations being an important part of the society and communities must address various environmental and societal concerns. Based on this, many companies by the help of implementing CSR have worked on the importance and implementation of human rights, environmental standards, as well as labor. Here it needs to be added that the corporate social responsibility extends outside the doors of an organization into the communities and societies in which the organization operates. The boundaries of corporate social responsibility of the organization involves not only the employees and workers of the organizations but the stakeholders, suppliers, NGOs, public authorities, business partners, and the people from the communities (Horrigan, 2010, p. 45).
These days, information technology has taken over almost all business fields. Data storage and data manipulation has changed in many ways as compared to the previous years. With the advancements in email and internet, dissemination of information is faster now. When information technology is applied in corporate social responsibility, many advantages can be expected. The communities can be served in a much better manner as compared to the CSR being provided in an absence of IT. Technologies can play great roles in changing the ways people live but in some ways, these are not very appreciable or likeable. An important example of implementation of IT in CSR is the use of internet and emailing by the banks to make banking easier for their customers. However, there are much stronger examples that can show that IT in CSR has had a bad impact on the community. One example can be air conditioning that makes people sit enclosed in their rooms. This…… [Read More]
Information Technology Acts
The advancement of information technology has generally been considered to be a good thing, but there are also problems that have been created by it. Some of these have to do with the lack of privacy, and others have to do with the protection of the most vulnerable members of society. Two acts will be discussed here: the Children's Internet Protection Act of 2000 and the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) of 1991. In both cases, the advancement of information technology created ethical issues that led to the need for the acts. When individuals and companies work to create new technology, it seems as though they often do not spend much time thinking about the possible ramifications of that technology. In some cases the technological advances are used in ways that were not expected, so the ramifications could not have been realistically seen or envisioned at the time in which the technological advance was actually created.
The Children's Internet Protection Act of 2000 came about because of the risk of children being exploited online. Teachers and schools had to agree to filter and protect their students' Internet activities in order to ensure that children would be less likely to be exposed to any kind of Internet predator. Libraries were also required to protect children that same way, and harmful content had to be banned for children under eighteen years of age (McClure & Jaeger, 2009). Schools and libraries that failed to comply with the law would not be able to get specific types of federal funding, which could seriously harm what they could offer to both children and adults. Libraries challenge the law as being unconstitutional, but the Supreme Court upheld the law (McClure & Jaeger, 2009). The reason it was challenge was based on the idea that it was blocking too much information that was protected under the constitution from too many people who had a right to see it.
By putting filters on the library (and school) computers, adults were also blocked from viewing specific sites. There were also some…… [Read More]
Information Technology Acts
While information technology today has many distinct advantages, it is also important to acknowledge that there are some specific potential drawbacks. These drawbacks relate especially to the right to privacy of people making use of information technology. Users of Internet subscription services, for example, expect certain privacy rights in terms of the contact and personal information they choose to divulge. At the same time, large institutions like learning establishments and health insurance companies are required to provide their clients with a certain level of privacy assurance. For this reason, certain technological advances have required a revision of legislation to ensure that the privacy of citizens is protected. Two such pieces of legislation include The Family Education Rights And Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.
The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 was passed to address the right to privacy for students at learning institutions. Under the act, student records and information could be released only under certain conditions, for example to be viewed by their parents. Further, such release is subject to permission from students, who also have a right to request that incorrect information be modified. In most other cases, release of information requires written permission (Shiley, 2003).
One of the primary reasons for this law was widespread concern, during the early 1970s, about the potential of the federal government to abuse its power and to implement domestic surveillance. The concern was that governmental information technology has advanced to such a degree that it could be used to identify, observe, and cross-reference "suspicious" persons. A government database, for example, could be used to access student data regarding the direction of study, social or government groups that are identified as potentially harmful to the government and is security. Also, increased media accessibility and technology has brought to light government practices that have been hidden in the past. Hence, the public concern has…… [Read More]
The need for continually creating and updating the security techniques and technologies involved in an enterprise system is the ethical responsibility of the IT professional.
In order to successfully protect the information and intellectual property assets of a firm, an IT professional also needs to make a personal commitment to stay as current as possible on existing and future technologies (Pemberton, 1998). This commitment needs to be supported by the leaders of an IT organization within a firm, complete with budgets created to pay for ongoing certification and training. The continual pursuit of professional competence is an ethical requirement of any IT professional and any leader of an IT function must continually focus on how to create a culture that embraces learning and change (Gotterbarn, 1999). From an ethical standards standpoint, lifetime learning is not an option, it's a requirements. As knowledge is the precursor to behavior, IT professionals need to choose which specific areas of ongoing, lifetime education they will excel in over time. The need for security experience, specifically in the areas of intellectual property, is particularly important. Concentrating on these areas assures job security as the skill sets of information technology professionals who understand security are in high demand (Stapleton, 2007).
Another ethical standard that IT professionals need to continually strive to stay on top of are the existing laws and covenants that govern the use of key corporate assets and define the methods by which intellectual property can be accessed. Of particular importance are the processes and procedures for safeguarding corporate information assets and their access internally and externally from the organization (Stapleton, 2007). IT professionals need to understand the auditable, verifiable steps required to check in and check out information for use internally. Most important, the IT Professional must also understand how to assess the risks and potential compromises of allowing external access through authentication, single sign-on and the use of non-sanctioned IT systems on the corporate network (Gotterbarn, Miller, 2010). All of these aspects of IT security need to be a core set of the IT professionals' skills and expertise if they are to protect intellectual property and ensure their organizations can stay and grow profitable in future years.
IT Leadership Ethical Standards
Leaders within any organization have an immediate and very significant impact on their cultures…… [Read More]
Implementing a private Cloud-based ILS will give each department real-time availability of data from both the ECM and EKM systems, tailored to the specific roles through the use of customizable ILS-based interfaces. One of the most critical success factors of implementing any new enterprise system is to plan for making everything form the workflows to individual screens as permeable and customizable as possible (Lampert, Vaughan, 2009). This is essential for aligning the specific information roles and needs to the contents of the library and its content and knowledge management systems.
In conjunction with the Cloud-based ILS system, the library must also include federated search across all sites, so that users can quickly find what they are looking for. Federated search needs to also be integral to the CMS and KMS platforms as well, ensuring immediate, real-time access from requests and queries. The new system architecture also needs to include a workflow designer and manager so that each individual query can be optimized and routed through the most relevant databases. The cloud architecture needs to include support for single sing-on across all databases once so students and faculty can get to all information and knowledge as rapidly as possible. The critical factor in designing an ILS architecture is to ensure a high degree of agility and flexibility in defining workflows and personalization of queries to meet specific needs and requirements (Flower, 2004). The new system will also need to have mobility configuration options, as it is anticipated that over the next three to five years the majority of queries will be completed on tablet and smartphone devices. The future direction of the Cloud-based ILS needs to also take into account how analytics will be used over time to streamline queries and make the overall system more efficient. Advanced analytics of queries will become commonplace in three years, adding in contextual search. The inclusion of federated search into the Cloud-based ILS is the first step.
In conjunction with these technical requirements there is also the need to include extensive amounts of training and development. These are the catalysts that drive change management over time, and they need to be at the center of any enterprise software initiative and program (Lampert, Vaughan, 2009). Training does more than just inform users of how to use the software; it makes the value…… [Read More]
Today business world is changing rapidly. The cause of this is globalization, high IT investment and technological change in relationship with high cost of research and development (Frishamar, 2004). The function of information technology has become important part of how companies manage and control their resources, different companies and organizations respond to technology in different ways (Johnson, 2007). IT plays a significant role in modern business especially in looking at accounting function; it has transformed the nature of business and accounting practices where computers are used in recording data this results to time saving and enhances accuracy.
As we look into the technology of the future in accounting functions and accounting information systems our views collects what is near us that is, increase adoption of collaborative technology and the interchangeability of collaborative tools. Use of computing leads to the edge of what we can currently hold.
Many tasks in accounting have been automated, with advance in hardware, software technology. Accounting software has increasingly become sophisticated and customized for specific company needs. Accounting software used to be basic whereby bookkeeping transactions was simply processed for businesses but today because of technology accounting enterprise-wide software are incredibly powerful, complex and are able to collect a wide variety of data to support business decisions for large companies. They are also able to accommodate specific company information needs driven by some unique business processes.
Due to advancement in technology, the view of accounting function and accounting information system in the year 2020 is based on the adoption of technology and the contributions that come with it, that override the traditional ways of doing things. For instance in the year 2020 the business solutions will become a part of integrated enterprise accounting software programs called Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)systems which include; financial functions integrated with sales, and distribution, human resource…… [Read More]
This must be avoided at all costs because not only do we set up ourselves and the company for disgruntled passengers, we are also making ourselves liable because the flights are leaving earlier than they are supposed to. This should not happen at all, but in the event that it does, we must do everything in our power to get the customer on a similar flight to the one missed to keep him on schedule. In addition to this, some type of perks or credit should be given such as a certain dollar amount off of their next flight. We must do this in order to avoid serious customer frustration with our airline which could lead to low customer satisfaction.
Another thing that we must focus on is empowering our employees, no matter what position they hold in order to serve our customers better. Not only supervisors, but agents should be given some measure of decision making powers in order to efficiently and effectively serve the customer and diffuse any unpleasant situations that may arise. With small incidents, they should be allowed to give the customers a food voucher to one of the restaurants inside the airport. This could be done if there should be mechanical problems that arise that are unavoidable. While the customer is waiting to board a different flight, he or she can at least enjoy a free meal courtesy of the airline for his inconvenience.
The airline also needs to make arrangements with the many hotels surrounding the airport in case a flight is seriously delayed or canceled which would require passengers to spend an unforeseen night at the airport. To avoid this, they should be put up in… [Read More]
Translating complex functions into computer code is well outside of the capabilities of non-professionals.
Conversely, organizations whose websites do little besides help establish a searchable web presence to direct prospective customers to brick-and-mortar establishments, or whose websites need to support only a small variety of relatively simple, one-dimensional orders (such as quantity and color preferences of a small number of products) may very well be able to minimize the cost of web creation. Generally, they may still require information technology (IT) professionals to help them launch the website and create its most essential features. However, unlike business organizations that require highly sophisticated websites capable of supporting a large number and variety of complex functions, they may be able to purchase web creation services in an ad-hoc manner. For example, the organization may be capable of providing the artwork and logos in a form that only requires that they be translated into an online medium as opposed to designed from scratch. Likewise, they may be able to rely on in-house resources to draft all of the website copy instead of paying high fees for web design writers to create the informational content of the website.
Ultimately, the decision will, in most cases, not be as much a matter of an all-or-none decision to rely entirely on in-house resources or on outsource professionals. In most cases, the organization will be able to assign certain responsibilities to in-house personnel (such as graphic design or writing) and other responsibilities to dedicated IT professionals, such as necessary coding and other initial star-up functions that require professional IT expertise.
George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.… [Read More]
Information Technology Management Case Study
Why is it important to have several status review and decision points throughout the project's life cycle?
It is important to have several review and decision points throughout the project's life cycle because that is the only effective way of identifying potential delays and other obstacles at the earliest possible point. That enables the team to mitigate the potential damage or delay to the project as much as possible under the factual circumstances, whatever they may be. It also allows the team leader or client liaison to communicate with the client and explain the reasons for doing anything that requires a departure from the original project plan, anticipated expenses, and timeline.
As the case study illustrates, the consequences of not pre-establishing several status review and decision points throughout the project's life cycle did the exact opposite. Instead of identifying potential problems and reasons for delay as early as possible, the consultants used previously by Husky Air apparently waited until the scheduled date of delivery to inform the client of problems and delays. This maximized client disappointment instead of minimizing it and it also (probably) greatly increased the cost of completion and eliminated some of the other possible alternative decisions that would have been available after timely communication of any possible delay.
2. Is there any advantage to having regularly scheduled (e.g., weekly) status meetings?
Ideally, working groups and business units should have both regularly scheduled status meetings as well as ad-hoc meetings dictated by circumstance. Without regularly scheduled meetings, there is a much greater risk that two working groups or business units could be operating under mutually incompatible assumptions or work product. It allows for the possibility of catastrophic failures, such as…… [Read More]
Certificates can be personal or set up by the users for certain trusted authorities. Once an SSL connection is recognized, the server certificate in use can usually be scrutinized by looking at the assets of the page conveyed over the SSL connection. Certificates and keys are normally stored on the hard disk of the computer. Additionally to needing a password when the private key is used, it is typically also required to import or export keys and certificates. Some browsers also hold key and certificate storage on a secure external device (Using PKI, 2004).
Certificates given to web servers and individuals are signed by a Certificate Authority. The signature on a certificate recognizes the particular Certificate Authority that issued a certificate. The Certificate Authority in turn has a certificate that connects its identity to its public key, so you can verify its uniqueness. A certificate authority issues a policy defining its practices so users of certificates issued by that Authority have a basis from which to make a trust judgment for transactions based on PKI (Using PKI, 2004).
Public-key cryptography facilitates the following tasks:
Encryption and decryption permit two communicating parties to disguise information they send to each other. The sender encrypts, or scrambles the information before sending it. The receiver decrypts, or unscrambles, the text after receiving it. While in transit, the encrypted information is jumbled to an intruder.
Tamper detection allows the receiver of information to verify that it has not been modified in transit. Any attempt to change data or substitute a false message for a legitimate one will be discovered.
Authentication allows the recipient of text to determine its origin and to confirm the sender's identity.
Non-repudiation stops the sender of information from claiming at a later date that the information was never sent (Introduction to Public-Key Cryptography, 1998).
A public-key encryption scheme has six ingredients. The first is plaintext which is the readable message or data that is fed into the algorithm as input. The second is encryption algorithm which performs various…… [Read More]
Ragu-Nathan, & Ragu-Nathan T.S. (2007). the
Impact of Technostress on Role Stress and Productivity. Journal of Management
Information Systems 24(1): 301 -- 328.
The researchers collected data from two public sector organizations in the United States. The researchers mail out 264 questionnaires to the employees of these organizations and 233 were returned to the researchers. The researchers did not explain how the two organizations were initially chosen. It is possible that this initial choice was convenience based.
The researchers used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to identify a five-factor structure that represented the underlying components of techno stress. De Coster (1988) posits that EFA, traditionally, has been used to explore the possible underlying factor structure of a set of observed variables without imposing a preconceived structure on the outcome.
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) used to validate the factor structure of a set of observed variables. CFA provides the researcher with the ability confirm the hypothesis that "a relationship between observed variables and their underlying latent constructs exists." So that the initial set of factors identified by EFA are then confirmed to be theoretically connected, to the concept by CFA.
This article makes several important contributions to the literature in the field by identifying different dimensions of techostress thus adding to the robustness of the concept. It also demonstrates that technostress inversely affects productivity, thus clearly presenting an area for manipulation to increase productivity in organizations. Finally, the determination that there is a relationship between technostress and role stress provides a new vista of inquiry for researchers in the organizational arena.
The authors noted that the high response rate was because of upper management support; I wondered whether this support also filtered into the responses themselves. So that employees answered as they felt they should. The article however provided a very useful connection between technological work and the attendant stresses. It would be appealing to have a sociological approach to the issue that considers how power influences…… [Read More]
Nanotechnology attempted to show the potential of this new technology and included the wide range of fields that are connected to the concept of the nanometer scale. These include machining, imaging, metrology or measurement, micromachines, instrumentation and machine tools, scanning probe microscopy, fabrication of components, nanoelectronics, molecular engineering, among others. (Journal Review: Nanotechnology)
Another important step in the development of this technology in both a practical and theoretical sense was the development of " bottoms up" programs and research initiatives. As noted above, the 'bottoms up' approach is considered to be the area where the greatest potential for nanotechnology applications exist. In 1991 Japan's Science and Technology Agency began instituted a "bottom-up" approach, in which "...very small structures are built up from molecular components using, for example, scanning probe microscopes. "(Nanotechnology Race: MITI Adopts 'Bottom-Up' Strategy_)
Since the 1990s there have been an increasing number of developments that have contributed to the advance and acceptance of this new technology. For example, an important step in the development of this technology was the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 by Sumio Iijima. Carbon naotubes are described in technical terms as follows:
single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be considered to be formed by the rolling of a single layer of graphite (called a graphene layer) into a seamless cylinder. A multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can similarly be considered to be a coaxial assembly of cylinders of SWCNTs, like a Russian doll, one within another; the separation between tubes is about equal to that between the layers in natural graphite. Hence, nanotubes are one-dimensional objects with a well-defined direction along the nanotube axis that is analogous to the in-plane directions of graphite.
Nanotubes and Buckyballs)
In more practical terms this mean that nanotubes have the potential to become one of the most important materials in this new and exciting technology due to the fact that "...it has been calculated that nanotube-based material has the potential to become 50-100 times stronger than steel at one sixth of the weight." (Research, Development…… [Read More]
The company's consistent top line revenue growth also illustrates it has been successful in transforming its supplier network into one that operates more on knowledge, less on purely price or product decisions. As a result the company is capable of competing more at the process level and less at the purely price-driven one (Reese, 2007).
In terms of the company's factors for success, the greater opportunities is to move into the global houseware and specialties market in addition to gaining greater market share in the global footwear markets, relying on its supply chain expertise to accomplish this (Reese, 2007). The company's focus on the accelerating market for global apparel, accessories and luxury goods in its key countries and regions sold is also a critical factor in the long-term success of the firm. Overall the ability to continually improve its procurement and strategy sourcing processes however will make the greatest potential impact on the positive growth of the company over the long-term (Ayling, 2007).
a) Did Apple gain a competitive advantage from its decision to invest in an online music business?
b) Will this competitive advantage last forever? Why?
c) Using Michael Porter's Five Forces Model, analyze Apple's buyer and supplier power. Which of the 3 generic strategies is Apple following (cost leadership, differentiation, or focused strategy)?
d) Which of Porter's Five Forces did Apple address through its introduction of the iPod? In what way is the iPod a logical extension of Apple's pre-existing product line?
Apple created an economic ecosystem that is fueled by its continual advance of iPods, iTouch and iPhones to support digital video on the one hand and an online store with now over 100 million digital items sold on the other (Vossoughi, 2008). Apple has created an economic ecosystem that scales well and provides a multitude of partnership and co-marketing opportunities. It is debatable if this will be a competitive advantage forever as Nokia, AT&T and many others who have digital convergence platforms including cell phones are working to replicate the success of Apple with this concept. Ultimately there will be imitators of the iTunes store yet the MP3 device business will continue to see price competition and continual strategies on the part of competitors to add more features at a…… [Read More]
In the nursing field, there is becoming a concept such as the digital divide among nurses. Even though many nurses are familiar with the Internet and access it on a daily basis, there are some nurses who are familiar with other emerging technologies as it pertains to nursing and there are some nurses who feel that navigating the Internet is the only technology they need to know (Lupianez-Villanueva et al., 2011).
There is more that needs to be done in order to bring all nurses up to a speed where they are competent and comfortable using information technology. Information technology must become a mandatory part of nursing curriculum in colleges and universities nationwide. There is a known shortage of workers in this field and the shortage will continue to grow if there is a growing reluctance to learn new technologies. As more and more newly educated nurses are entering the field, the lack of integrated technology nurses should decrease.
Technology integration in the nursing field was not a priority or probably not part of the nursing curriculum of a nurse who entered the profession perhaps ten or twenty years ago. However, it is difficult to perform any type of job without the use of some type of technology. As older nurses are retiring and new nurses are taking their places, it is almost a certainty that they will be integrated and prepared for whatever the nursing profession holds in the near and distant future. This will be an added bonus for not only the nurses, but for all of the patients who will be under their care. And added bonus of technology integration is that patient records will be more secure and confidential as they should be.… [Read More]
One of the main sources of development of human beings is through the development of knowledge and in this exercise; we shall be talking about a group in our society who are mainly interested in the development of knowledge -- a university. In these organizations also, information technology now plays an important role as the storage and transfer of knowledge within the organizations and from outside the organization. In this, information technology has to play a major role.
In earlier times, it was felt that knowledge had to be accumulated over a lifetime, and this consisted of facts, events, procedures and other matters. This was stored in our memories, while today a lot of the storage takes place in the memory disks of computers whose capacity keeps increasing and it is the job of the information technology specialist who has to advise us on where the information is to be stored and when the time has come for changing our storage systems. Combined with this is the end of a situation in life where one concentrated on a single job throughout life, and today we have individuals changing their jobs as they develop, in search for better opportunities. In earlier situations, the knowledge available with an individual was lost when the individual left the organization. Today, it is being stored in the information technology sources and it is up to the information technology specialist to decide on the methods of storage, so that it can be collected by a potential user at later dates when he requires it. This is a question of managing the knowledge. (Knowledge Modeling Techniques for Developing Knowledge Management Systems)
At the same time, it has to be understood that the requirement of knowledge in a knowledge developing organization like an university is not the requirement of a continuous flow of knowledge from one point to another, but the requirement will be for an individual and it has to be made available to him immediately, according to his requirement. When this…… [Read More]
Information Technology holds great promise for improving the way a government serves its citizens in various services it conducts to the citizens. This rapid adoption of information technology has produced substantial benefits to the citizens, tax payers, and businesses alike. It is therefore recommended for every particular government to develop digital services to streamline all its operations. One area where governments should enhance its key functions is the establishment of online tax preparation services for the citizens.
It is quite obvious that the government is actively involved in taxation, and this is where the provision of information technology makes the entire process easier and more efficient. Electronic provision of tax forms and other tax information is very beneficial to the residents and falls within the traditional scope of government's activity. This is why government must actively engage tax payers in electronic filing since it is appropriate in boosting the efficiency of a necessary government function.
The adoption and application of new technologies to the provision of government services is excellent, but should not be geared towards expanding governments roles in places better left to the private sector. Tax preparation, is generally out of the traditional scope of the government activity and has always been provided by the private sector. This has clearly boosted diversity and active growth of the private markets which provides private tax preparation services by multiple means, including online.
Global adoption of information technology has led various governments to embrace online tax preparation, which is efficient but significantly raises issues such as security, conflict of interest and also privacy. Security and privacy of taxpayers' deliberations about tax filing are likely to be eroded by e-government tax preparation programs. This therefore requires a skilled management workforce to reduce the level of risks that may enable its administration to accomplish its mission(s) by facilitating better decision making. Better decision making requires a quality risk management that allows clear ways of detecting mistakes.
As part of the consultancy firm that has been appointed by a European government in the process of assessing the business continuity and security issues that will need to be addressed by the supplier of tax return system, we are…… [Read More]