"Labeling Theory Essays"

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Dissecting Criminal Labelling Theory Howard Essay

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45508346

Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.

Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.

Feminist theory

Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.

This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of her father meant that the family had to make do with the mother's wages. Although they both worked in the same factory, it is far more likely that her mother earned less - a probably reason why it was the father who was let go.

Many of the jobs open to Brenda were minimum wage jobs that made it difficult for her to provide for her child.

Statistics have shown that women without high school diplomas were often limited to low-paying jobs in the service industry.

For men, there are jobs that would pay higher, such as construction work. However, many of these higher-paying jobs would not consider female applicants. These difficulties would therefore make it more tempting for women in Brenda's position to engage in criminal behavior.… [Read More]

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Labeling People as Deviant Essay

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53871403

Social Control and Deviance

How does this TV show present deviance?

'Tabboo' airs on National Geographic which shows stories of different people with deviant behaviors. It presents a complete biography along with the history of that particular behavior. One particular episode of deviant behavior that I witnessed in the program was about the Ethiopian Tribe in which beauty represented the strength of a woman. That strength was measured by the amount of scars that were present on the woman's body which were given through whipping. The program showed that in the Ethiopian tribe, a boy's sisters has to suffer before he can become a man, so the women encourage the whipper to whip them. The whole situation of whipping and suffering for a man in your family seemed very confusing but it was normal for the people in that tribe (Bell 2012). Whipping is a negative action, but the program showed that the woman who was whipped was respected in the community thus it was a positive action for them. The total number of scars on the woman's body clearly showed her strength and how she suffered for her family and stood up to them; however in the other countries whipping is considered as illegal. This particular behavior was shown as a part of their culture and tradition and it defined them, so they welcomed it with an open heart. Comparing this tradition to the other countries, the man whipping the woman would receive huge penalty from the law and it would be seen as a negative action among the people in the society. The woman would also receive a negative review because making her suffer so that her brother might become a man is not something to be proud of. The whole episode was not pleasant for me because I kept comparing their culture with mine which was not an easy thing to do and it made it difficult for me to understand why this tradition in the Ethiopian tribe was still being carried on when the world has become so advanced in these matters (Bell…… [Read More]

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Comparing Labeling and Conflict Theories Essay

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31250599

Labeling and Conflict Theory

Conflict theory is largely based upon a Marxist conception of human relations. It suggests that the definition of crime is created by social elites to bolster their social position. For example, for many years within the criminal justice system, the crime of using crack cocaine was penalized significantly more than the use of powder cocaine. Not coincidentally, a Marxist theorist would note, people living in the inner city were more likely to use the cheaper, crack alternative. Both drugs were equally dangerous and deleterious to society yet based upon social class, abusers were punished very differently. Conflict theorists regard crime as a subjective, class-based notion -- hence, an African-American person sitting at a 'whites only' lunch counter was considered a criminal in the south during the 1950s, despite the fact that such a law clearly violated the African-American's constitutional rights. Many actions considered crimes may actually have positive benefits. "Certain types of crime take on a different character. Stealing can be seen as an attempt to take away from the rich…like asocial banditry. Protest-related violence may actually be the start of proto-revolutionary movements, ultimately leading to a worker's revolt and the establishment of a just society" (Greek, 2005, Conflict Theory).

Labeling theory similarly suggests that definitions of crime are used to retain established hegemonies. "[Howard] Becker (1963) criticizes other theories of deviance for accepting the existence of deviance and by doing so, accept the values of the majority within the social group. According to Becker (1963), studying the act of the individual is unimportant because deviance is simply rule-breaking behavior that is labeled deviant by persons in positions of power. The rule breaking behavior is constant; the labeling of the behavior varies" (Greek, 2005, Labeling theory). Why is white collar crime considered less bad than stealing, for example, even if it accomplishes the same ends? And why are corporations given greater leeway in the tax code to hide their assets than ordinary tax payers -- someone who dodges his taxes is caused a cheat; a…… [Read More]

Greek, C. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminological Theory. Retrieved from:

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Criminology Theories and Their Impact Essay

Words: 1252 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30304167


One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).

Relating Theory to Social Issue

Relating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.

The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem, may turn out to be problems with substance abuse.

If the teen believes that society favors him and labels him as a productive member of society, he is less inclined to become involved in substance abuse.

When it comes to the social bonding theory, a similar correlation can be found between the theory itself and the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse.

When an adolescent is found to have strong ties to family, religion, work and education that adolescent is statistically less inclined to become involved with substance abuse according to the studies conducted on the subject.

Conversely if an adolescent does not have a strong social bond with the above listed elements of life, that adolescent is statistically at a higher risk for developing substance abuse issues.


Each of the two theories has an influential role on societal behavior as they provide the foundation for self-image, and reaction to that self-image.

An example of how the labeling theory impacts behavior can be seen using a Boy Scout and a failing student.

If a Boy Scout is caught with a small amount…… [Read More]

Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.

Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.
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Sociological Theories Have Helped Widen People's Scope Essay

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10234738

Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).

Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach to the social change within the family; and how each of the theories affect the views of the society.

Sociological theories enable one to understand how a given society operates. They also help in demystifying how members of a society relate with one another. Problems that arise in a society can be mitigated because the theories help in comprehending social issues like crime in a society (Giddens, 1997).

Social conflict theory

Social conflict theory posits that people and groups in a society have varied amount of material and non-material resources. This has led to the emergence of the poor and the rich. These two social classes have social, political, and material inequality hence the class conflict. Resentment and hostility in the society epitomize into conflict. Power differences between the different social classes also lead to conflict bearing in mind that different people in the society have different powers. Those who do not have any powers are oppressed by those who have powers hence the social conflict in the…… [Read More]

Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.

McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology
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Sociological Theories of Mental Illness Essay

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45334137

social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, Robert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a "deviant," a "nonconformist," or a "criminal," it can be harder than ever before to mitigate stress. Labeling theory suggests that social stigmas add an additional layer of stress or strain, compounding preexisting problems like poverty or abuse.

Stress theory explains how different people deal with stress differently. There are several approaches and applications for stress theory. One is to focus on the critical and stressful life events, such as a death of a loved one, job change, or divorce. These are life events that most people encounter, and by recognizing that a stressful life event has occurred, the person or people affected can work to maximize their resources and coping strategies (McLeod, 2010). Stress theory also addresses the chronic strains that some members of the population do experience, including poverty, racism, or stigma. Chronic strain is much different from stressful life events, which are one-time situations. Chronic strain is experienced every day, and can be especially dangerous. Finally, stress theory shows that coping resources are unequally distributed in the population. Poor…… [Read More]

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Social Control Theory All Control Essay

Words: 3849 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51715937

If integration with a conventional social group helps prevent suicide and "delinquency" (Hirschi 1969) and motivates people to fight, make sacrifices for a community, or commit deviant acts on behalf of a sub-cultural group, it should affect almost all forms of deviance. The absence of social integration with conventional groups should be influential in psychotic behavior (unless that specific behavior is organically determined and totally uncontrollable); without integration into nonbusiness groups, entrepreneurs, who are highly motivated to turn a profit, should be free to engage in price fixing; and strong social integration with any group should inspire some to excess zeal in fulfilling what they perceive as group expectations (over conformity), which may result in various forms of deviance. Since Hirschi's version, the best-known expression of the social control argument, does not convey this breadth, it must be regarded as shortsighted. Even the proliferation of separate theories of social integration for various deviant and conforming acts illustrates the inefficiency of theory building in the social sciences and dramatically underscores the importance of constructing theories with breadth.

Because of imprecision and shallowness, it is difficult to say exactly what kinds of deviance labeling theory presumably explains, particularly since it only attempts to account for those forms of deviance that are "secondary" in nature. It might apply to any form of deviance that can be publicly recognized through the imposition of a label by duly authorized officials. This would include any behavior officially prohibited in the criminal law of a given society (labeled by criminal justice agents), any "abnormal" behavior regarded as evidence of mental illness (labeled by medical personnel), and any form of institutional misbehavior (labeled by school officials, church authorities, and so on). It may also apply to any form of social misbehavior that can be magnified in a public "event" or "episode" to which a social audience can respond…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Durkheim, Emile. [1897] 1951. Suicide, A Study in Sociology. Translated by John A. Spaulding and George Simpson, edited with an introduction by George Simpson. Reprint, Glencoe, N.Y.: The Free Press.

Gottfredson, Michael R., and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
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Criminological Theories Criminology Theories Have Essay

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35903924

Therefore, in response to criminal actions, the rules and laws of a system are developed. It is their presence that represents the glue of the social parts.

One shortcoming of this theory however is the fact that it cannot explain the motivation behind the actual existence of criminal behavior. It tends to perceive the society as a whole, through statistics and factual dates and tries to predict its evolution. Durkheim notes that the continuous existence of the phenomenon is attributed the need of the society for the eventual contribution to the definition of that community. According to him, crimes have a concrete role, as opposed to other theories which fight against such attributions. Thus, identifying criminals draws the limit of correct behavior, by exerting severe punishment; there is a clear notion of the most valuable values in the respective society. Moreover, criminal activities often result in the change of certain social realities, one example being the actions of Martin Luther King. One final concluding fact is that the existence of crimes shows a limited control over the citizens.

Opposing this view is the labeling theory. It takes a distinctive approach from the functionalist models by emphasizing the negative consequences categorizing human actions in the criminal system. One of the most important figures of this theory, Leslie White, considers that attaching different labels to humans has deep consequences over future behavior. (White, 1969) It has a double role. On the one hand, it shows the way in which the society perceives him as an individual and on the other, the way in which he interprets the meaning of the symbol. Mead argues in this respect the fact that there can be certain contradictions between the two perspectives and thus conflict may arise. (Mead, 1934) However, there are opinions that do not consider labeling to be a source for criminal behavior, Triplett arguing that labeling alone does not cause delinquent behavior, but must be associated with the reward system in which the individual operates. (Triplett, 1990) A moderate stand is taken by Lemert who considers that labeling cannot offer an explanation to primary deviance but to secondary ones. (Lemert, 1967) Labeling encourages the definition of certain attitudes in consideration of subjective norms that can alienate the individual and can push him towards recidivating.

All in all, there have been numerous attempts to find the root causes of criminal…… [Read More]

Larry Siegel, (1992). Criminology. New York: West Publishing.

Lemert, Edwin. (1967). Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
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Sociological Theories Explaining Violent Behavior and Serial Murder Essay

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26191356

Sociology and Violent Behavior

The sociological theories of violent behavior focus in assessing the interaction of and individual their with social environment to yield violent behaviors. The key aspects considered in the theories are personality, the learning process, information processing, intelligence and subsequent behavior (aggressive acts). This paper presents a discussion of the theories associated with violent behaviors and serial murder.

Theories of Violent Behavior

The labeling theory argues that the society plays a significant role in influencing an individual's conceptualization of deviance. Once the society labels and individual as deviant and reinforces the deviant label on a person by way of shunning them out of society, the individual accept the label. Since the society has already labeled the acts and the individual as deviant, the individual will have no reason to disprove the view of many. The labeling influences the individual's self-concept and subsequently drives them deeper into more deviant behaviors and even violent acts.

The psychoanalytic theory advanced by Sigmund Freud looks at the forces exerted on human life to lead to the disintegration of an individual's composure. The disintegrated individual composure polarizes the conceptualization of good and evil leading to violent actions (Fonagy, 2003). According to Freud conflict within oneself and resultant violent behavior can result from hostility and anger feelings. The polarization of consciousness in an individual elevates the death instinct that directs an individual to undertake aggressive acts against the physical or social environment. These actions are taken to relieve one from the current pressures that may lead to self-destruction.

Similar to Freud theory is the recent theory "Strain or Anomine theory advanced by Whitman and Akutagawa in 2004. The theory considers social pressures for individual success as an aspect that leads one to violent behaviors. The strain theory describes the notion that, a person is pushed…… [Read More]

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Biological Biosocial Classical Theories Biological Essay

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1567850

Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.

However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that violent behavior is acceptable. Boys see that males are expected to act aggressively, while girls learn that to be the victim of directed violence is the norm. Similarly, during the teen years youth often substitute peers for parents as their primary role models. As adolescent masculinity is often expressed in action rather than cerebral activities (thus bright boys are labeled as "geeks" and "nerds"), boys often act out and find themselves rewarded by other males and by responses from adolescent girls" (Greek 2005). The media and peer pressures can make crime seem more attractive. In short, people without a genetic disposition to crime can still make the irrational decision to engage in criminal behavior, because their environment makes such choice seem rational, pleasurable, or attractive. Imminent punishment may seem far away to an adolescent's mindset, or to an impoverished person, the threat of severe punishment seems meaningless, if he or she believes circumstances are desperate. Thus this social model still includes an element of choice, like the classical theory, although the individual actors are making deviant choices that poorly serve themselves as well as their community. Biosocial theories stress…… [Read More]

Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html
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Seeking the Ramifications in Cognitive Theory Essay

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93811635


Application of Schools of Criminal Thought

Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.

Theoretical Criminology Frameworks

Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems from observations of individuals who did not experience adequate parenting as children. Inadequate protective nurturing left some soldiers deprived of critical information about the social transactions in which they are expected to engage. Using this frame to consider the vignette would entail consideration of psychological development and associated therapies as a means for changing the self-imaging that leads to the commission of crimes as social normal engagement.

Learning theory. Social learning theory is built on the assumption that criminal behavior, as with many other types of behavior, is learned within a social context and is facilitated through modeling and observational learning.

Labeling theory. Labeling theory has sociological origins and is perhaps best known in society by its use of a deviancy framework. The greater the deviancy from social norms and psychological contracts, the more definitive and descriptive the label, which has direct implications for self-identity and iterative socially-constructed identities associated with the accrual of social benefits and the imposition of social constraints.

Rational choice theory. The rational choice theory…… [Read More]

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Expectancy Violations Theory Evt Begun Essay

Words: 1844 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76062096

Instead, it can provide an important springboard for future investigation in order to better understand the communication paradigms and expectations of cultures other than those in the United States. This, in turn, can lead to further nonverbal theorizing.

Furthermore, Burgoon's theory can also provide an important platform for more modern types of communication such as digital communication, for example (Littlejohn and Foss, 2009). Nonverbal cues are also inherent in this type of communication, although the assumption tends to be that this type of communication is primarily verbal. This is a very exciting development for communication studies. Currently, online communication has seen little in terms of formalizing theoretical findings. Because this communication medium is becoming increasingly important not only in personal interaction but also in the business world, it is becoming vitally important to provide theories of interaction by means of which such communications can most effectively be conducted. This can even be integrated with theories of intercultural interaction, in terms of how this is conducted among the cultures.

In conclusion, nonverbal communication and expectancy will always be part of human communication. Theories such as EVT and others are vitally important not only in understanding the various communication paradigms of human beings towards each other, but also in optimizing communication among partners. This can enhance relationships across the human sphere of existence, from the most intimate to the most professional of business relationships.… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Littlejohn, S.W. And Foss, K.A. (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory. Sage Publications.

Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Sage Publications.
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Sociological Psychological and Biological Theories of Criminals Essay

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67400170

biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.

Biological explanations of criminal behavior

Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.

Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."

Another biological crime theory comes from William Sheldon, whose work took place in the early to mid 1900s; Sheldon developed his theory around three types of human bodies: ectomorphs, endomorphs, and mesomorphs (Crossman, p. 2). He postulated that ectomorphs have "thin and fragile" bodies; that they have small shoulders, their muscles are not thick, and they are "flat-chested" (an example would be Kate Moss) (Crossman, p. 2). Endomorphs are "soft and fat," and they have "underdeveloped muscles, a round physique," and struggle to keep excess weight off their bodies (John Goodman would fall into this category) (Crossman, p. 2). Mesomorphs are athletic and muscular, with good posture, and an example would be Bruce Willis or Sylvester Stallone (Crossman, p. 2).

Psychological explanations of criminal behavior

The psychoanalytic theory holds that "... all humans have criminal tendencies," and humans have "natural drives and urges" that we repress in the unconscious (Sigmund Freud). To reel in these urges and drives, Freud said people get involved in socialization; hence, he believed that when a child is properly socialized at an early age, the likelihood of that person becoming criminal at an adult age is greatly reduced (Crossman, p. 3).…… [Read More]

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Label Slp 3 In Section Session Long Essay

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42210984

label slp 3 in section Session Long Project 'll estimate cost equity rate return company's shareholders 'require'. This important piece information top manager estimate important input effort determine action company add shareholders.

SLP 1 OPM 500

Wal-Mart is one of the greatest American companies and it has been received with both praises as well as criticism. The current endeavor nevertheless is more focused on the financial aspect of the organization, namely the cost of its equity. At a general level, the cost of equity is understood as "the return that stockholders require for a company" (Investopedia, 2011). In other words, it is the amount of money that the organization has to pay in order to reward the investments made by the shareowners.

The cost of capital is an important financial tool as it sits at the basis of efficient decision making. In other words, the cost of equity portraits whether a certain endeavor or investment has the ability to generate shareholder value. There are several ways to identify the cost of equity, one of the most relevant of them being the Capital Asset Pricing Model. According to Rick A. Cooper (2011) at the Reference for Business website, the Capital Asset Pricing Model is a "mathematical model that seeks to explain the relationship between risk and return in a rational equilibrium market."

With the aid of the CAPM, the cost of equity at Wal-Mart is measured in terms of the "relationship between risk and expected return" (Investopedia, 2011). The formula used in the revealed below:

RA = RF + ssA (RM -- RF), where

RF represents the risk free rate ssA represents the risk of the Wal-Mart security, and RM represents the expected market return.

For simplicity purposes, the risk free rate is accepted at a value of 3 and the expected market return is accepted at a value of 10. This then indicates that (RM -- RF) = 7. In a context in which the risk…… [Read More]

Cooper, R.A., 2011, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Reference for Business, http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Bre-Cap/Capital-Asset-Pricing-Model-CAPM.html last accessed on February 24, 2011

2011, Cost of equity, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/costofequity.asp last accessed on February 24, 2011
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Theory the Objective of This Essay

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10371204

I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)

Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of Brennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to adult attachment patterns" with the first "critical variable" being one labeled 'attachment-related anxiety." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals who score high on this specific variable have worries relating to whether their partner is "available, responsive, attentive, etc." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals scoring low on this variable are stated by Fraley to be "more secure in the perceived responsiveness of their partners." (2004) the third "critical variable is called attachment-related avoidance." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals who score high on this variable are independent and do not tend to depend on others or easily open themselves up to others. Individuals scoring on the low end of this dimension have less discomfort with intimacy and as well are "more secure depending upon and having others depend upon them." (Fraley, 2004) According to Brennan's research "a prototypical secure adult is low on both of these dimensions." (Fraley, 2004) Romantic relationships are held by Fraley and others to operate in a very similar manner to infant-parent relationships. Some of the parallels noted in the work of Fraley between "the way that infant-caregiver relationships and adult romantic relationships function include those as follows: (1) partner selection; (2) secure base and safe haven behavior; and (3) avoidant attachment and defense mechanisms. (Fraley, 2004)


This work has examined attachment theory and as well has examined the three period of the development of the ideology of this theory. The work of Bowlby in 1953, which was a popular book and which…… [Read More]

Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1

Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
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Theory and Practice Essay

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96528828

As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.

After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for Acute Stress Disorder. This is especially the time aspect. Her disturbance and persistence were appropriate (Wainrib & Bloch, 2008).

Although the client was not a stranger to stressful events, she was not prepared for the loss of a job that led to emotional trauma. The client attended some few follow-up sessions: she has not experienced any signs associated with traumatic events. By the close of the sessions, she had terminated the medication. She exhibited a number of resilience factors such as pre-incident preparation and training, initiation of crisis intervention, cognitive abilities, spiritual beliefs, and rapid response to debriefing to apply multicomponent strategies (Hillman, 2012).

Counselors must be cognizant of typical responses of people struggling with trauma or those experiencing a crisis. From a cognitive perspective, the client might blame herself or others for her job loss. As a result, she seems to be hypersensitive, disoriented, and confused. Physical reactions to such trauma include shock and anger. Some emotional reactions include depression, panic, anxiety, denial, and fear. When counselors are assessing behavior, some common responses are withdrawal from social events, lack of interest in social things and conflict with another.


Indefinite loss of employment makes an individual vulnerable to trauma. In such a case, a person's normal ways of handling the world are interrupted. Although the client has limited time to react and respond…… [Read More]

Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.