Labeling Theory Essays Examples

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Dissecting Criminal Labelling Theory Howard

Words: 584 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45508346

Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.

Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.

Feminist theory

Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.

This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of her father meant that the family had to make do with the mother's wages. Although they both worked in the same factory, it is far more likely that her mother earned less - a probably reason why it was the father who was let go.

Many of the jobs open…… [Read More]

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Labeling People as Deviant

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53871403

Social Control and Deviance

How does this TV show present deviance?

'Tabboo' airs on National Geographic which shows stories of different people with deviant behaviors. It presents a complete biography along with the history of that particular behavior. One particular episode of deviant behavior that I witnessed in the program was about the Ethiopian Tribe in which beauty represented the strength of a woman. That strength was measured by the amount of scars that were present on the woman's body which were given through whipping. The program showed that in the Ethiopian tribe, a boy's sisters has to suffer before he can become a man, so the women encourage the whipper to whip them. The whole situation of whipping and suffering for a man in your family seemed very confusing but it was normal for the people in that tribe (Bell 2012). Whipping is a negative action, but the program showed that the woman who was whipped was respected in the community thus it was a positive action for them. The total number of scars on the woman's body clearly showed her strength and how she suffered for her family and stood up to them; however in the other countries…… [Read More]

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Comparing Labeling and Conflict Theories

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31250599

Labeling and Conflict Theory

Conflict theory is largely based upon a Marxist conception of human relations. It suggests that the definition of crime is created by social elites to bolster their social position. For example, for many years within the criminal justice system, the crime of using crack cocaine was penalized significantly more than the use of powder cocaine. Not coincidentally, a Marxist theorist would note, people living in the inner city were more likely to use the cheaper, crack alternative. Both drugs were equally dangerous and deleterious to society yet based upon social class, abusers were punished very differently. Conflict theorists regard crime as a subjective, class-based notion -- hence, an African-American person sitting at a 'whites only' lunch counter was considered a criminal in the south during the 1950s, despite the fact that such a law clearly violated the African-American's constitutional rights. Many actions considered crimes may actually have positive benefits. "Certain types of crime take on a different character. Stealing can be seen as an attempt to take away from the rich…like asocial banditry. Protest-related violence may actually be the start of proto-revolutionary movements, ultimately leading to a worker's revolt and the establishment of a just society"…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Greek, C. (2005). Conflict theory. Criminological Theory. Retrieved from:

http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/conflict.htm
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Criminology Theories and Their Impact

Words: 1252 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30304167

"

One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).

Relating Theory to Social Issue

Relating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.

The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem, may turn out to be problems with substance abuse.

If the teen believes that society favors him and labels him as a productive member of society, he is less inclined to become involved in substance abuse.

When it comes to the social bonding theory, a similar correlation can be found…… [Read More]

References:
Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.

Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.
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Sociological Theories Have Helped Widen People's Scope

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10234738

Sociological theories have helped widen people's scope on social behaviors and societies. In fact, the study of sociological theories makes one develop a comprehensive understanding of sociology's past, present and future. There are a number of sociological theories namely: symbolic interaction theory, conflict theory, functionalist theory, feminist theory, critical theory, labeling theory, social learning theory, and structural strain theory among others (Giddens, 1997).

Government, religion, education, economics and family are some of the five major social institutions that have been there for quite some time. This term paper seeks to evaluate the impacts of functionalism, conflict, and interaction theories on the family institution. The paper will address how each of the theories apply to the family as a social institution; the similarities and differences that exist; how each theory affects the views of an individual who is a member of the family unit; how each of the theories affect approach to the social change within the family; and how each of the theories affect the views of the society.

Sociological theories enable one to understand how a given society operates. They also help in demystifying how members of a society relate with one another. Problems that arise in a society…… [Read More]

Sources:
Giddens, A. (1997). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.

McLennan, G, Allanah, R., & Spoonley, P. (2000). Exploring society: Sociology
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Sociological Theories of Mental Illness

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45334137

social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, Robert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a "deviant," a "nonconformist," or a "criminal," it can be harder than ever before to mitigate stress. Labeling theory suggests that social stigmas add an additional layer of stress or strain, compounding preexisting problems like poverty or abuse.

Stress theory explains how different people deal with stress differently. There are several…… [Read More]

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Social Control Theory All Control

Words: 3849 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51715937

If integration with a conventional social group helps prevent suicide and "delinquency" (Hirschi 1969) and motivates people to fight, make sacrifices for a community, or commit deviant acts on behalf of a sub-cultural group, it should affect almost all forms of deviance. The absence of social integration with conventional groups should be influential in psychotic behavior (unless that specific behavior is organically determined and totally uncontrollable); without integration into nonbusiness groups, entrepreneurs, who are highly motivated to turn a profit, should be free to engage in price fixing; and strong social integration with any group should inspire some to excess zeal in fulfilling what they perceive as group expectations (over conformity), which may result in various forms of deviance. Since Hirschi's version, the best-known expression of the social control argument, does not convey this breadth, it must be regarded as shortsighted. Even the proliferation of separate theories of social integration for various deviant and conforming acts illustrates the inefficiency of theory building in the social sciences and dramatically underscores the importance of constructing theories with breadth.

Because of imprecision and shallowness, it is difficult to say exactly what kinds of deviance labeling theory presumably explains, particularly since it only attempts…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Durkheim, Emile. [1897] 1951. Suicide, A Study in Sociology. Translated by John A. Spaulding and George Simpson, edited with an introduction by George Simpson. Reprint, Glencoe, N.Y.: The Free Press.

Gottfredson, Michael R., and Travis Hirschi. 1990. A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
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Criminological Theories Criminology Theories Have

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35903924

Therefore, in response to criminal actions, the rules and laws of a system are developed. It is their presence that represents the glue of the social parts.

One shortcoming of this theory however is the fact that it cannot explain the motivation behind the actual existence of criminal behavior. It tends to perceive the society as a whole, through statistics and factual dates and tries to predict its evolution. Durkheim notes that the continuous existence of the phenomenon is attributed the need of the society for the eventual contribution to the definition of that community. According to him, crimes have a concrete role, as opposed to other theories which fight against such attributions. Thus, identifying criminals draws the limit of correct behavior, by exerting severe punishment; there is a clear notion of the most valuable values in the respective society. Moreover, criminal activities often result in the change of certain social realities, one example being the actions of Martin Luther King. One final concluding fact is that the existence of crimes shows a limited control over the citizens.

Opposing this view is the labeling theory. It takes a distinctive approach from the functionalist models by emphasizing the negative consequences categorizing…… [Read More]

References:
Larry Siegel, (1992). Criminology. New York: West Publishing.

Lemert, Edwin. (1967). Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
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Sociological Theories Explaining Violent Behavior and Serial Murder

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26191356

Sociology and Violent Behavior

The sociological theories of violent behavior focus in assessing the interaction of and individual their with social environment to yield violent behaviors. The key aspects considered in the theories are personality, the learning process, information processing, intelligence and subsequent behavior (aggressive acts). This paper presents a discussion of the theories associated with violent behaviors and serial murder.

Theories of Violent Behavior

The labeling theory argues that the society plays a significant role in influencing an individual's conceptualization of deviance. Once the society labels and individual as deviant and reinforces the deviant label on a person by way of shunning them out of society, the individual accept the label. Since the society has already labeled the acts and the individual as deviant, the individual will have no reason to disprove the view of many. The labeling influences the individual's self-concept and subsequently drives them deeper into more deviant behaviors and even violent acts.

The psychoanalytic theory advanced by Sigmund Freud looks at the forces exerted on human life to lead to the disintegration of an individual's composure. The disintegrated individual composure polarizes the conceptualization of good and evil leading to violent actions (Fonagy, 2003). According to Freud…… [Read More]

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Biological Biosocial Classical Theories Biological

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1567850



Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.

However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that violent behavior is acceptable. Boys see that males are expected to act aggressively, while girls learn that to be the victim of directed violence is the norm. Similarly, during the teen years youth often substitute peers for parents as their primary role models. As adolescent masculinity is often expressed in…… [Read More]

References:
Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html 
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Seeking the Ramifications in Cognitive Theory

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93811635

Criminology

Application of Schools of Criminal Thought

Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.

Theoretical Criminology Frameworks

Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems from observations of individuals who did not experience adequate parenting as children. Inadequate protective nurturing left some soldiers deprived of critical information about the social transactions in which they are expected to engage. Using this frame to consider the vignette would entail consideration of psychological development and associated therapies as…… [Read More]

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Expectancy Violations Theory Evt Begun

Words: 1844 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76062096

Instead, it can provide an important springboard for future investigation in order to better understand the communication paradigms and expectations of cultures other than those in the United States. This, in turn, can lead to further nonverbal theorizing.

Furthermore, Burgoon's theory can also provide an important platform for more modern types of communication such as digital communication, for example (Littlejohn and Foss, 2009). Nonverbal cues are also inherent in this type of communication, although the assumption tends to be that this type of communication is primarily verbal. This is a very exciting development for communication studies. Currently, online communication has seen little in terms of formalizing theoretical findings. Because this communication medium is becoming increasingly important not only in personal interaction but also in the business world, it is becoming vitally important to provide theories of interaction by means of which such communications can most effectively be conducted. This can even be integrated with theories of intercultural interaction, in terms of how this is conducted among the cultures.

In conclusion, nonverbal communication and expectancy will always be part of human communication. Theories such as EVT and others are vitally important not only in understanding the various communication paradigms of human…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Littlejohn, S.W. And Foss, K.A. (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory. Sage Publications.

Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Sage Publications.
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Sociological Psychological and Biological Theories of Criminals

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67400170

biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.

Biological explanations of criminal behavior

Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.

Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."

Another biological crime theory comes from William Sheldon, whose work took place in the early to mid 1900s; Sheldon developed his theory around three types of human bodies: ectomorphs, endomorphs, and mesomorphs (Crossman, p. 2). He postulated that ectomorphs have "thin and fragile" bodies; that they have small shoulders, their muscles are not thick, and…… [Read More]

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Label Slp 3 In Section Session Long

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42210984

label slp 3 in section Session Long Project 'll estimate cost equity rate return company's shareholders 'require'. This important piece information top manager estimate important input effort determine action company add shareholders.

SLP 1 OPM 500

Wal-Mart is one of the greatest American companies and it has been received with both praises as well as criticism. The current endeavor nevertheless is more focused on the financial aspect of the organization, namely the cost of its equity. At a general level, the cost of equity is understood as "the return that stockholders require for a company" (Investopedia, 2011). In other words, it is the amount of money that the organization has to pay in order to reward the investments made by the shareowners.

The cost of capital is an important financial tool as it sits at the basis of efficient decision making. In other words, the cost of equity portraits whether a certain endeavor or investment has the ability to generate shareholder value. There are several ways to identify the cost of equity, one of the most relevant of them being the Capital Asset Pricing Model. According to Rick A. Cooper (2011) at the Reference for Business website, the Capital Asset…… [Read More]

References:
Cooper, R.A., 2011, Capital Asset Pricing Model, Reference for Business,  http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Bre-Cap/Capital-Asset-Pricing-Model-CAPM.html  last accessed on February 24, 2011

2011, Cost of equity, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/costofequity.asp last accessed on February 24, 2011
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Theory the Objective of This

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10371204

I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)

Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of Brennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to adult attachment patterns" with the first "critical variable" being one labeled 'attachment-related anxiety." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals who score high on this specific variable have worries relating to whether their partner is "available, responsive, attentive, etc." (Fraley, 2004) Individuals scoring low on this variable are stated by Fraley to be "more…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1

Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
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Theory and Practice

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96528828



As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.

After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for Acute Stress Disorder. This is especially the time aspect. Her disturbance and persistence were appropriate (Wainrib & Bloch, 2008).

Although the client was not a stranger to stressful events, she was not prepared for the loss of a job that led to emotional trauma. The client attended some few follow-up…… [Read More]

References:
Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.
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Labels a Method of Silencing

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52540256

If the impact was the result of government collusion against Hatfill, then many might believe that actual freedom can only be guaranteed by forcing the press to reveal those sources, so that corruption could be eliminated from the government. However, Martin does not even mention arguments like those found above. Instead, she touts the ideals of the free press, without any mention of who the press is meant to serve, the people, and without any look into the history of journalistic freedom in the United States.

Outline

I. Introduction: Martin's fails to adequately support her thesis, which is that the courts are using a new method, financial compulsion, to silence and intimidate journalists.

Martin's describes Toni Locy's predicament.

1. Judge Reggie Walton, the judge from the Scooter Libby trial, is presiding over Hatfill's lawsuit.

2. Walton has held Locy in contempt for failing to divulge sources.

3. Hatfill's sued the government for linking him to anthrax.

4. Walton has threatened Locy's with the following financial sanctions for failing to cooperate with subpoenas:

a. $500 a day for seven days;

b. $1,000 a day for the following seven days; and c. $5,000 a day for the seven days after that.

5.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Miller, Judith. "Journalism on Trial." The Wall Street Journal 21 Feb. 2008: A16.
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Theories of Human Development

Words: 2294 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63046726

Human Development

Significance of cultural diversity

Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense of oneself structures our character and manners. During the previous 2 decades, the common applicability of conventional abstract models associated with development has been questioned. Most of the long-standing ideas had been developed by Western white-colored males pertaining to Western white-colored males. A few more recent hypotheses aim to clarify…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .

Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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Theory Being Posed in The Normal and the Pathological

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67343622

Theoretical Argument

Crime is a normative aspect of any social construct. That however does not in any way imply that a criminal is a set of or his psychological and biological endowments, if that may be called so. These are actually two very different queries on altogether different premises. The differentiation is better captured when sociological pursuits (fraud, slander, calumny, insults, etc.) are ingrained into the discussion about criminality. It also discount the fact that criminality should be looked down upon, though crimes are an accepted social construct. In ways similar to an individual avoiding pain, so does the society abhor crime. As an extension, similarly as pain cannot be wished away and does form a feature of life, so does criminality about a social structure. That is however not at all to defend crime. Such a posit would be against the moral obligations that has tangible outcomes and become rather unacceptable to a layman if spoken in the same tongue. (Emile Durkheim, 2008).

In one of the most compelling statements made in the context, that of divergence from normative and acceptable social behavior, Durkheim has emphasized on the observation that if throughout criminality has sustained in all cultures and…… [Read More]

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Intelligence Theories

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68155643

Intelligence

Charles Spearman and his General Intelligence Theory

Spearman, a British psychologist, noted that individuals whose score on one mental ability test was excellent tended to maintain an impressive score in other tests as well (Nevid, 2012). On the other hand, those whose score on one cognitive test was unimpressive tended to perform badly in other tests administered. It is on the strength of this observation that Spearman concluded that being a general cognitive ability, intelligence could be expressed numerically or measured. In the words of Nevid (2012, p. 247), "he reasoned there must be an underlying general factor of intelligence that allows people to do well on mental tests, a factor he labeled 'g' for general intelligence."

It is, however, important to note that Spearman was also convinced that in addition to "g," intelligence included some other abilities that contributed "to performance on individual tests" (Nevid, 2012, p. 274). For instance, as Nevid further points out, the performance of an individual in a test on arithmetic could be dependent on both the general intelligence of the concerned individual and his or her math abilities. Some of the intelligence tests that were developed to measure Spearman's "g" include, but they…… [Read More]

References:
Comer, R. & Gould, E. (2012). Psychology Around Us (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Nevid, J. (2012). Psychology: Concepts and Applications (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
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Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools

Words: 3635 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60588925

Connecting Theory and Meaning of Disability Studies in Schools

The connecting theory application in the system of basic education has contributed to the development and establishment of a trans-disciplinary scientific strategized framework. This framework bases on the specified reverence for a considerable orientation in long-term and the engagement of decision makers in the education system on its application. The connecting theory involves work that cuts across education disciplines. This is with the aim of exposing the aspects perceived to be of outdated assumptions in the education system. This happens with their respective enrichment in the technological and social practice. The theory constitutes well-strategized research with knowledge meant for informing a scientific framework designated. This is to enable direct transformation towards the education system future with worldview fit (Fenton-Smith, & Stillwell, 2011).

The concrete developed strategic objectives aim at addressing the advancements with accuracy in understanding the aspect of science. This has connections to school that affirms of education life as a compatible aspect with direct perspectives. The promotion and development of frameworks to address every perspective in the education system, in support of future school with policy recommendations for the improvement of education structure and content, is significant. The theory…… [Read More]

Sources:
Albrecht, G.L. (2003). Handbook of disability studies. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage.

Dan Goodley & Michele Moore. (2010). Doing Disability Research: Activist lives and the academy. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cdso20
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Medical Theory Ever Since the

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24024442

As mentioned earlier, the desired outcome of nursing care is comfort and there are many articles in which the researchers have talked about the needs of the patients and the things that alter the comfort of the patients. Kolcaba suggested that the cancer patients who are terminally ill can benefit from comfort care as it pays attention to the perspective and needs of the patients. Through such kind of care, the patient is not only provided with pain relief, but the depression of the patient is also addressed adequately. As she said that patients who are not in pain but are depressed seek comfort in the transcendental sense as well as in the psycho-spiritual sense (Kolcaba, 1992 p 4). In some of her works, she has explained the use of the instruments and their application by the nurses. Kolcaba reckons that the instruments presented by her to evaluate the comfort are significant indicators that are given by the patients, are altered by the kind of nursing care being given to the patient and are associated with the health care system and its integrity. For example, this theory is particularly very significant for application by nurses that interact with the patients…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Kolcaba K. (1994). A theory of holistic comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(10): 1178-1184.

Kolkaba, K. (1992). Holistic comfort: Operationalizing the construct as a nurse-sensitive outcome..Advances in Nursing Science, 15 (1), pp. 1-10.
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Sociology - Crime Theories Making

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24217799

In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).

Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.

However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society. Typically, many of the types of so-called "street crimes" that occur in poor communities involve violence and result in more intensive police response than the types of crimes that typically occur in middle and upper class communities. Even though so- called "white collar" crime such as those perpetrated by Bernard…… [Read More]

Resources:
John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:

McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA
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Application of Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors

Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93027941

Social Concerns

Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors

The Theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors provides a broad framework into which more narrowly focused research can be viewed from. This analysis will consider three individual research journal articles and first provide an overview of the work that was conducted. Then this analysis will try to relate the study and its results to the broader theories mentioned. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. The paper will conclude with a short discussion of why this research is important to society in regard to public health initiatives.

Parenting a Child with a Disability

Parents who have children with disabilities often have additional challenges that are presented in the situation when compared to the responsibilities of parents when their children do not have disabilities. As a result, having a child with a disability can pose a significant risk to the parents' physical and emotional well-being (Ha, Greenberg, & Seltzer, 2011). However, the effects of having a child with a disability are not equal in all cases and can affect families…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.

Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African-American Parents. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 405-411.
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String Theory the Fundamental Forces

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81433491

This implies we live in a universe "in which six of the space dimensions have been collapsed or curled up in themselves." (Tipler 650). Since all of these dimensions are believed to be of the order of the Planck length they cannot be seen by any common experimental procedures currently in practice today.

Despite the attractiveness of string theory its utilization of large numbers of space dimensions raises many important questions regarding the formation of the universe, and questions about the possibility of ever verifying it in the lab. Considering the fact that many aspects of physics depend upon the existence of only three spatial dimensions, this might suggest that "three" is a deep principle within nature. Somehow, physics might demand that three dimensions of space grow infinitely while the others collapse on themselves; then again, the creation of our universe may have been utterly accidental in its outcome.

Clearly, experimental evidence would be highly desirable. One of the proposed "best" ways to demonstrate the validity of string theory is to observe proton decay -- which is a prediction associated with messenger particles (Davies 258). Yet this, even by mathematical predictions, is an extremely rare occurrence and has never been…… [Read More]

Sources:
Barrow, John D. The Origin of the Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Calle, Carlos I. Superstrings and Other Things. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics, 2001.
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Sociological Theories of Crime Causation

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75510570

Sociological Theories

Compare and contrast your two selected theories.

The two sociological theories that will be examined are social disorganization and the social learning theory. The social disorganization theory is focused on how crime rates are directly tied to the environment where someone is living. While the social learning theory believes that people discover the world around them through modeling and observing the actions of others. (Akers, 2009)

The differences between the two are the social disorganization theory believes that the environment someone grows up in will have a direct effect on if they turn to criminal related activities. This is because of various attitudes about illegal behavior will create a sense of moral clarity or confusion about becoming involved. Whereas, the social disorganization theory believes that individuals are shaped by watching and learning about how others react to the world around them. This is when they will mirror this behavior in order to learn the most appropriate ways of interacting within society. (Akers, 2009)

Describe how your selected theories explain specific crimes.

The social disorganization theory feels that specific crimes will occur based upon the community someone lives and is brought up in. For instance, someone who grows up…… [Read More]

References:
Akers, R. (2009). Social Learning and Social Structure. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
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Hispanics or Latinos

Words: 1722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48649609

Labels: Latinos or Hispanics

Labeling people by their race is often a controversial subject of debate in political and social circles. Why classify people as Hispanics, Latinos or African-Americans when they can all be simply called Americans by virtue of them being citizens of the United States. However it appears that there is some political gains to be made by the use of ethnic labeling and often this kind of classification is very damaging or restricting. For example a person who comes from a Spanish speaking family and is labeled a Latino is expected to behave in certain race-specific manner. he/she is expected to be really 'hip', an expert in salsa or other forms of dancing, not really good in academics, coming from a poor family and supporting a certain political party. But what if that one individual wants to defy all these restricting attributes because he/she is not a Latino but an individual with his/her own beliefs, values, ways of thinking, social approach, political affiliation etc. However it is not always easy to behave in what is seen as uncharacteristic of the race you belong to when there are ethnic labels attached to you. A TV show on NPR…… [Read More]

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Direct and Indirect Intervention in Early Adulthood

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58001548

Labeling, Life Chances, And Adult Crime

Jon Gunnar Bernburg and Marvin D. Krohn build on a body of criminology research related to labeling theory in their report entitled "Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood." The report reflects in-depth research and statistical analysis conducted by the researchers. Specifically, Bernburg and Krohn attempt to fill in gaps in prior research by addressing three specific areas. First, the authors examine "the effect of police intervention and juvenile justice intervention on subsequent early adulthood crime," (1295). To do so they use a random sample taken from a population of adolescents. Second, Bernburg and Krohn look at "the long-term effect of official intervention during adolescence on young adult criminality," and whether "educational attainment and periods of nonemployment mediate this effect," (1295). Third, the researchers try to determine "whether the effect of official labeling on life chances and future crime is contingent on race and impoverished family background," (1295). The resulting study incorporates learning theory into the analysis and the authors do a good job of providing some background information for the reader. For example, they state "Labeling theory emphasizes the…… [Read More]

References:
Bernburg, Jon Gunnar and Krohn, Marvin D. "Labeling, Life Chances and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood."
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Practice Bi-Lingual Theory and Practice of Multicultural

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36330693

Practice

Bi-Lingual

Theory and practice of multicultural and bilingual education

The demands of the competitive marketplace have caused a fundamental shift in the needs of ESL learners and will change the structure of ESL education. During the 1980s and 19980s, the predominant emphasis in ESL instruction was on social graces and basic fluency "Those objectives are now outdated and inadequate to meet the pressing needs of today's children. Increasingly complex, high-tech demands from industry and commerce mandate that every graduate, including those for whom English is a second language, acquire knowledge and skills to compete for jobs" (Beckett & Haley 2000). The goal is for ESL students to graduate not merely with a grasp of English, but with knowledge of subject areas commensurate with their non-ESL peers. Demands for strong ESL student performance are growing amongst parents as well as school administrators, who wish to give a more equitable education to this underserved population.

Increasingly, ESL standards for language are being linked to state academic standards for all children, demanding that ESL educators "ensure that students with limited English proficiency receive consistently high quality English language and academic instruction" (Beckett & Haley 2000). It is also hoped that "linking the…… [Read More]

Sources:
Beckett, E.C., & Haley, P.K. (2000). Using standards to integrate academic language into ESL

fluency. The Clearing House, 74(2), 102-104.
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Forrest Gump Analysis of Jenny Theories

Words: 2150 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75289089

Mustanski et al. (2007) have conducted research on genetics and disposition and have found genetics can influence personality, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and social deviance. Since her father was clearly abusive and appeared to be a drinker as well, his impulsiveness and social deviance was evident. In looking at internal psychological states things like goals and self-efficacy beliefs are main determinants of behavior (Vancouver, More, & Yoder, 2008)

External factors influencing Jenny's personality, were her interactions socially within the environment in which she lived. Also contributing to her self-schema and how she viewed the environment was the development of knowledge structures. The different social and interpersonal experiences Jenny faced developed a self-schema that was different from those around her. Since Forrest was the only person she had that was positive in her life, her experiences drove her toward a negative self-schema. This would be the only way she might be able to understand the abuse she received throughout her lifetime.

Another external factor Jenny had to deal with was the stigma of being an abused child. She did her best to hide what was happening to her but it did not help her self-esteem. Pachankis (2007) proposes individuals with a concealable…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Tamir, M., John, O.P., Srivastava, S., & Gross, J.J. (2007).Implicit theories of emotion: Affective and social outcomes across a major life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92[4], 731-744.

Vancouver, J.B., More, K.M., & Yoder, R.J. (2008). Self-efficacy and resource allocation:

Support for a nonmonotonic, discontinuous model. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93[1], 35-47.
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Launch of Pdi Labeling in Australia in

Words: 1964 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55210695

Launch of PDI Labeling in Australia

In many countries, packaged foods are labeled with the "Percentage Daily Intake" of nutrients available in the food. These thumbnail-like labels are provided to consumers to help them make informed dietary decisions when they shop. This nutritional labeling is not mandatory and is in addition to other nutritional information that is included in the nutrition information panel typically located on the back of packaged foods. The effectiveness of this type of labeling to support healthful food choices and eating habits is the focus of this brief.

Selection of Launch Approach

A top-down approach to promoting nutritional labeling is preferred because multiple instruments must be employed to increase consumer interest in healthy eating, and the labeling policy must be embedded in a comprehensive and robust promotional campaign. Perhaps more than policymakers, advertising agencies hold the key to successfully changing the minds of the public with regard to healthful eating.

The "Got Milk" campaign carried out by the dairy organizations is a good example of the type of marketing that is likely to generate more interest in healthful eating. The California Milk Processor Board (CMPB) hired Jeff Manning in June of 1993 as their executive director.…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bonsmann, SS, Fernandez Celemin, L, Larranaga, S, Egger, JM, Wills, C, Hodgkins, C and Raats, MM. [Flabel Consortium. Penetration of nutrition information on food labels across the EU-27 plus Turkey]. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010; DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.179

Devine CM. (2005) A life course perspective: Understanding food choices in time, social location, and history. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 37(3):121 -- 128.
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Rct Relational Cultural Theory as

Words: 2229 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4486894

RCT believes that everyone desires growth and that growth is by necessity connective in relational and cultural links. Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment foster these relationships in positive ways. (Jordan, "The role of mutual")

Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson may arguably be two of the most influential icons in the field of human development and psychology. Their fundamental concept that human's develop over a lifetime and not just in a few stages from birth to adolescence and then are frozen into psychological patterns, revolutionized thinking in the field of developmental psychology. The term Life Span Development came to the fore as Erickson devised his eight stages of psychosocial development ranging from birth to eighty years old. Later as he himself passed eighty he realized that there is yet another stage and the count became nine. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) One can see the striking resemblance between Erickson and Freud's stages especially in Erickson's stages one through four as they almost mirror Freud's psychosexual stages exactly.

However, they are also two of the forces that Miller must have railed against. Unfortunately both used research and experience that was primarily gender biased towards males and this colored the world of psychology for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Comstock, Dana L., et al. "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 279-288.

Crethar, Hugh C., Edil Torres Rivera, and Sara Nash. "In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 269-276
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National Brands Fight Private Labels

Words: 6876 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27941011

" (Sinha and Batra, 1999)

Sinha and Batra state that "most researchers now content that a generalized price -- quality relationship does not exist" although the "degree to which a higher price implies higher quality" has been examined and as well has been the "topic of considerable research in marketing." (1999) Therefore for the purpose of this study this antecedent relating to price consciousness will not be a variable in understanding the questions posed in this study.

Sirha and Batra (1999) state that this inference "is widely accepted as being context-specific, moderated by situational characteristic such as the extensiveness of a consumer's cognitive schemes and his/her product class knowledge" and cite the work of Peterson and Wilson (1985). Therefore, it can be understood that while the consumer might believe that a higher price being paid obtains the same equal receipt of quality in some categorical purchases but yet not in others. Each consumer is required to make trade-offs relating to price-quality factors and the category might well impact the consumer's decision to make certain trade-offs or alternatively the category might serve to dissuade the trade-off in which quality is reduced due to a reduction in price for that product.

The…… [Read More]

Sources:
Szymanowski, Maciej and Els Gijsbrechts (2007), "Conditional Cross-Brand Learning: When Are Private Labels Really Private?" working paper, Marketing Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, Tilburg University, the Netherlands.

View Stores and Merchandise. D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA, pp. 247 -- 268.

Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. (2002), Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
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Coding Classifying Categorizing and Labeling

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86797904

Further sub-categorization allows for greater comparison and contrasting of different categories and can make the data sets more meaningful. Not all of these codes will be decided beforehand -- in fact, it can be more enriching for the final analysis to break down the data afterwards, to ensure that the lived experience of the subjects affects the coding process.

Coding is often thought of in terms of word-based strategies of the subjects, and these can yield important assumptions about the ways individuals perceive their places in the world. Frequency of use of particular words, metaphors, analogies, and the use of local or regional phrases endemic to the area can all be flagged through coding and used to draw meaningful connections between apparently dissimilar sates of being (Gibbs 2010). By highlighting key words in transcripts, the researcher can physically have his or her eye drawn to meaningful bits of data. One argument for the use of linguistic coding is that if used properly it can offer more objective evidence, as the frequently-used words, transitions, connectors, idioms, and imagery are 'on the page' of transcripts for the observer.

Coding requires active, discriminatory analysis on the part of the recorder. For example, "if…… [Read More]

References:
Gibbs, Graham. (2010, February 19). How and what to code. Online QDA. University of Huddersfield. Retrieved August 9, 2010 at  http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/Intro_QDA/how_what_to_code.php
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Nutritional Labeling Policy Beyond the

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29255147



Unfortunately, no consumer can be 'forced' to read calorie labels in a correct fashion. A recent study by the Journal of the American Dietetic Association found "significant numbers of people surveyed indicated that they lacked either the knowledge or inclination to effectively use labels...it appears that a large portion of the population isn't interested in having (nutritional information)" (Cox 2007). In a 2004 Food and Agriculture survey, "one-third of all participants were unable to accurately target their daily calorie needs" and this was "based on an expansive definition of 1500-2500 kcals" while "31% of participants looked at calories but only 5% looked at serving size" (Cox 2007). Calorie totals mean little if a person does not understand that a serving of ice cream that is 260 calories is 1/4 of a pint.

There are some policies that could be implemented to address some of the 'head in the sand' factor regarding calories. Food packages could be labeled with calories more prominently, including the calorie information on the front rather than the back of the package, as an aid to dieters. Some of the major diet manufactures of frozen foods, like Lean Cuisine and Weight Watchers already do so. If consumers…… [Read More]

Resources:
Cox, Lee Ann. (19 May 2006). "Do Consumers Use Calorie Labels? Fat Chance, Says

New Study." University of Vermont. The View. Retrieved 19 Apr 2007 at http://www.uvm.edu/theview/article.php?id=2045
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Crime and Social Theory Deviance Interpreted by

Words: 1590 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21153466

Crime and Social Theory

Deviance Interpreted by Social Theories

Illicit Drug Use

Illicit drug use has historically been seen as a global threat towards society and a primary contributing factor for the prevalence other crimes, such as smuggling, home invasions, property crimes, assault, and murder. In 1969 President Nixon stated publicly that illicit drug use is a serious national problem and in 1971 declared the "War on Drugs" (National Public Radio, 2007). Over the two decades since, other governments around the world, including the United Nations, followed suit, but differed substantially from the United States in how much emphasis was placed on deterrence through incarceration (Bewley-Taylor, Hallam, and Allen, 2009, p. 1).

Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use

An estimated 21.8 million Americans were using illicit drugs in 2009, which represents about 8.7% of the population (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010, p. 1). Of these, 16.7 million used marijuana, 1.6 million cocaine, 1.3 million hallucinogens, 7.0 million prescription psychotherapeutic drugs, and 0.5 million methamphetamine. As a group, illicit drug use among juveniles aged 12 and 17 was more prevalent (10.0%) than among the general population.

Consequences of the War on Drugs

Since the War on Drugs began around…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Bewley-Taylor, Dave, Hallam, Chris, and Allen, Rob. (2009). The incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview, Report Sixteen. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme, International Centre for Prison Studies, Kings College of London, University of London. Retrieved June, 2011 from http://www.idpc.net/php-bin/documents/Beckley_Report_16_2_FINAL_EN.pdf

Giugliano, John. (2004). A sociohistorical perspective of sexual health: The clinician's role. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 11, 43-55.
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Argyris and Schon's Theories for

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86417287

The observations from this examination are: that the individual can influence their thoughts and actions, by knowing how they will affect the process. Argyris and Schon's theories for actions shows, the positive or negative effect that these thoughts will have for all parties. In some cases, this could mean that there could be different thoughts / interpretations, about what is occurring for a particular event. In the case of any good leader, they must look at the situation outside of their own views, to be able to understand the thoughts and actions of others.

Abstract Conceptualization

Argyris and Schon's theories provides: a way for leaders, to be able to understand the situation outside of their own perspective. Where, the actions theory will help them, to take a step back and see the situation from various points-of-views. Once this occurs, is when leaders will be able to understand how, the issue is being seen from the other party's side. In the case of many businesses, this rephrasing and evaluation model; prevents managers from engaging in actions that could benefit management, yet hurt the employees. When you are forcing managers to consciously reevaluate the situation, you are helping them adapt more quickly.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Anderson, L. (1994). Argyris and Schon's Theory. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Action Research website: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/argyris.html

Chitwood, R. (2004). Lack of Leadership. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Max Sacks website:  http://www.maxsacks.com/articles/article0803.html 
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Social Identity Theory Relating to Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 1144 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85318940

Juvenile Delinquency Theory

Social identity theory

Postmodernist criminology theory

Underlying assumptions

Postmodernism is a relatively unique theory of criminology: rather than simply trying to understand why people commit crimes and explain such behavior, it questions the notion of what constitutes 'crime' altogether. The underlying assumption of postmodernism is that crime is a culturally constructed concept. [One sentence thesis] For example, in the 1950s, being gay was considered criminal -- today being gay is socially accepted behavior. White-collar crime is often considered less serious than violent crime. Postmodernist theories of criminology suggests that this is not because that white-collar crime is less serious, rather it is because the perpetrators are more apt to be socially powerful and wealthy individuals who can define how crime is constructed.

Similarly, postmodernism would suggest that the social construction of the identity of the juvenile delinquent is laden with class and historical assumptions. Once upon a time, a girl who engaged in sexual activity before marriage would be considered delinquent. Today, that is not the case. Conversely, bullying behavior of teens who are gay, members of religious minorities, or simply 'different' from their peers might have been tacitly condoned at one point. Now such behaviors are…… [Read More]

References:
Barak, Gregg Stuart Henry & Dragan Milovanovic. (2011). Constitutive criminology: An overview of an emerging postmodernist school. Red Feather Journal. Red Feather

Institute Postmodern Criminology Series. Volume 1. Retrieved October 17, 2011 at  http://www.critcrim.org/redfeather/journal-pomocrim/vol-1-intro/001overview.html 
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Muted Group Theory Addresses the

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40213290

Girls play with dolls and boys play with trucks. Girls play hopscotch and boys play football. Girls cry and boys do not. These essential shaping experiences create divisions between the genders, and proscribe gendered behaviors. In order to conform, both men and women buy into the gendered and stratified society. This gendered society is hierarchically organized so that men enjoy positions of political power with far greater proportions than women. Men, who are referred to as "founding fathers," have set the rules. If women want a modicum of political, social, or economic status they must also play by the same rules. A woman becomes successful only by acting "like a man" and using male vocabulary and discourse including that of power over others and oppression. Alternatively a woman becomes successful by acting in the extreme feminized version of herself, by sexualizing herself. This is because men understand women as sexualized objects and as tools or playthings for men. When women conform to this ideal, they are speaking the dominant male language and thus may become successful. Women rarely have the opportunity to develop their own rules by which to define success. Without the creation of subcultures or countercultures, the role…… [Read More]

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Grounded Theory Examining a Specific

Words: 2659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25228765

Still, they published their theory in a coauthored work and there were not large differences in the overall theory at this point (Hart & Gregor 2005).

As the two scholars' careers diverged, however, they continued to develop their thinking on grounded theory independently from each other. What has become known as the Glaserian approach (developed, of course, by Barney Glaser) stresses the non-prescriptive nature of inquiries that occur utilizing grounded theory, with much broader categories of conceptualizations inherent to this version of the theory (Hart & Gregor 2005). Glaser also asserted that rigorous verification methods, such as might be more typical in the traditional scientific method, were suitably applied only to a very few of the central theoretical hypotheses that developed in the course of a grounded theory inquiry, which was another aspect of the Glaserian grounded theory that makes it more open to adjustment from the observations themselves and an incredibly non-prescriptive research method (Manteuffel 2009).

The Straussian mode of conducting grounded theory research -- the theory that Strauss developed along with other collaborators later in is own academic career -- is much more rigid in its method of coding categories as they arise through observation, and also asserts…… [Read More]

References:
Borgatti, S. (2010). "Introduction to grounded theory." Accessed 6 November 2010.  http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm 

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: a practical guide. London: Sage.
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Nursing Theory Is That it

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61414434

At times patients cannot care for themselves, and nurses must remedy these self-care deficits (Dorothea Orem's Self-care theory, 2011, Nursing Theories).

Whenever possible, patients should be empowered to act as best as they can to care for themselves. The nurse is viewed as an aid to remedy the self-care deficit in Orem's view. The nurse is not seen as superseding the patient's basic right to autonomy. Although some nurses know this intuitively, when busy or rushed sometimes it can be easy to forget the value of allowing patients to do as much as possible as they can for themselves, even if this is something as simple as eating and drinking or going to the bathroom.

Given the preponderance of lifestyle-related diseases today, Orem's stress upon patient self-knowledge and awareness is essential. Patients will care for themselves when they return home from a healthcare environment in most instances, and they must be empowered to use positive coping mechanisms when dealing with their urges to smoke and overeat. Nurses can encourage patients to foster healthy habits, but the patients must have the tools and knowledge to make healthy habits daily lifestyle practices.

In Orem's theory, regardless of the level of self-care deficit,…… [Read More]

Sources:
Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett

Publishers.
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Nursing & Education Theory This

Words: 5668 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34391212

" (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that it is precisely "this movement along a maturity gradient that Mezirow regards as a form of emancipatory learning..." (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that according to Mezirow "emancipation is from libidinal, institutional or environmental forces which limit our options and rational control over our lives but have been taken for granted as beyond human control." (Jarvis, nd) Mezirow suggests that there are various levels of reflection which exist over the course of the individual's life and states that seven of these which occur during adult learning are those as follows:

reflectivity;

Affective reflectivity;

Discriminant reflectivity;

Judgmental reflectivity;

Conceptual reflectivity;

Psychic reflectivity; and Theoretical reflectivity. (Jarvis, nd)

II. MARGARET NEWMAN

Newman writes in the work entitled: "Health as Expanding Consciousness" that intuition plays a key role in her life and for example, in the books that she chooses to read, the people she meets, and the jobs she has taken and even the places she lives "somehow fit together in a pattern that is right for me." (2000) Newman writes that she has sometimes "been able to sense the pattern well in advance of its coming together" while other times, when it "feels right..." she simply…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Benner is Back! (2008) FOUCHE December 2008, Vol. 24, No. 2. Online available at http://www.Fouche.org.za/index.php/FOUCHE/article/viewFile/63/63

Benner P. From Novice to Expert, Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to the fact verbal abuse signs prove more difficult to recognize and prove than the more obvious signs of physical abuse. (Vardiganm, 2008)

During this clinical case study dissertation's Literature Review chapter, this researcher presents information, as well as diverse contentions accessed from a barrage, more than 25, of credible sources,…… [Read More]

Resources:
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
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Boudon 2001 Theories of Social

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87823124

For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.

Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?

Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human action from other forms of behavior. The author explains that, according to Weber, social action, including active and passive actions, is directed by the behavior of others, whether past, present or anticipated future actions. Human actions are rational, even if they appear irrational, because the actors believe that doing an…… [Read More]

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Watson's Nursing Caring Theory the

Words: 3295 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16302880

Jean Watson and in reality "belonging becomes an ethic in itself and guides how we sustain our being in the world." Dr. Watson emphasizes the fact that the practices of nursing have experienced evolution and this has allowed certain distortions in the nursing practices. Dr. Watson brings to attention 'Palmer's epistemology as ethics' yet the epistemology, in the view of Palmer to be 'informed by cosmology' has great power in that it may either "form of deform the human soul" and thereby also form or deform the nurse's "way of being/becoming more human and humane (Palmer 1993; as cited by Watson, 2005)

III. Brief Analysis of Watson's Caring Mode

The model of caring in nursing model as proposed by Dr. Jean Watson is one that is fairly simplistic in nature that has as its key concepts the factors of love, kindness and empathy. In making an identification of the applications of Dr. Watson's model the work of Chantal (nd) is reviewed in which Chantel relates that the application of Watson's Caring in Nursing Model may be through interaction with the patient by asking pertinent questions that will engage the patient while at the same time convey to them that the…… [Read More]

Sources:
Levinas, E. (2000) Totality and Infinity. Pittsburgh, PA; Duqesne University Press (Original work published in 1969)

Fawcett, Jacqueline (2005) Contemporary Nursing Knowledge: Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and Theories. Davis Company, Philadelphia. Online available at http://www.fadavis.com/related_resources/1_2042_618.pdf
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Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

Words: 4613 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48469926

Warlords have apparently been in the process of financing their various struggles against the Western States in two different contexts. One is that which occurs in the several drug producing countries of the world, that is, those that come under the so called 'Golden Triangle', and the struggles that occur in the various different drug trafficking routes, like for example, in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there has been a complete erosion and fall of the central and the state authorities in military and in economic and in political areas. All these drug warlords in fact preside over anarchy, while at the same time attempting to manage the chaos in which they are forced to live. (Segell, 1997)

Therefore, the drug warlord becomes an individual who is a parochial militarist, and one who thrives on the lack of central authority on the one hand, while on the other, makes several attempts to corrupt the existing structures so that he may be able to further his own personal ambitions, in any manner that he chooses to do so. An important fact to remember is that these drug warlords impose no age restrictions of nay sort on the members of their gang, and the…… [Read More]

References:
Alonso, A; Rutan J.S. (November, 1984) "The impact of object relations theory on psychodynamic group therapy" The American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol: 141; No: 11; pp: 1376-1380.

Buckley, Peter. (2003) "Revolution and Evolution - A Brief Intellectual History of American