Starting from the very beginning of the Colonial Era, Latin America has been dominated politically, economically, socially and even physically by European powers. Spain and Portugal are famous for their conquest into this region of the world, but other European countries such as England, France and the Netherlands also had their hand in essentially taking over and reshaping Latin America. There is an extensive and abundant amount of published research done on this subject and the historiography of Latin America and the account of its past runs deep and wide.
What this short essay hopes to accomplish is to evaluate and reflect on the reported history of the Latin American regions, specifically focusing on the readings and lectures from this semester. This essay will also discuss in particular John Charles Chasteen's claim from his book, Born in Blood & Fire: A Concise History of Latin America, that "non-whites have generally not done well in Latin America."
Latin America, because of European powers was turned upside down. Large populations were killed off, its culture, customs and histories wiped clean. Everything that was known, everything that was unique and native to the land ended because of European conquests. Latin America, starting in the late 1400s and continuing on still today has been deeply influenced and characterized by European powers.
The Colonial Era in Latin American history is often referred to and considered by many to be the most seminal or formative time period for the region. It was the Colonial Era that most significantly impacted and shaped Latin America. One of the most obvious effects that the Colonial Era had on Latin America and its people was the mass killings that occurred through battles, and more specifically, exposure to an assortment of European diseases that were new to the region. Smallpox and new strains of influenza were the main culprits, the actual number of natives killed as a result of epidemic disease has been debated academically for years, but there is no doubt that that number is in the millions. Anywhere from 70 to 90% of the native Latin American population was killed off during the Colonial Era. The populations across the region went down with disease, literally. Their immune systems were not equipped to face these new diseases.
Sickness however was not the only thing natives of Latin America were not prepared to face. Another…… [Read More]
China vs. Latin America -- two studies in colonial influence
Although both the Chinese and the Latin American geographic areas stretch across vast territorial expanses, the impact of colonial rule upon the Chinese nation and the Latin American region was notably different, throughout both areas' respective exposures to European domination. The first reason for this pertains to the centralization of political authority in China, before Europeans ever set foot upon the land. In Latin America, different explorers from different European nations encountered Aztec and Incan natives in dispersed settings, creating a sense that no one 'owned' the land, because the control of these different tribal units was not centralized. In contrast, China had a very clearly defined political leader of its territory, in the form of the emperor and a hierarchical structure of power the European nations could identify with, if not respect, and could negotiate with in ways they were accustomed to, amongst one another.
The European explorers came to Latin America in search of natural resources. They came to China, however, in search of the nation's new technological innovations, such as gunpowder and opiate medications. Of course, China attempted initially to turn itself away from the rest of the world's trade. Even later on, after the European powers carved up the nation into spheres of economic influence, however, China still retained its integrity as a nation. Latin America's different regions, however, were subject to direct territorial control by Europe. Moreover, there was…… [Read More]
Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa
This report aims to distinguish some comparable differences in problems between Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The report incorporates the findings of three articles on immigration, environmental concerns and family planning. The report aims to discuss how these areas of concern are being addressed and how they have been or may be solved. From there, the objective is to forecast some possible solutions for these serious long-term issues that are all too apparent throughout many of the African continent.
People are the true source of success. Therefore, when the best people in a country or region leave to find a better way of life abroad through education or other opportunities, they inadvertently have some effect on the country they left behind. "For example, the number of immigrants from Spanish-speaking Latin America increased by seven million and those from East Asia rose by over two million. In contrast, the number of immigrants from Europe increased by less than 700,000 and those from Sub-Saharan Africa increased by about 400,000." (Camarota and McArdle) This seems to be more of dilemma in Africa than in Latin America because a great number of Latin immigration is to the United States where an immigrant can most likely find better sources of jobs and a better way of life. With that comes the ability to provide financial assistance to family's back home. Migration from Africa usually entails only the best and the brightest who make their way to universities around the world. These opportunities often do not lead to financial assistance back home. But more important, it also means that the newly educated person who may now be a doctor or lawyer will not return to his home country again affecting the…… [Read More]
On the contrary, they maintained -- and in some cases, further improved on -- the Spanish centralizing tradition."(Pinera, 409)
Tendencies towards authoritarian rule continue to survive nowadays preventing Latin America from gradual development, as in majority of Latin American countries military putsches turned into a common practice on the hand with populism of national leaders and corruption. For a number of governments in the twentieth century protection of private interests was the main priority of state political and economical program, while the interests of the nation were often neglected, which always led to economical and political crisis:
"Deep and persistent social inequalities have distorted the nature of both economic growth and recession in Latin America. It is the poor who bear the brunt of recession through job loss, downgraded working conditions, declining real wages, small-business bankruptcies and so on. It is the wealthy, on the other hand, who are the first to benefit from growth through access to credit and foreign exchange as well as tax exemptions and other government benefits."(Vilas, 57)
Making a conclusion its important to outline that Latin America had not only preserved its unique cultural identity in the epoch of globalization and expansion of the U.S.A., but also appeared to be the only culture which preserved its uniqueness in the diverse and assimilating society of the United States, where other different cultures mainly from Eastern and Southern Asia had quickly dissolved. Latin America today is of the most dynamically developing regions in the world, which fights corruption, selfish governments and poverty. Rich in mineral and energy recourses, with social dynamics and mobility its able to achieve high living standards in close future.… [Read More]
Latin America Drug Trafficking to the United States: Why Making This Legal in the United States is Not a Good Option
Drug trafficking in Latin America is linked to many violent crimes including murder. Many people believe that were drugs that arrive from Latin America be legalized that the situation would be much easier to cope with allowing taxation on drug products. This work reviews why making drug trafficking by Latin American cartels to the United States is not a viable option. Indeed, were the United States to do so, the very principles and values of Democracy would be violated as these drug cartels are directly opposed to democratic principles and for these drug cartels to profit democracy would have to suffer greatly.
Latin American Countries and Drug Policy
United States drug policy toward the countries in Latin America is formulated by many factors and in fact so many various and diverse country-specific factors or characteristics that enter in the formulation of U.S. policy that the drug policy is necessarily under the requirement of being based on flexibility. This is due greatly to the differences in culture that exists between not only the United States and Latin American countries in general but due to differentiations in the cultures of the various countries in Latin America. Not only cultural differences make a requirement of flexibility in U.S. policy toward Latin American countries but as well the various governments and leaders of these countries as well as the various anti-political groups that comprise the armies of the drug trade groups in these countries. Koops (2009) reports on the cultural differences that exist between the United States and Latin American countries. For example in the country of Bolivia, there has historically been "a strict distinction between the unprocessed coca leaf and cocaine. However, in the United States, many equate the coca leaf with cocaine addiction…… [Read More]
Under the next Emperor, William II, Germany took a more imperialistic course that led to a lot of friction with many of the neighboring countries, which was similar to the course that other European powers also took. After this took place the alliances that Germany had with various countries were not renewed by those countries, and when new alliances were created they did not include Germany in them.
France, specifically, was one of the countries that did not renew any alliances with Germany, and many other European countries followed suit. With the exception of Hungary and Austria, Germany found itself more and more alone. During this period of time Germany was reaching out and taking over parts of Africa, as were many other countries in Europe. However, this was causing a lot of tension between the larger powers in Europe and because of that problems were growing. It is believed that some of this tension between countries might have been what helped to contribute to the start of the First World War. Eventually, the treaty of Versailles brought an end to WWI, and Germany was forced to sign it.
As can be seen, Italy and Germany had many changes in their past. Some of them were similar, such as the fact that many changes took place after the fall of Napoleon, but other changes were very different between the two countries. Where Italy was very divided between the north and the south, Germany was united and moving into other countries as well. The taking over of some of Africa indicated that Germany was exercising its power and trying to become more dominant throughout the world. Unfortunately for that country this largely backfired and other countries did not want to maintain alliances with Germany because of the attitude it displayed.
Where Italy was concerned, the alliances that were begun with other countries largely remained. Italy was non-threatening and its government was accepting of most other countries, so there were no real problems with creating alliances between Italy and other areas. When it came time for these alliances to be renewed, they were, because Italy did not change its tactics in the way that Germany did once it gained…… [Read More]
Argentina was the first country that experienced after the Second World War the rising of a regime that was claiming to be on the side of the working classes. It was led by Juan Peron. He gradually distanced himself from any democratic means of governing and was eventually overthrown by a coup d'etat, in 1955. From exile, Peron continued to influence the political scene in his country of origin. The regimes that followed were still unable to provide political stability, although the country was in economic progress. Peron was able to influence and lead the masses and his supporters once more so that he was reelected for the last time in 1793, in order to survive only until 1974 when he died, leaving his wife as his successor.
Brazil is an example of military coup after a successful democratic regime that followed closely the end of the Second World War. The country was governed by a military authoritative regime from 1964 until 1985. During these years, Brazil was confronted with major socio-economic problems, political scandals, conflicts between the landowners and those living in the countryside that did not own any land etc.
Columbia was another country that was often devastated by political conflicts. Fights between the two opposing parties did not end once World War Two ended. The struggles for power went through, being fueled by assassination on one side or another. Various guerilla groups appeared during the 1960s. The violence increased at a different level when powerful drug cartels literally took over control in different areas off the country. They were also financial sources for the different political players, fueling the political war. A few joined forces with some guerilla groups, becoming armed and dangerous factions fighting for power and control.
The reasons for the political violence in the Latin American countries after the Second World War are diverse. They reflect not only huge social differences, social exclusion, gaps between the majority formed of poor and a handful of oligarchs, but they go deeper in history, on the traces of the first conquistadors. The fate of the Indians that were unfortunate enough to live during the times Cortez and his men set foot on this land was sealed by the sacrifice of…… [Read More]
Latin America: The National Period
Under serious threats to a country's national security, it is unavoidable to commit some abuses against freedom of the press and individual rights."
In his book, "Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number" Jacobo Timerman elaborates on his experiences as a journalist and political prisoner during Argentina's Peronist period. Because of his political views and ability to voice them in the liberal daily "La Opini n" he was deemed a threat to national security, and was subsequently stripped of his citizenship and became one of many Argentina's 'missing'. Unlike so many others, Timerman was fortunate enough to be released into Exile where he publicly denounced the Argentinean regime and brought to light the many atrocities against humanity.
Timerman recalls that the newspaper was called "an adversary of the military government for being terrorist, an adversary of mass culture for publishing sophisticated writers, an adversary of Christian morality for publishing leftist writers, an adversary of the left for publishing the work of Soviet dissidents, and an adversary of the family for writing about the sexual habits of young Americans."
It was for these reasons that the military took him as prisoner. Some may argue that under adverse conditions, a person's freedoms may be stepped upon in order to safe-guard the safety of a nation and it's people, but in the case of Timerman, it is easy to see that there was no justification for his extreme treatment, or prolonged term in prison.
Besides taking away his personal freedom and his personal…… [Read More]
The consolidation of power was a successful venture and helped catapult the indigenous leader (Morales) into position to win re-election.
Example number two looks closely into the successes and failures the indigenous groups had in the country of Columbia. The country of Columbia has a robust 81 distinct indigenous groups and has been financially and legally dominated via a two party system made up of Liberals and Conservatives (Van Cott, 2003). The strength and stability of the two party system kept any new 3rd or indigenous parties from being formed. A constitution was resurrected in 1991 so that Columbia could begin the process of weakening the stranglehold of the Liberal and Conservative parties (Van Cott, 2003).
The newly invoked constitution detailed five ways in which legislation would help the indigenous political parties. First, there was a creation of a single district for the National Constituent Assembly elections and the National senate, which would allow 3rd and indigenous parties to become electable (Van Cott, 2003). Next, the constitution legislated for two new seats to be created in the national senate providing the indigenous party members financial and media resources that never existed in the past (Van Cott, 2003). Third the constitution provided legislation in the form of financial support and free access to the state and news media for indigenous parties that allowed them access to social outlets (Van Cott, 2003). The fourth legal step was to eliminate the mandate that crippled 3rd party participation in elections (Van Cott, 2003). Finally, the new legislation invoked a system of decentralization. These five legislative changes were meant to benefit every 3rd and indigenous parties and their members; however, the impact has not had the success that was originally planned because of acts of political violence such as assassinations and threats (Van Cott, 2003).
In short, the…… [Read More]
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export Boom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, Bureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.
This paper seeks to evaluate this premise, by analyzing a variety of sources and presenting various viewpoints concerning this particular posture. Indeed, Latin American political parties have often been allied with a particular leader - for example, the Peronistas in Argentina, or the Fidelistas in Cuba - and this particular branch of Latin American politics is commonly referred to as personalismo. This phenomenon is closely related to the phenomenon of caudillismo, under which a government is controlled by dictatorial leaders (caudillos) (Encyclopedia Britannica).
This type of political governance was rife in the period following independence from Spain in the early 19th century, during which time politically unstable conditions led to the emergence of such leaders - this particular period of Latin American history is referred to as 'the age of caudillos' for this very reason (Encyclopedia Britannica). It has been argued that this type of governance was a direct result of the form of governance common in Spanish-ruled colonial times in Latin America, where the King had overall power over all decisions made in the colonial states, and where, therefore, representative government and the concept of popular…… [Read More]
indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most interesting because the Incas had never been a passive people and the idea of them being taken over is something that is often debated. They were indeed conquered by the Spanish however, and the very fact that they were known to be power seeking peoples themselves beforehand only strengthens the evidence that they were conquered and colonized by the Spanish.
The conquest of South and Central America was similar to the conquest of the islands in the Caribbean. The Spanish conquered the sophisticated civilizations of the Aztecs, Incas, and the Chibchas. These South and Central American societies had much more gold than did the societies of the Caribbean. The Spanish quickly seized it. And, almost overnight, they started mining to find still more. The Spanish also sought to control the economy, first by destroying the top leadership of the Aztecs, Incas, and the Chibchas, and then by gaining control over the production of cattle, tobacco, and cotton (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm)."
The end blow to the Incas was the kidnapping of their leader and executing him. His name was Atahualpa and once he was dead the Spaanish began the process of colonizing the Inca peoples (http://www.bowdoin.edu/cbbaway/QuitoE/QGeneralinformation.html).
PROOF THAT IT WAS A CONQUEST
Anyone who wants proof that the Incas were indeed conquered and them colonized need look at the history of the Incas before the Spanish arrived and took over. Understanding the Incas people is an important piece to understanding that they…… [Read More]
Latin American Economy
Between years 1880 and 1930 the Latin American nations had an unprecedented amount of growth. Throughout Latin America, nations were increasing their revenue which led to stronger economies and consequently much stronger political structures and governmental support as well. This was largely due to the development of communication and the influence of American interests throughout the region. The increased levels of communication allowed more individuals to exchange products as well as ideas. With this, there was a larger groups of potential consumers for products and services, meaning a dramatic increase in revenues collected.
What are the basic characteristics of economic development in Latin America between 1880 and 1930?
Many Latin American nations utilize agriculture to support their economy. When lines of trade became more widely-spread, these agricultural products were able to be exported to Europe and to the United States of America as well. All the economic development in Latin America in the fifty year period between 1880 and 1930 stemmed from the exportation of agricultural staples such as sugar cane and bananas.
How did different countries of the region integrate into the world economy?
The integration of Latin American nations into the world economy was based upon their individual economic growth. The more products were able to be purchased by exporters, the faster the economy of each nation grew. As these outside countries became dependent on the Latin American nations for the…… [Read More]
Both social and financial inequality has been a contentious issue within society for decades. Poverty, particularly in Latin America has been a large issue as countries become industrialized. As many Latin American countries develop, the poverty gap becomes wider. Many rallies, protests, political movements and government upheavals have been centered on the issue of inequality. Currently, the problem is exacerbated by the economic struggles of many around the world. As many economies become global in nature, so too do there interconnectedness. A fiscal or monetary policy in one nation will have adverse consequences for an unsuspecting nation in another. We need not look any further than the current economic calamity within Europe as proof. In the United States and abroad nations are taking defensive action in the event of a Euro zone default which would have cataclysmic consequences for the global economy. Even more profound is the nature of inequalities as a result of this new found global economy. Latin America is no different in this regard as many of its fortunes, and thus its inequality are correlated to the global economy. As such, it is my belief that Latin America's poverty corresponds directly to the interconnectedness of the global economy, the demand for goods and services within its borders, and the overall structure of the country (Barrientos, 2009).
To begin, I believe it prudent to discuss why inequalities exist to begin with. Poverty exist when one population of society has a distinct economic advantage over another. This advantage compounds over time, much like compound interest in the financial industry. As these advantages compound year after year, the gap between those who have financial stability and those who do not widens exponentially. These advantages come in the form…… [Read More]
195-196). The crushing poverty of the region, when combined with sometimes extreme civil rights abuses, led Catholic Church leaders in Latin America to establish Base Christian Communities (CBEs) committed to raising awareness of social injustices (Green, 2006, p. 206-208). As a result, many of the church and CBE leaders died at the hands of the military. These were the conditions in place when the Sandinistas expelled Somoza from power; therefore leftists in the neighboring dictatorships viewed the Sandinista victory as a way forward.
To prevent the domino theory from being realized, newly elected President Reagan created an aggressive anti-leftist Latin American policy (Green, 2006, p. 65-66). The U.S. invaded Grenada and replaced the leftist government with a more 'friendly' one. In Nicaragua and El Salvador the U.S. funded proxy armies to undermine the Sandinistas and the Salvadoran guerillas, respectively. In Nicaragua, the Contras (proxy army) were able to weaken and eventually remove the Sandinistas from office by forcing scarce economic resources to be diverted to military defense. U.S. efforts in El Salvador were less successful as both sides eventually agreed to peace, which brought the guerillas back into society and removed the military from power.
Despite the efforts of the U.S. government to prevent the domino theory from becoming reality, over the decades since the Nicaraguan Revolution all but two Latin American dictatorships had been removed from power (Green, 2006, p. 61). Military rulers soon found themselves without many friends and in some counties, under house arrest and facing prosecution. In essence, the domino theory has been realized fully.… [Read More]
To ensure Allende never came to power, before resorting to "jackals," the United States, through the CIA, spend three million dollars campaigning against him, mostly through radio and print social marketing. Allende had a warm relationship with Cuba and had openly criticized the invasion of the Bay of Pigs.
This all was in line with the earlier outlined U.S. policy which invoked control of Latin American countries as key to U.S. primacy. In 1971, Nixon's National Security Council articulated, that if the U.S. could not control Latin America, then how could it expect "to achieve a successful order elsewhere in the world?" (Nimmo)
1. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No. 71 a Realist Views Latin America George F. Kennan.
2. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No.68 a Charter for Covert Action? The Congress of the United States and the Doolittle Commission.
3. ____. Bolivian Revolution, 1952, Global Security 2010.
Accessed at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/bolivia.htm
4. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No. 77 Taming a Revolution in Bolivia George Jackson Eder.
5. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No. 78, 81,84 With Castro in the Sierra Maestra Herbert L. Matthews, Debating Cuba and Castro, Lessons of the Bay of Pigs John F. Kennedy.
6. Nimmo, Kurt. CIA Assasination Program Revealed: Nothing New Under…… [Read More]
However, despite the severe competition, the people of Latin America still hold the traditions of the church close to their hearts and give a lot of respect to religious figures (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
The relationship between the church and the government has been very closely bonded. The message coming from the religious quarters has been very finely tuned in line with the policies of the governments as well as the status quo. Contradiction and conflict does seem to exist on the surface, however, deep down the bond between the state actors and the church is very strong. Lately, the church has also power of becoming a very strong instrument of political and social campaign, capable of bargaining with the state actors so as to meet its own ends (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
The relationship between the church and the military has been perhaps the strongest of them all. Religion has been a major source of inspiration for the armed forces and has been a major assurance to secure connection between the workings of the state and the affairs of the church and as a result has played a major role in promoting democracy. Regrettable, very little scholarly attention has been given to analyze the means by which the bond between the military and the church are knitted together (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
Lastly, it is important to note that, despite its strong relationship with the state and the non-state actors as well as the people of the region and despite the exposure to the process of globalization, the church has not changed its internal method of controlling the conflicts and the ideology it is aiming to spread. Scholars believe that the people will move away from the established traditions and religious cultures, if the church refuses to embrace modernization. However, some believe that this warning has come a little too late…… [Read More]
.. may not lack people to work their holdings for their maintenance, and may be able to take out what gold there is on the island;... And because this can better be done by having the Indians living in community with the Christians of the island, and by having them go among them and associate with them, by which means they will help each other to cultivate and settle and increase the fruits of the island and take the gold which may be there and bring profit to my kingdom and subjects... beginning from the day you receive my letter you will compel and force the said Indians to associate with the Christians of the island to work on their buildings... And so that on feast days and such days as you think proper they may be gathered to hear and be taught in matters of the Faith. (Goodpasture 1989, 7-8) (Gill, 20)."
Here, the direction of the Church in pursuing its economic interests in Latin America is made clear by Queen Isabella. Christianity proved essential to the goals of the Spanish state, and as the Spanish states increased and spread, so did Christianity as an economic partner with the Spanish state. There is no questioning the economic boom to the Spain or the Church during this period in time.
During the colonial period, the interests of the Church and the European Spanish state cannot easily be separated. It can be said, however, that the Church was a more significant social factor in the lives of the assimilating indigenous people and the Spanish colonists who arrived to colonize the country. There was no mistaking the potential wealth in Latin America, and the letter previously cited from Queen Isabella clearly makes mention of the need for the church and the state to be partners in exploiting the natural resources of the region, especially the gold. Both the Church and Spain would have been in need of the economic wealth that could be gained by exploiting South America, but it required, too, a socialization process, and in that process the Church probably had a more significant role than the Spanish rulers, because the…… [Read More]
Economy of Latin America:
The economic situation of any specific geographic and geopolitical area is an integral part of the overall "picture" of the state of that area. Although much is said about the increasing "globalization" of the world economy -- that, essentially, the individual market areas of specific countries and regions are moving toward a single, world economy, there remain significant economic trends and pressures within varied geo-political areas that are quite unique. Indeed, although a so called "new economy" may be emerging in which all nations may be directly interconnected, that does not mean that all will be equal. Instead, it seems that there will be some nations (at least for a time), squarely on the top of the hill, while those countries that are already on the bottom will stay there as a result of their "top down" dependence. The economic situation of Latin America in specific is one of these areas.
Latin America is a geographic area often described as including all of the countries south of the United States border. Of course, this geopolitical area is incredibly diverse culturally, linguistically, and politically. Yet, despite this diversity, the region holds significant interlocking similarities in its micro and macro economic landscapes. Of course, no discussion of the economic situation of Latin America can begin without referencing the tremendous influence the powerhouse economies of the United States and Europe has held over the region as a whole. Indeed, many would even assert that Latin America has not only been influenced by the economic policies and influences of the so called "first world" nations, but has been largely subordinated to the interests and wills of those countries. According to Skidmore and Smith, in their work, Modern Latin America:
Latin America has occupied an essentially subordinate or dependent position, pursuing economic paths that have been largely shaped by the industrial powers of Europe and the United States. These economic developments have brought about transitions in the social order and class structure, and these changes in turn have crucially affected political change. (42)
Although, on the surface, the influence of Europe and the United States on the Latin American Economy could be seen as a "good thing," perhaps (as some would like to believe) influencing the development of more "democratic" and progressive political systems, it can actually have a very opposite effect. Instead, the Latin American economy…… [Read More]
Several groups were formed according to Arm the Spirit (2006):
In the middle of the 80s, a new mass movement formed by workers, Christians, feminists, blacks, indigenous people, and the inhabitants of slums was spreading and taking over the streets... Socialists, communists, and former guerrillas of the FARC-EP established the 'Union Patriotica' (UP). Sympathizers of the EPL ran as the 'Frente Popular' in the local elections. The most radical parts of the mass movement founded the political movement 'A Luchar!'."
The Betancur government was clever enough to handle the situation through reporting to the general public that he was having a dialogue with the guerrillas while the truth was he created paramilitary groups. Murder of guerrillas leaders were continued to vanished and in 1984, the paramilitary group purposely shot Jaime Pardo Leal who was the presidential candidate of Union Patriotica. The government military group attacked the camp of the guerrillas even though peace order was implemented. In 1989, M19 weakened; their presidential candidate was also killed. The guerrilla groups became disorganized particularly the "Ejercito Popular de Liberacion" (EPL).
At present, the guerrillas in Colombia became stronger and well organized. They have supporters locally and internationally. It has been said that Colombia is not a safe place to live in and the only place that you can relax is in thick forested area with the guerrillas around.… [Read More]
They began rounding up people by the hundreds and shipping them back to Europe to work as slaves; the conditions of travel were so severe that approximately half died at sea. On the New World islands, the Spanish explorers forced the native inhabitants to mine for the gold that the Spanish erroneously believed was present in great quantities and they enforced ridiculously unrealistic daily quotas through barbaric means such as cutting off the hands of any Indian who failed to reach his required yield. They also routinely raped, tortured, and killed the peaceful native inhabitants, sometimes for no reason whatsoever besides their amusement. During the entire Colonial period, the European explorers eventually completely wiped out native civilizations, some of which had previously numbered in the millions.
Describe the social hierarchy of the Latin American and Caribbean colonies.
Many of the Spanish and other European explorers who were ordinary citizens in their home countries took the opportunity to establish themselves as a sort of "nobility" class in the New World, largely by the threat imposed by their superior weapon technology. Naturally, the Europeans created a social hierarchy in which they were at the top with indigenous Indians in the middle and imported African slaves at the very bottom of that hierarchy.
The fact that the Spanish conquerors also frequently intermarried with native Indians complicated social hierarchies and created castas based on mixed heritage. For example, the mixed-race Mestizos occupied a social position that was above the native Indians but below the full-blooded Europeans. The same practices occurred throughout the Latin American and Caribbean islands and the other territories claimed by European…… [Read More]