Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export Boom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, Bureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.
This paper seeks to evaluate this premise, by analyzing a variety of sources and presenting various viewpoints concerning this particular posture. Indeed, Latin American political parties have often been allied with a particular leader - for example, the Peronistas in Argentina, or the Fidelistas in Cuba - and this particular branch of Latin American politics is commonly referred to as personalismo. This phenomenon is closely related to the phenomenon of caudillismo, under which a government is controlled by dictatorial leaders (caudillos) (Encyclopedia Britannica).
This type of political governance was rife in the period following independence from Spain in the early 19th century, during which time politically unstable conditions led to the emergence of such leaders - this particular period of Latin American history is referred to as 'the age of caudillos' for this very reason (Encyclopedia Britannica). It has been argued that this type of governance was a direct result of the form of governance common in Spanish-ruled colonial times in Latin…… [Read More]
indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most interesting because the Incas had never been a passive people and the idea of them being taken over is something that is often debated. They were indeed conquered by the Spanish however, and the very fact that they were known to be power seeking peoples themselves beforehand only strengthens the evidence that they were conquered and colonized by the Spanish.
The conquest of South and Central America was similar to the conquest of the islands in the Caribbean. The Spanish conquered the sophisticated civilizations of the Aztecs, Incas, and the Chibchas. These South and Central American societies had much more gold than did the societies of the Caribbean. The Spanish quickly seized it. And, almost overnight, they started mining to find still more. The Spanish also sought to control the economy, first by destroying the top leadership of the Aztecs, Incas, and the Chibchas, and then by gaining control over the production of cattle, tobacco, and cotton (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm)."
The end blow to the…… [Read More]
Latin American Economy
Between years 1880 and 1930 the Latin American nations had an unprecedented amount of growth. Throughout Latin America, nations were increasing their revenue which led to stronger economies and consequently much stronger political structures and governmental support as well. This was largely due to the development of communication and the influence of American interests throughout the region. The increased levels of communication allowed more individuals to exchange products as well as ideas. With this, there was a larger groups of potential consumers for products and services, meaning a dramatic increase in revenues collected.
What are the basic characteristics of economic development in Latin America between 1880 and 1930?
Many Latin American nations utilize agriculture to support their economy. When lines of trade became more widely-spread, these agricultural products were able to be exported to Europe and to the United States of America as well. All the economic development in Latin America in the fifty year period between 1880 and 1930 stemmed from the exportation of agricultural staples such as sugar cane and bananas.
How did different countries of the region integrate into the world economy?
The integration of Latin American nations into the world economy was based upon their individual economic growth. The more products were able to be purchased by exporters, the faster the economy of each nation grew. As these outside countries became dependent on the Latin American nations for the…… [Read More]
Both social and financial inequality has been a contentious issue within society for decades. Poverty, particularly in Latin America has been a large issue as countries become industrialized. As many Latin American countries develop, the poverty gap becomes wider. Many rallies, protests, political movements and government upheavals have been centered on the issue of inequality. Currently, the problem is exacerbated by the economic struggles of many around the world. As many economies become global in nature, so too do there interconnectedness. A fiscal or monetary policy in one nation will have adverse consequences for an unsuspecting nation in another. We need not look any further than the current economic calamity within Europe as proof. In the United States and abroad nations are taking defensive action in the event of a Euro zone default which would have cataclysmic consequences for the global economy. Even more profound is the nature of inequalities as a result of this new found global economy. Latin America is no different in this regard as many of its fortunes, and thus its inequality are correlated to the global economy. As such, it is my belief that Latin America's poverty corresponds directly to the interconnectedness of the global economy, the demand for goods and services within its borders, and the overall structure of the country (Barrientos, 2009).
To begin, I believe it prudent to discuss why inequalities exist to begin with. Poverty exist when one population of society has a distinct economic advantage over another. This advantage compounds over time, much like compound interest in the financial industry. As these advantages compound year after year, the gap between those who have financial stability and those who do not widens exponentially. These advantages come in the form…… [Read More]
However, despite the severe competition, the people of Latin America still hold the traditions of the church close to their hearts and give a lot of respect to religious figures (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
The relationship between the church and the government has been very closely bonded. The message coming from the religious quarters has been very finely tuned in line with the policies of the governments as well as the status quo. Contradiction and conflict does seem to exist on the surface, however, deep down the bond between the state actors and the church is very strong. Lately, the church has also power of becoming a very strong instrument of political and social campaign, capable of bargaining with the state actors so as to meet its own ends (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
The relationship between the church and the military has been perhaps the strongest of them all. Religion has been a major source of inspiration for the armed forces and has been a major assurance to secure connection between the workings of the state and the affairs of the church and as a result has played a major role in promoting democracy. Regrettable, very little scholarly attention has been given to analyze the means by which the bond between the military and the church are knitted together (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
Lastly, it is important to note that, despite its strong relationship with the state and the non-state actors as well as the people of the region and despite the exposure to the process of globalization, the church has not changed its internal method of controlling the conflicts and the ideology it is aiming to spread. Scholars believe that the people will move away from the established traditions and religious cultures, if the church refuses to embrace modernization. However, some believe that this warning has come a little too late and that globalization has played its part in influencing the people to more forward (Jean-Pierre, 1998).
Christendom vs. secularism…… [Read More]
Economy of Latin America:
The economic situation of any specific geographic and geopolitical area is an integral part of the overall "picture" of the state of that area. Although much is said about the increasing "globalization" of the world economy -- that, essentially, the individual market areas of specific countries and regions are moving toward a single, world economy, there remain significant economic trends and pressures within varied geo-political areas that are quite unique. Indeed, although a so called "new economy" may be emerging in which all nations may be directly interconnected, that does not mean that all will be equal. Instead, it seems that there will be some nations (at least for a time), squarely on the top of the hill, while those countries that are already on the bottom will stay there as a result of their "top down" dependence. The economic situation of Latin America in specific is one of these areas.
Latin America is a geographic area often described as including all of the countries south of the United States border. Of course, this geopolitical area is incredibly diverse culturally, linguistically, and politically. Yet, despite this diversity, the region holds significant interlocking similarities in its micro and macro economic landscapes. Of course, no discussion of the economic situation of Latin America can begin without referencing the tremendous influence the powerhouse economies of the United States and Europe has held over the region as a whole. Indeed, many would even assert that Latin America has not only been influenced by the economic policies and influences of the so called "first world" nations, but has been largely subordinated to the interests and wills of those countries. According to Skidmore and Smith, in their work, Modern Latin America:
Latin America has occupied an essentially subordinate or dependent position, pursuing economic paths that have been largely shaped by the industrial powers of Europe and the United States. These economic developments have brought about transitions in the social order and class structure, and…… [Read More]
195-196). The crushing poverty of the region, when combined with sometimes extreme civil rights abuses, led Catholic Church leaders in Latin America to establish Base Christian Communities (CBEs) committed to raising awareness of social injustices (Green, 2006, p. 206-208). As a result, many of the church and CBE leaders died at the hands of the military. These were the conditions in place when the Sandinistas expelled Somoza from power; therefore leftists in the neighboring dictatorships viewed the Sandinista victory as a way forward.
To prevent the domino theory from being realized, newly elected President Reagan created an aggressive anti-leftist Latin American policy (Green, 2006, p. 65-66). The U.S. invaded Grenada and replaced the leftist government with a more 'friendly' one. In Nicaragua and El Salvador the U.S. funded proxy armies to undermine the Sandinistas and the Salvadoran guerillas, respectively. In Nicaragua, the Contras (proxy army) were able to weaken and eventually remove the Sandinistas from office by forcing scarce economic resources to be diverted to military defense. U.S. efforts in El Salvador were less successful as both sides eventually agreed to peace, which brought the guerillas back into society and removed the military from power.
Despite the efforts of the U.S. government to prevent the domino theory from becoming reality, over the decades since the Nicaraguan Revolution all but two Latin American dictatorships had been removed from power (Green, 2006, p. 61). Military rulers soon found themselves without many friends and in some counties, under house arrest and facing prosecution. In essence, the domino theory has been realized fully.… [Read More]
Several groups were formed according to Arm the Spirit (2006):
In the middle of the 80s, a new mass movement formed by workers, Christians, feminists, blacks, indigenous people, and the inhabitants of slums was spreading and taking over the streets... Socialists, communists, and former guerrillas of the FARC-EP established the 'Union Patriotica' (UP). Sympathizers of the EPL ran as the 'Frente Popular' in the local elections. The most radical parts of the mass movement founded the political movement 'A Luchar!'."
The Betancur government was clever enough to handle the situation through reporting to the general public that he was having a dialogue with the guerrillas while the truth was he created paramilitary groups. Murder of guerrillas leaders were continued to vanished and in 1984, the paramilitary group purposely shot Jaime Pardo Leal who was the presidential candidate of Union Patriotica. The government military group attacked the camp of the guerrillas even though peace order was implemented. In 1989, M19 weakened; their presidential candidate was also killed. The guerrilla groups became disorganized particularly the "Ejercito Popular de Liberacion" (EPL).
At present, the guerrillas in Colombia became stronger and well organized. They have supporters locally and internationally. It has been said that Colombia is not a safe place to live in and the only place that you can relax is in thick forested area with the guerrillas around.… [Read More]
They began rounding up people by the hundreds and shipping them back to Europe to work as slaves; the conditions of travel were so severe that approximately half died at sea. On the New World islands, the Spanish explorers forced the native inhabitants to mine for the gold that the Spanish erroneously believed was present in great quantities and they enforced ridiculously unrealistic daily quotas through barbaric means such as cutting off the hands of any Indian who failed to reach his required yield. They also routinely raped, tortured, and killed the peaceful native inhabitants, sometimes for no reason whatsoever besides their amusement. During the entire Colonial period, the European explorers eventually completely wiped out native civilizations, some of which had previously numbered in the millions.
Describe the social hierarchy of the Latin American and Caribbean colonies.
Many of the Spanish and other European explorers who were ordinary citizens in their home countries took the opportunity to establish themselves as a sort of "nobility" class in the New World, largely by the threat imposed by their superior weapon technology. Naturally, the Europeans created a social hierarchy in which they were at the top with indigenous Indians in the middle and imported African slaves at the very bottom of that hierarchy.
The fact that the Spanish conquerors also frequently intermarried with native Indians complicated social hierarchies and created castas based on mixed heritage. For example, the mixed-race Mestizos occupied a social position that was above the native Indians but below the full-blooded Europeans. The same practices occurred throughout the Latin American and Caribbean islands and the other territories claimed by European…… [Read More]
poverty in Latin America. Latin America has always been in poverty and although there have been some ups and downs, the poverty level remains great. First, we will discuss the region that is known as Latin America, the determining factors of poverty, the statistics and history of the poverty in Latin America and the future of the poverty in Latin America.
Latin America refers to the areas of America in which the Spanish or Portuguese languages prevail. These areas include Mexico, most of Central and South America, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Brazil. Latin America can be subdivided into different regions, such as North America, South America, Central America and the Caribbean. (Wikipedia, Retrieved 2012).
Latin America consists of many different ethnic backgrounds and races. It is one of the most diverse regions in the world. Some of the predominant races/backgrounds include European-Amerindians (Mestizo), Amerindians, European, Mulatto, Black, Asian and Zambo (mixed Black and Amerindian).
Latin America continues to be challenged by inequality and poverty. Poverty is defined as, "the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions." (Merriam-Webster, Retrieved 2012). According to the World Bank, nearly 25% of the population of Latin America lives on less than $2.00 a day. At least 182 million people are living in poverty in Latin America and at least 68 million people are living in extreme poverty. Poverty is defined as living on less than $2.15 per person per day and extreme poverty as living on less than $1.08 per person per day.
"The poverty rate in Latin America was halved from 60% in 1950 to less than 30% in 2000. However, during the same time period income inequality remained more or less the same, making both poverty reduction and economic growth more difficult; as in other countries with a wide income gap -- even developed ones -- the challenge is to increase the incomes of the lower economic groups at a faster rate than those of the wealthier groups. In reality, economic growth rarely works this way. Latin American income inequality is drastic: the average annual per capita income is…… [Read More]
defends a definition of populism, addressing its ideology, social base, charisma, clientelism, and the extent of institutionalization; the second part argues that populism and guerrilla movements are very similar phenomena, divided only by the level of their extremism.
There are many definitions of 'populism', as seemingly each academic uses his or her own definition of this term, expecting all readers to automatically agree with this definition. As Roberts (1995) says, "few social science concepts can match populism when it comes to nebulous and inconsistent usage." As Roberts (1995) says, "These multiple dimensions have allowed the populist concept to be applied to a wide range of loosely connected empirical phenomena, ranging from economic policies and development phases to political ideologies, movements, parties, governments, and social coalitions": some of these will be discussed below.
Some definitions label political populism as, "excessive centralization of decision-making, i.e., rule by decree, with decreasing depoliticization" (Eder, 2003). Many academics, such as Eder (2003) have shown that globalization (and neoliberalism) has not put an end to populism, but rather has transformed it, into 'neopopulism', which leaves little room for 'true' democracy to develop in those countries that have followed these paths. As we shall see, Venezuela and Peru are two good examples of the 'neopopulist' effects of globalization, as in these countries, neoliberal policies have existed side-by-side with populist strategies (Eder, 2003).
Other academics, for example, Weyland (2001) have defined populism as, "populism is best defined as a political strategy through which a personalistic leader seeks or exercises power based on direct, unmediated, uninstitutionalized support from large numbers of mostly unorganized followers." This 'single-defining variable' definition is hotly contested by academics, most notably Canovan (1999) who offered her own seven sub-categories with which to define populism, arguing that such a complex, multi-faceted definition was necessary.
Other academics argue that populists are defined by their message, and that their message can only be heard in countries facing crises, such…… [Read More]
U.S. And Latin America, through discussion of the following case studies: Cuba and the U.S. trade embargo; Mexico and the use of U.S. branch plants (or maquiladors); Colombia and the U.S.A. war on drugs; Brazil and the U.S. environmental standards in the rainforest; Panama Canal and U.S. actions regarding U.S. involvement; and the Chile-U.S. fair trade agreement. The paper finds that the relationship between the U.S. And Latin America is not a positive one for Latin America.
has a long history of interaction with Latin America, from its involvement with Cuba, which stemmed from the Cuban missile crisis, to its current covert activities in Colombia, in response to the drug problems created in the U.S. from cocaine production in Colombia. The paper will discuss the history and workings of six of these interactions, as detailed in the Executive Summary, and the effect of these interactions upon Latin America. The paper finds that the history of U.S. interaction with Latin America is not a positive one for Latin America.
Cuba and the U.S. trade embargo
The issue of Cuba has been a thorn in the side of the U.S. since the Cuban missile crisis. Currently, the U.S. imposes a trade embargo on Cuba, and all of its products. This, coupled with Russia's disengagement from Cuba, has caused huge economic problems for Cuba, which is rich in natural resources, including sugar and tobacco.
Without outlets for its products, Cuba is unable to maximize its profits from its natural resources, and remains a poor country. Yet, it is a country with an excellent health and education system, which is the envy of many developing (and even developed) nations: the socialist government ensures that those resources the country does have are used wisely, to the benefit of the majority of the people on the island.
The U.S. responses to threats to its business interests in Latin America always try to ensure that their business interests…… [Read More]
To ensure Allende never came to power, before resorting to "jackals," the United States, through the CIA, spend three million dollars campaigning against him, mostly through radio and print social marketing. Allende had a warm relationship with Cuba and had openly criticized the invasion of the Bay of Pigs.
This all was in line with the earlier outlined U.S. policy which invoked control of Latin American countries as key to U.S. primacy. In 1971, Nixon's National Security Council articulated, that if the U.S. could not control Latin America, then how could it expect "to achieve a successful order elsewhere in the world?" (Nimmo)
1. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No. 71 a Realist Views Latin America George F. Kennan.
2. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No.68 a Charter for Covert Action? The Congress of the United States and the Doolittle Commission.
3. ____. Bolivian Revolution, 1952, Global Security 2010.
Accessed at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/bolivia.htm
4. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No. 77 Taming a Revolution in Bolivia George Jackson Eder.
5. Holden, H. Robert. (2002) Latin America and the United States: A documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, doc. No. 78, 81,84 With Castro in the Sierra Maestra Herbert L. Matthews, Debating Cuba and Castro, Lessons of the Bay of Pigs John F. Kennedy.
6. Nimmo, Kurt. CIA Assasination Program Revealed: Nothing New Under…… [Read More]
At the basis for this type of illogical action on the part of the United States, according to the authors, is the American fear of communism. The authors categorize this fear within American ideology, as opposed to their economic and political ends. The authors note that American policy with regard to their political and economic goals are generally sound. The same is not however true in terms of their ideology.
This point is substantiated by a consideration of the American mentality during the time of the Cold War. There was an extreme, almost religious fear of the "communism" concept during the time. Both politicians and citizens regarded the communist ideology as directly opposed to the American ideal of democracy and freedom. The government therefore had the blessing of the people whenever policies were instated to combat communism in Latin American countries. In the name of their democratic ideology, and in opposition to communism, the United States government went as far as incurring disproportionate costs in its attempt to overthrow governments and fight wars to enforce its ideology.
While the authors make a compelling argument, one is left with the feeling that the anti-communist ideology was at the basis of all disproportionate policies regarding Latin America at the time of the Cold War. This appears to be a somewhat simplified version of the full story. Certainly other aspects of such policies should also be considered. Also, the authors appear somewhat pessimistic in their projection for the future relationship between the United States and Latin America. While this is doubtlessly a manifestation of the time of publication, I find the article somewhat narrow in its focus on a single aspect of the issue while not considering other arguments.
The most general of the articles under consideration is "The U.S. And Latin America: a Lost Decade?" By Margaret Daly Hayes. Ms. Hayes considers a variety of issues, including politics, ideology, and the economy of Latin America, and the…… [Read More]
Economic Geographies of Contemporary Brazil
Economic geographies of contemporary Latin America (Brazil), using globalization theories
Economic geography is defined as the branch of Geography that is concerned with the interrelations between the economic and the physical conditions to the production and distribution of the available commodities or resources (Merrriam Webster Incorporated, 2011). It deals with the influence of both the organic and inorganic environment on the activities of man.
This paper is focused on divulging how the physical conditions relate to the resources available for the people living in Brazil and the Latin America in general. In the bid to find out this relationship, there will be several globalization theories that will be looked into in order to be able to understand clearly the relationship and the distribution that there is.
Definition of terms
According to Hunington (2011), the economic geography covers the distribution of various types of resources, institutions, capacities, activities, customs and variety of ability that concerns earning a living. This then means that economic geography includes three major entities; industrial, agricultural and commercial.
There are various theories that try to explain the factors behind the physical conditions and the distribution of the resources. They try to sow why some of the resources are concentrated in some areas and not others and the effect that they have in the regions. One of these theories is the Globalization theory.
Globalization theory tends to aim at understanding the complex proliferation of connection among the various factors of production and the recipients and the resources taking into account that these affects the social life and existence across the myriad of spheres that there are. Under the globalization theories, there are three basic theories therein that have been used all along to explain the economy of various countries or parts of the world, these are;
World Polity theory
World culture theory
These are the theories that will be covered within the scope of this paper in a bid to explain the economic geography of Brazil and the Latin America in general.
The economy of Brazil and the World-System theory
The world-system theory refers to the historical social system that is dominated by the interdependence of parts of the society that ultimately form a single unit or definite structure that has distinct…… [Read More]
Imperialism has been present in the world for many generations and encompasses many different events throughout the world including Boer Wars, the murder of Congolese people by Leopold ii of Belgium, the Suez Canal and the presence of the Dutch East India Co. Imperialism in Latin America has been advantageous in some respects and disadvantageous in other respects. Latin America encompasses all of the Americas inclusive of Spanish and Portuguese empires. The United States has played a key role in Latin American imperialism in world history. This role is particularly evident after 1775.
Imperialism in Latin American can be seen in several instances. One of the most important instances occurred with the battle of Manila bay (1898) during the Spanish-American war. At the time George Dewey was the admiral of the American navy. The battle of Manila bay marked the beginning of American imperialism in Cuba. At the time of the Spanish wars Cuba was fighting for its independence from Spain. However the United States desired to bring Cuba under its control and used its defeat at the battle of Manila Bay to accomplish this goal. To this end,
"In 1901, the U.S. Congress passed the Platt Amendment. This amendment, which was incorporated into the Cuban constitution until 1934, set conditions for U.S. intervention in Cuba's domestic affairs. And the U.S. landed marines in Cuba in 1906, 1912, 1917, and 1920. The amendment also established a U.S. military colony in Cuba -- the Guantanamo naval base -- that is now used as a detention camp and torture chamber in the U.S.'s war on the world (Lotta).
Other aspects of imperialism in Latin America included the Panama Canal (1870-1914). The purpose of building the canal was to provide "an easy and reliable route for moving naval vessels from one coast to the other (Ebeling)." As such, President Roosevelt sought to build this canal for the benefit of American imperialism in that region of the world.
What resources was the U.S. trying to utilize
In the case of Cuba one…… [Read More]
If the respective happening has given birth to different feelings in different individuals, then their perceptions and memories will also differ. The same is true for countries. And as the insights vary based on subjectivity, the same can be said about the decisions affecting the state, and taken by the state in relationship with its citizens, neighbors or the overall global community.
In this context then, it is understandable that the very personal characteristics of the country make the United States' citizens and political wings portray the state as the strongest and most important one in the global arena. But as the report quoted by William Rogers (1984) shows, it is not sufficient for the U.S. To be strong, resourceful and important, and as such impose its ways onto the other states. It is however expected of them to get involved in the problems of the foreign countries and offer their support in finding solutions, but their intervention has to be adequate.
What this virtually means is that the country ought to address the various variable of a problem. For instance, in resolving the poverty issues in some Latin American countries, they should not simply focus on the economy, but they ought to consider social aspects and human rights. Additionally, it is imperative for them to not decide in the same manner of resolving all similar problems in various countries, but they should adjust their policies to the unique characteristics of each individual region, and the particularities of their domestic problems.… [Read More]
Industrialization was the metropolis' privilege; in poor nations, it was unsuited to the system of dominance of rich nations. The culmination of the Second World War saw European interests completely waning from the Latin American region, and the triumphant advance of American investments. Ever since, a significant change has been observed, in investment's focus. One step after another, one year after another, capital investments in mining and public services have lost prominence, while petroleum investments, and, in particular, investments in the manufacturing sector, have proportionately grown. Presently, one out of every three dollars Latin America invests is in the industrial sector (Galeano 1973; 205).
In exchange for minor investments, giant corporations' affiliates cross the customs barriers absurdly erected against foreign competitors, and take possession of the domestic process of industrialization. They export industrial units or, often, waylay and consume those that already exist. Moreover, such investments, which transform the factories of Latin America into nothing but cogwheels in the machinery of industrial giants, do not alter global labor division in any manner. No change is seen in the framework of interconnected channels through which goods and capital circulate between the rich and poor nations. A continued export of Latin American poverty and unemployment is occurring: raw materials required by the global market, on whose sales the economy of the Latin American region relies. Unequal exchange continues functioning as was the case earlier: meager wages in the region helps fund high pay in Europe and the U.S. In spite of its industrialization, Brazil continues its considerable dependence on export of coffee, and Argentina on meat sales; Mexico's manufacturing exports are very few (Galeano 1973; 207).
Foreign manufacturing capital began to flow liberally in the 50s, into Brazil. It received a powerful impetus from President Juscelino Kubitschek's development plan, which…… [Read More]
Inquisitions have played a major role in the Catholic Church since early in the Church's history.[footnoteRef:1]. They are considered one of the most shameful part of the history of the Catholic Church and part of the darkest periods in Jewish history. One of the great Catholic theologians, St. Augustine, offered support for the Inquisition process by citing from the Book of Luke, 14:23. Then the master told his servant, "Go out to the roads and country lanes and make them come in, so that my house will be full." [1: Lea, Henry Charles. A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages. Harbor Press, 1888.]
The purpose of the inquisitions was to allow the Church's bishops to inquire into possible heresies and punish heretics for violations regarding matters of faith and morals. Coincidental with the authority to inquire came the power to administer capital punishment, excommunicate conduct autos de fe, i.e. pronounce penance upon the violator. Underlying this grant of power was the Church's philosophy that "once a Catholic, always a Catholic." Conversion to Catholicism was allowed but once one entered the Church through Baptism the only way to exit was through death or excommunication.
The Inquisition procedure was initiated well before expeditions to the New World were ever envisioned. Pope Innocent III in the early 13th century authorized the first inquisition panel in an effort to take action against alleged heretics in Aix, Arles, and Narbonne in southern France. In addition, three separate Papal Councils approved the procedure and served to set out to proscribe the punishment procedures. The Inquisitions were largely informal until Pope Gregory IX (1227-1242) formalized them. An official office with authority over the full administration of Inquisitions throughout the world was instituted in 1549 by Pope Paul III. The newly organized office established its official headquarters in the Vatican.[footnoteRef:2] [2: Netanyahu, B. The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain. New York: Random House, 2001.]
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand were devout Catholics with the goal of having a homogeneous population that shared their religious viewpoints.[footnoteRef:3] Two groups living within the Spanish monarchy that Isabella and Ferdinand considered dangerous to their goal of a homogeneous society were the Jews and Moors. Both were considered…… [Read More]
" Although a similar situation regarding sexual deviance, sex between males was deemed a far more serious crime than mere masturbation. In fact, many states in the United States still have laws on the books that make sodomy, of any kind, illegal. This demonstrates that the traditions of colonial America and religious beliefs have continued to be passed down to this day, even in fully developed nations. Yet, the case involving Damian de Morales helps to bring to light another aspect of the Spanish Inquisition: it could be employed as a tool to eliminate potential rivals.
In the era following the Council of Trent (1545-63), when instilling sexual discipline became an important part of the Catholic world's response to the threat posed by the Protestant Reformation, the pecado nefando and the other sins of lust took on a particular importance for secular and ecclesiastical authorities. Yet given the gravity of the offense and the nature of the crime, the abominable sin could also be used to serve district, more local and often interpersonal political ends -- a well-placed accusation could defame and adversary and ensnare him in a lengthy and potentially deadly legal process."
This was the functional nature of the Spanish Inquisition: its reliance on hearsay and the brutal sentences it dealt made it a vehicle for slander, pain, and murder. Children were encouraged by the Church to saving their own souls by turning in their parents, relatives, or anyone they suspected of committing grievous sins against God. Still, even if the accusations regarding sexual taboos possessed truth, there was often no physical evidence to substantiate the accuser's claim -- but none was needed.
The allegations against Morales consisted, primarily, of a slave man claiming that Morales approached him with sexual intentions. The record of the slave's testimony reads,
And Damian de Morales said to him, 'Anton, let's be friends,' and he put his hand through his breeches, pocket, saying, 'You are plump Anton,' and he moved his hand over his buttocks, feeling him, and then moved [his hands] to the front to touch what was his (lo suyo)."
The nature of this crime today might possibly be termed sexual harassment, and the legal foundation for it centers on…… [Read More]