Leadership Theory in a Changing and Globalizing Marketplace
Modern business practice is permeated by the complexities of a changing world. The impact of globalization on the cultural makeup of companies, the effects of the global recession on the conventions of daily business and the evolutionary shifts brought on by emergent technology all call for an orientation toward simultaneous stability and adaptability. Only under the stewardship of a qualified, communicative, flexible and respected leader can an organization hope to establish these capabilities. However, exactly what constitutes such a leader is subject to a great deal of variation, elaboration and even some disagreement. With the interest of ultimately designing a personal plan for leadership development in my own career, there is a need to evaluate existing literature on the subject of modern business leadership with a focus on the theoretical constructs promoting best practices. These best practices will be evaluated relative the challenges of the modern organization as touched upon loosely here above. Consequently, this evaluation will be applied to a discussion emergent from personal field experience and, thereafter, will be employed in the articulation of a Personal Leadership Development Plan.
The setting for the present research endeavor is the modern business realm. This may refer to any of a variety of company types, including small business, family owned business, privately owned corporations, publicly traded companies and multinational conglomerates. While these companies run a gamut of incarnations, face a broad spectrum of differing challenges and possess highly distinct needs, one characteristic which all share is the need for strong, effective and suitable leadership. Here, we refer to the text by Bass & Bass (2008), which reports that there is an increasingly universal sense of acceptance for the notion that organizational conditions are impacted positively by the presence of meaningful leadership with the qualities distinct to service in this role. Bass & Bass note that "leadership is not a 'mystical or ethereal concept.' Rather, leadership is an observable, learnable set of practices. Certainly leaders make a difference. There is not question about it. But as noted by Henry Mintzberg, leaders often make a difference because they stimulate others." (Bass & Bass, p. 1)
How exactly that leaders stimulate those around them remains subject to the examination to be conducted hereafter. In particular, the research takes an interest in determining how others are stimulated by…… [Read More]
Leadership, Team Building & Communication
Leadership theories continue to evolve as the complexity, nature and scope of organizations shift from command-and-control structures to more agile frameworks for managing change. The pace of disruptive innovation is accelerating, forcing reliance on the latest theories of leadership to keep organizations competitive in rapidly changing markets. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the traditional, contemporary and emerging leadership theories and interpersonal forms of power. Unifying these factors by defining the profile of the ideal leader is also completed in this analysis, highlighting the most effective leadership characteristics and patterns in their specific roles. An organization has been selected, Cisco Systems, to evaluate these theories against. In addition, organizational stressors are also discussed in addition to strategies to managing them so an organization can still attain optimal performance. The five conflict management styles are also discussed in addition to potential barriers to communication, with recommendations on how to overcome them.
Analysis of Traditional, Contemporary and Emerging Leadership Theories
Traditional leadership theories stressed the concept of the "great man" or leader who was given the role based on behavioral traits and their ability to create and sustain teams' progress towards goals. These "great man" theories also relied on external observation of traits; there was little advanced screening of personality traits or the innate perceptions of highly effective leaders (Fitzgerald, Schutte, 2010). Traditional leadership theories progressed rapidly beyond only the observable traits of a leader and seeing them as innate to the belief that leadership could be mastered as a skill (Buffinton, Jablokow, Martin, 2002). This shift in leadership theories marked the transition of this field from traditional to contemporary research. With contemporary theories, leadership is seen as a skill that can be taught (Purvanova, Bono, 2009). The research of Dr. Max Weber on the traits of charismatic leaders and the contingency theories of Dr. Fred Fielder (Maslanka, 2004) are the foundation of contemporary theories of leadership. These foundational concepts set the foundation for the rapidly emerging leadership theories that are in use today. The inclusion of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and charismatic leadership into a common framework was first completed by researchers James McGregor Burns and Bernard Bass, who created the transformational…… [Read More]
Leadership is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the achievement of some general objectives. Effective leadership is very important for molding a group of people into a team, shaping them into a force that serves as a sustainable business benefit. Effective leaders have an inspirational vision. Forethought and change expectation is their hallmark. Leaders know how to make people function in a joint fashion, and how to inspire them to excel their performance. Leaders also know how to balance the individual team member's quest with the goal of producing synergy, a result that exceeds the sum of individual contributions. Leaders necessitate that their team members sacrifice the quest for personal best in concert with the team (Kotelnikov, n.d.).
Relationship between personality and leadership and team success
The amalgamation of leadership style and personality type appears to meld into a psychological mixture that produces the ethos of a leader. Leaders are not just recognized by their leadership styles, but also by their personalities, their consciousness of themselves and others, and their appreciation of diversity, flexibility, and paradox. The personality characteristics of the leader are not insignificant, but those which are necessary differ significantly depending on the circumstances. Thus, it may indeed, make a difference in establishing personality type in order to determine the correct job match between a worker and their colleagues (Marsiglia, 2005).
Leadership is regularly defined in terms of transactional and transformational magnitudes. The example of transactional-transformational leadership has universal applicability across all continents and cultures. In terms of universality, transformational leadership tends to be more effectual and satisfying than conditional rewarding; contingent rewarding is more successful and satisfying than managing by exception, and managing by exception is more successful and satisfying than other types of leadership (Marsiglia, 2005).
Leader efficiency is dependent on the leadership problem-situation, team-dynamics, organization culture, and strategy. As a result, the leader must use a multiple level of leadership skills in order to be effective. There are five categories that may be used to appraise leader effectiveness:
1. Actual performance of the organization unit or team
2. Ratings by peers, subordinates, and superiors
3. Results of interviews, simulations, or assessment centers
5. Perceptions of people whose careers are in jeopardy (Marsiglia, 2005).
Team dynamics…… [Read More]
The role of leadership in business organizations
Many leadership theories have been applied, in different organizations, to help in attainment of the objectives of the organization. Leadership theories are many, but the most common include the trait theory, which assumes that different people inherit the qualities and also traits of leadership and later suit for the position of leadership. The characteristics related to the trait theory are behavioral and personality characteristics. There is also the contingency theory, commonly known as the modern theory, which explains that leadership changes with the environment and its situation. A style of leadership could be successful in a certain situation, but very unsuccessful in another. No leadership style is, therefore, convenient in all situations. What determines success is the leadership style, the qualities of the followers and the prevailing situation. The other fundamental theory of leadership is the behavioral/functional theory, which believes that all the great leaders are molded and that no person is born a leader. The behavior of the leaders is what determines leadership, and not just the leadership traits or any characteristics one holds (Cherry, 2012).
Difference between leadership and management
While management focuses of the end results and the procedure of getting things implemented, leadership focuses of the influencing of the followers through interaction with them. Managers will most of the time direct people using the formal authoritative positions, but leaders will influence the followers even in the absence of the formalities. Managers coordinate the workers towards the common goal of the organization contrary to leaders who creates excitement in the followers, and provides solutions that will influence a certain group or follower towards the objectives.
The leadership theory of Zeus Motor Industry (ZMI)
Zeus Motor Industry is a Corporation in the Eastern Africa region, which specializes in the manufacture and sale of spares for motor vehicles. Due to the nature of the market and operation of the organization, the leadership of the organization is based on the contingency approach, which is the most commonly used approach in the modern times. After the realization that there is no possibility for a permanent theory to be used universally and suit in all situations, researchers in the 20th century tasked themselves to find…… [Read More]
Can the definition of "leadership" be applied to the concept of "management"? Leadership is defined as a process whereby an individual has influence over others in terms of achieving a predetermined, common goal. This paper takes the position that leadership should be part of what a manager / management does in a workplace environment; leadership is not limited to one category of employees, whether it be executives at the top of the latter of hierarchy, or a manager that serves as a foreman at the worker level. Leadership, in other words, is about leading, in any capacity on any particular assignment.
The Literature on Leadership and Managers
A peer-reviewed research article in the Journal of Business Psychology surveyed 9,942 managers working in 40 countries; and among the values the majority of those managers shared were "resourcefulness, change management, and building and mending relationships" Those are all leadership qualities (Gentry, et al., 2011, 18). The research article goes on to explain that because of globalization -- and the importance of foreign markets to many companies -- managers must become "…aware of the values espoused within their organization" and of the values their business partners and contemporaries share.
The manager today must also be a leader because he or she is working in a "global environment" that is populated by multinational corporations, and managers are frequently working with "…teams that are global and virtual in nature" (Gentry, 18). Hence, another leadership requirement -- according to Gentry -- is creating a "balance between personal life and work," which the author asserts is "…an important leadership competency for managers to have" (19).
On page 17, Bouteiller and Gilbert (2005, p. 28) argue that "managerial and leadership competencies are forced to converge mainly due to three reasons" (Gentry, 17). Those three include: a) due to the globalization of business there are important exchanges between managers and there is a "broadened publication of knowledge" and managers have to lead…… [Read More]
DEAR CUSTOMER: YOU SAID THAT YOU DON'T WANT AN INTRODUCTION BECAUSE YOU HAVE ALREADY WRITTEN ABOUT LEADERSHIP IN GENERAL AND THIS ORDER IS ONLY PART OF AN ESSAY.
Trait Theory and Application
The "Trait Theory" of leadership has developed most during the past 3 decades and is concerned with amassing the core personality characteristics of known leaders -- both effective and ineffective -- to predict potential for successful leadership. Trait Theory currently recognizes more than 100 identified physiological, demographic, personality, intellectual, task-related and social characteristics. The most generally recognized characteristics include: the drive for achievement; intense motivation to lead; honesty; integrity; self-confidence; higher-than-average cognitive ability; business knowledge; emotional maturity; charisma, creativity and flexibility. Trait Theory has been supported by considerable research and is advantageous in that it offers detailed and clearly-defined qualities for leadership assessment on all organizational levels. Unfortunately, the theory also has drawbacks: in some respects, those traits are quite subjectively interpreted; it cannot predict future behavior; it fails to account for development of personality and skills; it fails to address ways in which negative traits can be changed; experts disagree on the importance assigned to each trait; it sometimes leads to the mistaken conclusion that leaders are born, not made, though leadership development is clearly a combination of Nature/Nurture - inborn traits/skills and their development (Heffner Media Group, Inc., 2003; Management Study Guide.com, 2012).
Whether or not it receives due credit, Trait Theory is widely used by individuals attempting to "move up" within large organizations and by large organizations attempting to find their potential leaders. For example, a Blue Cross or "WellPoint" job description posted January 26, 2012 for "Senior Project Manager" contains a laundry list of leadership traits: "expert facilitation skills; expert relationship management & communication skills; highly detail-oriented; highly organized; ability to make sense of ambiguous situations; ability to take ownership and make an immediate impact" (WellPoint, Inc., 2012). In response, the applicant is supposed to measure his/her own traits to see how closely they match the job description characteristics. From experience, a job interview for a management position at WellPoint includes such ham-handed questions as "Can you take ownership and make an immediate impact?" At that point, the applicant is expected to essentially say, "Yes, I can!" The result can be a wholly subjective interpretation of the traits by the…… [Read More]
Introduction to Award Program
Any discussion of employee incentive programs will make use of many different terms, most of which will mean different things to different people. In order to ensure the discussion has apples-to-apples clarity, this paper begins with a basic lexicon.
Employee incentives are a form of payment that is tied to the performance of employees. The incentive payment can be either intangible or tangible, and with or without an actual cash value. Because they are non-discretionary, incentive payments can be given at any time when the performance of an employee warrants it. This inclusive category includes awards, bonuses, recognition, and rewards.
The categorical term award covers a lot of territory, and commonly includes monetary incentives, plaques and trophies, prizes and contest payouts, public recognition and commendation, and travel bonuses. A reward is generally given to an individual when a pre-determined goal has been met. Bonuses are typically distributed to a group of employees when a team, department, or business enterprise does well on fiscal returns, sales, and the like. Recognition takes place after-the-fact or on the occasion of some milestone anniversary. Employee recognitions are typically a public display of appreciation that may include tangible items and/or intangibles, such as a formal thank you letter or email, an extra day off with pay, or cash for coming up with a winning suggestion for an improvement.
Target Industry and Company. The award program is designed for the high tech industry -- and specifically for a software development enterprise. A leader in this type of company is likely to be responsible for full cycle development of a software product, and would head up a team of software engineers. The leader will be capable of working as a member of a horizontal team of peer leaders from departments across the enterprise, such as marketing, compliance and legal, client accounts, and sales. Encouraging and rewarding technology innovation is a primary focus of this award, but the emphasis is not on product creation (Avolio, & Yammarino, 2013). It is about the vision and execution that opens the way to new technology development, and the corresponding pursuit of novel ways to bring products to launch (Avolio, & Yammarino, 2013).
Rating Criteria and Application
General Attributes Associated with Criteria. The intent of the leadership…… [Read More]
Leadership Theories and Approaches
According to Kurt Lewin, all leaders fall into three basic categories: autocratic, participative, and democratic. I would describe my current supervisor as basically autocratic in her demeanor, although in a moderately benevolent way. I work as a respiratory therapist in a hospital. My supervisor must ensure that patients are seen in a timely fashion, and that all medical personnel comply with basic safety regulations. She oversees scheduling of the various personnel who work on the ward, and is in charge of dealing with any conflicts that might ensue between employees and also between employees and patients.
My supervisor tries to be fair, but her 'word is law.' This is partially because she is dealing with the potential for serious complaints, if hospital dictates are not followed. It is essential that patients are treated in a respectful manner. Also, there are certain protocols that must be followed to ensure that patients remain in good health. The need to check vital signs is not something that is open for debate or can be decided democratically. Additionally, because of the high levels of stress amongst workers that can occur, tension can sometimes be evident. There must be a fair and objective authority who can stand outside of workplace bickering.
One reason that my supervisor may have adopted an authoritarian style is the relative youth and inexperience of many of the workers on the ward. She feels that to ensure that things 'get done,' she cannot get involved in too much debate and discussion. However, being insufficiently participative can also result in problems. For example, one common source of conflict in an understaffed hospital is scheduling. Certain schedules are, for understandable reasons, more desirable than others (such as day vs. night shifts, and having to work on weekends and holidays). There is always a question of how scheduling should be determined -- for example, should seniority be given priority over the fact that a worker has had to labor at more unpleasant shifts recently than other workers, or the fact that she has young children? Workers…… [Read More]
Technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills
Interpersonal skills entail knowing how to interact with others. No employee desires to have a boss who is inconsiderate or rude or one who has poor human skills. All these could reduce productivity and employee morale. Managers with effective human skills tend to have subordinates who have positive attitudes and strong desires to increase productivity. Managers are always expected in any organization to have harmonious relationships with those below them like supervisors, peers, and subordinates (Yukl, 2012).
Conceptual skills refer to an individual's aptitude to formulate ideas. These skills include formulating abstractions, thinking creatively, understanding issues, solving problems, and analyzing complex situations. Within the business context, these skills are viewed as integral prerequisites for top executive positions. Conceptual skills differ from technical skills and interpersonal skills. The three types of skills assume vital roles for certain purposes and in certain situations. However, conceptual skills hoist the widest application as they could pertain to virtually anything.
Yukl (2012) shows that people with strong conceptual skills have superb cognitive abilities to solve problems and think creatively. In the business world, a person with these skills could come up with a business idea or an idea for a new product. The person will be able to examine complex issues and formulate specific and effective courses of action. Such people have the ability to examine how ideas are interconnected. Individuals with strong conceptual skills are typically perceived to be effective managers or leaders (Phillips, 1993). Presumably, their ability to understand the company as a whole and design creative strategies is critical in such a case. Top executive managers require technical skills, interpersonal skills, and conceptual skills.
Technical skills entail knowing about physical processes and other things. For instance, if a waste management process requires three steps, people with high technical skills will know how to implement each of the three steps. Often, people acquire technical skills from technical…… [Read More]
Leadership in Telecommuting Teams
Leading a Changing World In paper, exploring emerging topic challenge leadership changing world work. Choose a specific topic Module 12.4 Landy Conte (2013). Provide overview topic, including: - Why chose topic - Why topic important study leadership, field I/O psychology, career; - And a review research articles focusing topic.
Telecommuting is increasingly becoming a concern for teams in organizations around the world. Many organizations have virtual teams because they are cheaper for the company and allow the employees to work in locations where they are comfortable. However, leading team members in a telecommuting environment is a challenge for leaders because it is difficult for them to handle team members who are in different locations, and sometimes even different time zones. Without employees having assigned workspaces or a common office where they can meet, it becomes difficult to schedule meetings. Basic leadership activities such as solving issues for organizations are also much more difficult in telecommuting teams. To manage telecommuting employees, leaders must be proactive in their communication and communication must be bi-directional Caillier, 2014.
With employees being a distance away, it becomes difficult for the leader to maintain significant control over their employees and to manage employee performance in the right way.
Why the topic is important to the study of leadership
As the numbers of organizations that use teleworkers continue to increase, and as the number of teleworkers in these organizations also increase, it is a challenge for leaders who have to find innovative ways to increase the productivity and efficiency of employees. For organizations which use sales trends to gauge employee performance, it is also extremely difficult for them to build stronger or better sales trends by motivating employees and training them effectively Raghuram, Tuertscher, & Garud, 2010()
Other issues that these leaders face in…… [Read More]
Leadership: Enhancing Lessons Experience
According to Johnson, & Giorgis (2002), Leadership is the process in which an individual influences actions of others towards common goals, Formulates policies, strategies, and influence people towards achievement of the same strategies. Over the past decades, various changes in the world have led to various definitions of leadership. The fall of the Soviet Union, globalization and various advances have changed the world we knew. A woman in leadership positions is a new phenomenon; various leadership trainings are available, and leadership as a skill is now an asset for professionals. For African Universities to ensure knowledge transfer and observing millennium development goals, a good leadership structure is essential. A leader has exception skills and acts outrageously to situations (Padam, 2009).
Scholars have advanced various theories on leadership. Leaders' Individual personal attributes beat explains the trait theory, when one looks closely at Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler it is evident that they had specific qualities. Both had charisma and followers (Johnson, & Giorgis, 2002). Other theories have emerged that critically examine qualities of a leader, scholars of the behavioral approach to leadership look into the behavioral aspect of a person. The other theory to consider is situation and contingency approach to leadership. In the theory situation at hand define a leader, the way former President Bush handled the Iraq defined his leadership style now. Experiences from past actions of leaders define the world and give us a baseline to managing future events (Hanson, & Leautier, 2011).
Experiences of leaders are highly significant in solving organizational problems. Leadership has today taken a global context. In today's economy, leaders interact with people from all races and all regions. Therefore, leaders should understand how to communicate effectively (Gurley, & Wilson, 2011). For one to develop others effectively, he should be skilled. Leaders do have the technical skills and human skills to accomplish tasks and processes. Human skills, on the other hand, are the abilities of a leader to communicate instructions. Through training and…… [Read More]
Leadership, according to La Monica (1938), is when a person has authority that is recognized by others, and the person has followers/subordinates under them, who believe that the person will assist them in attaining certain goals (carrying out specific objectives for the followers). Furthermore, anyone that is willing to assist and help others could be referred to as a leader (p.8)
Leaders see what others do not Most leaders have acuity, where they are able to observe things that others cannot see, hence setting them out from the rest. Leaders see things with greater scrutiny and clarity, and they analyze both possibilities and also the expected outcomes, including problems and risks involved in taking a certain path of work. In simpler terms, leaders are able to tell what the current situation is and future expectations. Leaders also define reality and only work under realistic circumstances. Some theorists such as Max DePree have been of the idea that leadership is an art and that the first responsibility of any prosperous leader is that they just have to be realistic in their endeavors. To some leaders, defining the reality is a skill they inquired. Others, however, have leadership gifts, and they see reality as involuntary. When compared to leadership theories such as the situational theory, where leaders need to embrace change, and treat issues as per the current positions, reality seeking is inevitably important for leaders (Browning, 2009).
Leaders seize opportunities surrounding them
In many instances, leaders will be interested with what is happening in the world. This is because leaders have the ability to seize chances that could assist them attaining certain goals for the firm/organization or any other followers. Leaders, therefore, listen and are eager to learn in order for them to link and lead at the same time. When they read, leaders passionately…… [Read More]
However this philosophy has been proved to be wrong. Besides a few traits like intuition and sensing, all the leadership traits involve our conscious decisions and behaviors. A person can adopt any leadership and decision making style to be effective and productive based on the work environment and the people he is working with. Here are some recommendations for the self-improvement with respect to leadership and decision making:
The leader should know self and his people. This helps develop a strong bond and reduces power distance.
As a leader, one is recommended to take suggestions from his people while making decisions. This will bring followers on the board and they will support the final decision.
The leader should neither totally rely on the subordinates for performing a task nor should he guide them nor supervise them closely through activities. There should be balanced supervision and autonomy.
It is suggested that the leader should increase his knowledge base about people as well as procedures. Hence he or she will be able to make more realistic decisions reducing chances of friction among goals and people.… [Read More]
Leadership is a complex process involving the ability of an individual to inspire, motivate and redirect ways of thinking. It refers to the ability to bring out the best in oneself and others. In any set up, there must be rules and regulations to guide the relationships between people and activities. In a set up like an organization, there are goals and objectives that the organization aims to achieve. These objectives and targets rely on the ability of a leader to organize and direct activities towards their attainment. Leadership is the ability of one individual to stir the sentiments and behaviors of others towards the achievement of the set goals. The leader does this by transforming the goals to be a common goal to others.
Methods used by leaders to influence group members
Leaders can use power to get things done. How a leader uses these powers determines the success or failure of an organization. An organizational leader has power over rewards to employees. Employees get the motivation to work hard and deliver more if there are expectations of rewards. The rewards can be in the form of gifts or promotions. A good leader can use this technique to get the best out of the subordinates. Rewarding should be fair and just. They should be given to deserving employees and not on a discriminatory basis. A leader can influence group members by using their legitimate power. A leader is able to give final orders and commands. Leadership can influence the performance of duties in an organization through making direct orders and requests to subordinates. Legitimate power enables a leader to influence subordinate's behavior because of their formal position in the organization.
Leaders can also use their expert power to mobilize employees to work towards the achievement of set goals. A leader's knowledge in doing certain activities in an organization can influence…… [Read More]
Sir Richard Branson
Branson Leadership Style in Terms of Leadership Models
The for Framework Approach
The Three-Stage Model of Effective Leadership
Effectiveness of Branson's Leadership Style in U.S. today 7
Leadership Styles Making Branson a More Effective Leader
Development of a Global Team
Applying Branson's Leadership Qualities at Work
This paper is designed to analyze the importance of good leadership. How good and effective leaders are made and how effective leadership can lead to the establishment of global team for the successful accomplishment of tasks. It describes the effective leadership style of Branson in terms of the effective leadership model. It describes which leadership styles can make Branson's leadership style more effective. How Branson can develop and lead a global team for a major project and how one can apply Branson's effective leadership style at work.
Effectiveness leadership is one of the key elements in the success of a group or company and anyone can be a good leader by following strong leadership strategies.
Thomas Gordon states about leadership that in order to gain the acceptance and trust of the team members it is important for the leader to learn some good leadership manners and tactics.
Good leaders have the following common qualities:
Listen openly to others.
Give clear directions
Offer and accept construction suggestions.
Help members to identify and solve problems.
Encourage members to exchange ideas
Appreciate other's work
Create a productive atmosphere
Following these leadership qualities, one can establish a strong foundation that enables to build a team of loyal and committed employees.
To further elaborate the concept of effectiveness leadership, the effective leadership style of Sir Richard Branson, can be discussed, who is considered as one of the most successful leader and businessman of his time due to his effective leadership qualities.
Sir Richard Branson
Sir Richard Branson is the founder and chairman of the London-based Virgin Group Ltd., and has turned his business into a multibillion-dollar company and one of the world's most recognizable brands. The Virgin Group runs different lines of business such as retail stores, air travels, financial services, books, music and telecommunication. The Virgin Group consists of approximately 200 countries that operate in numerous countries. (Slocum, 2011)
Branson…… [Read More]
Political tactics are essential for quality leadership. It is important to be tactful in all situations, and to understand the confounding variables that can impact communication clarity. Politics refers to skillful communications and strategic decision-making. Compromises are critical to good politics. For example, we were working with a large team of over 25 people. Each person had a clearly defined role, but there came a time when egos started to clash. As the leader, I was able to skillfully deflect the attention from the personal ego clashes and help the team members refocus on their shared objectives and goals.
I have had other situations that did not flow as smoothly, and which required extra political sensitivity. Issues related to race and gender often come up and disturb the political order in meetings. Men tend to dominate discussions, leading to situations in which women do not offer enough input. A male-dominated discourse is unfair, and the group leader needs to take control and take charge, by actively seeking and requesting input from female members the team. This goes for shy members of the team, too. Not all team members will be pushy or vocal about their ideas, questions, suggestions, or concerns.
Power is one of the hugest impediments to the flow of communications. People with an authoritarian leadership style, who place a strong value on titles, will have a difficult time listening to others and refraining from interrupting. This has been my experience. I have found that it is important to be extremely tactful with aggressive people, defraying their inflated sense of importance by addressing the concerns of others in the group.
I always use ethical tactics when addressing people and when solving political crises in my organization. It is critical to remain ethical at all times, to create a culture of honesty and integrity. I would not respect any leader who bent the rules or who lied or cheated in…… [Read More]
Leadership and Organizations: Bill Gates and Steve Jobs
The theories of leadership date way back to when dynasties existed and people were led by kings. The leader took control and made decisions whenever disputes arose. The question of leadership qualities may not have been all that important then, but people still considered some to be better leaders than others. It would be prudent to begin by giving the fundamentals of the terms that are most crucial to this discussion; leadership and management. The two are commonly used synonymously, but they indeed are different. Although all leaders are managers, not all managers are leaders. The end of management marks the beginning of leadership, because whereas management is "concerned with stability and the best way to get the job done," leadership places more emphasis on change and innovation (Lussier and Achua, 2009, p.17). This text explores the theories and the differences and similarities between Bill Gates and Steve Jobs' leadership styles and approaches.
The earliest theories mainly focused on the unique qualities that leaders were thought to possess, and were aimed at finding a leadership style that would be applicable to all situations. The modern theories, however, incorporate additional factors such as level of skill and situational aspects (Lussier, 2009).
Trait theories were the earliest theories of leadership. They largely focused on a person's individual qualities (Lussier, n.d., p.20). They postulated that people led because they possessed inborn leadership traits such as aggressiveness, self-reliance, and intelligence.
The behavioral theories focused more "on what the leader actually did on the job" (Lussier, n.d., p.19). They attempted to depict the behavioral differences between ineffective and effective leaders.
The Contingency Theories
These assert that the style of leadership chosen is based on the situation, the followers, and the leader himself. These theories, therefore, emphasize "the importance of situational factors, including the nature of the work performed, the external environment, and the characteristics of followers" (Lussier, n.d., p.20).
Essentially, trait and behavioral theories are referred to as the universal leadership theories, as they attempted to identify a universal leadership style. People, however, on realizing that the leadership style chosen at any time is dependent upon the situation,…… [Read More]
Leadership is defined as the procedures that individuals use as authority over others to achieve an objective. The action also provides direction in a manner that makes an organization more coherent and cohesive.
This approach refers to three skills including human, technical, and conceptual, which form the fundamental personal skills required in leadership. Technical skills involve proficiency in and knowledge about some defined activities or work. It includes analytical ability, competence in a specialized area and the ability to use required techniques and tools. The skills play an integral role in the production of the intended products and services. Human skills are related to the ability to work with things and other people. These are commonly referred to as people skills that allow leaders to work effectively with peers, subordinates, and superiors. A leader who has expertise in interacting with others will determine the successful completion of tasks. Conceptual skills refer to the ability to give strategic direction, motivate followers, and create a vision to pursue the goals of an organization.
Team management can be defined as the processes, techniques and tools used to organize and coordinate a team of individuals working towards a shared goal.
Situational Leadership is the fundamental concept that there is no single best style of leadership. According to this theory, the successive leaders must adapt their leadership style to maturity and leadership must be task-relevant of the group or individual.
Least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale refers to a tool used to measure a person's leadership orientation. This scale requires that a leader think of all the persons they have worked with and then describe the individual, with whom they worked least well with, using a scale of bipolar objective rating from 1 to 8. A high PLC score indicates that a leader owns human relations orientation while the reverse indicates the leader has task orientation. This scale was designed to identify whether the leadership style of an individual is task orientated or relationship oriented.
Achievement-Oriented…… [Read More]
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership however defined, those traits probably exist in many who never encounter opportunities for leadership deployment, and so environmental factors probably affect how those characteristics or traits are expressed or displayed. In democracies for example, stakeholder and electorate preferences and objectives constrain who occupies public office and thus exercises leadership, in governance at least, although business leaders may have more personal leeway if they are the controlling entrepreneur. Therefore even the same attributes may apply in different ways in different environments depending on the context of the call to lead. What would be inadvisable for the 21st century would be to adopt the paradigms and characteristics derived from 18th, 19th and 20th century political theory, before a clear concensus emerges on just what leadership actually is. As environmental conditions change seemingly more quickly every year, the result may be an evolving, path-dependent context where no two leaders are identical enough to derive boiler-plate,…… [Read More]
By integrating aspects of transformational leadership into his leadership, Alonso would have inspired his crew to follow him while also becoming leaders by themselves. However, this could have only been made possible if his thoughts, feelings, and actions were consistent. As a leader of change Alfonso should have shown some element of connection to himself, the world, and the people around him and be grounded in reality. He ought to have come up with a vision and communicate it with passion and purpose (Covey, 2007). He should have paid personal attention to the crew members in a way that engages them and generates trust and commitment. He should have genuinely cared about the crew members, what they wanted, and how he could serve them instead of admonishing them in public. As a transformational leader, Alfonso ought to have been curious, open to new ideas, and learn constantly. In this way he could have received constant feedback from the officers and get to know if something was wrong.
As a commander of Trident submarine Alfonso should have developed and shared an inspiring vision of the organization's future. His conduct should have been geared towards bringing out the best in individual crew members. He should have also shown genuine concern and respect for others by upholding the navy's adage of praising in public and penalizing in private. As a commander he should have continuously invested in his own development and that of the crew members (Covey, 2007). The Trident commander should have also developed a culture of collaboration rather that of command and control where change is welcome as an opportunity as opposed to a threat. Alfonso should have also recognized that leadership needs to be demonstrated at times by all the crew members on board the submarine as this stands to build genuine trust between leaders and followers. He ought to have paid much attention to matters pertaining to terminal values like integrity and fairness for the greater good of…… [Read More]