North American Literature of the 20th Century: A Literature of Alienation
North American literature of the twentieth century began as a predominantly white male-dominated literature, on the heels of 19th century romantic literary expression, such as within the works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Mark Twain, William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane, and others. Similarly, in the early decades of the 20th century, American literature was dominated by the likes of William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, Theodore Dreiser, and other white male authors, whose works (understandably) reflected their own experiences and world views. In the latter half of the 20th century, however, subsequent to World War II, more diverse voices began to appear within North American literature. By the time authors like Maxine Hong Kingston; Toni Morrison; James Baldwin and others came on the scene, diverse literary viewpoints were beginning to be seen as integral to the American literary cannon. In my opinion, many North American writers of the 20th century were predominantly interested in the theme of alienation, which is often inherent in the cultural stereotypes written about by authors such as Maxine Hong Kingston, Toni Morrison, and James Baldwin. In this essay, I will explore how works by these three authors express the North American 20th century literary theme of alienation.
As the video lecture by Dr. Simmons suggests, Chinese and Chinese-American experience within the United States is fraught with alienation. "In Maxine Hong Kingston's "China Men," as Dr. Simmons mentions, a character-based closely on Kingston's own immigrant grandfather risks his life, again and again, dynamiting mountains so that the transcontinental railroad can be built through, only to be dehumanized and denigrated by white Americans, and considered by them to be only partially human. However, Kingston does not spare China itself, or the Chinese themselves, in her explorations of alienation based on devaluation of…… [Read More]
classroom, regardless of the age of the learner, we realize that there are multiple learning styles and responses to divergent stimuli. The modern pedagogical environment is faced with a number of challenges that are directly related to learning. In fact, as an educational pendulum swings, we find any number of methods that are thought to be new and innovative; yet it is sometimes the tried and true methods that are more efficacious. For instance, peer-to-peer learning improves cognitive and higher level questioning, humor bolsters biological reactions to learning, and changing the learning environment improves cognition and attention span (Harlin, 2008).
Howard Gardner, for one, has written extensively about the idea of multiple intelligences in learning. this theory holds that traditionally defined intelligence does not really describe the actual innate intelligence of the person. For instance, a child may learn mathematical forumulas quite easily, but that does not mean they are more intelligent that someone who can create stories and has an active immagination. The theory is controversial, and has yet to be completely verified. Yet, it makes logical sense that differing styles of retention and excellence should be used as at least a partial measure of (Gardner, 2006; Critiques of Multiple Intelligence Theory, 2006).
In a practical sense, most particularly with the increased complexity of the curriculum combined with aggressive performance goals due to standardized testing, teachers are often unable to integrate other important aspects of learning (social stuides, civics, philosophy, even science) into the core mandates of reading, writing, and mathematics. One of the ways that teachers can incorporate the idea of multiple intelligences, learning styles, and a multidisciplined approach to learning is by using literature as a basic philosophy for education. While admitedly, it may not be approprite 100% of the time and in every teaching scenario; using literature as an approach to learning has a number of tested benefits that are transferable to other life-stages, skill sets, and the philosophy of lifelong learning:: 1) Higher self-esteem, achievement, and retention of academic information; 2) Social support and networking -- students are put together in groups in ways they may never experience in a regular classroom; 3) A more positive attitude towards school, attendance, towards peers and teachers; 4) Greater attention to on task behavior and collaborative skills,…… [Read More]
Psychology and Literature
Both psychology and literature explore how people interact with each other. Both psychology and literature explore how prior events affect what follows. Both psychology and literature look at how a person grows, develops and changes over time. However, psychology looks at how events affect what people do and how they act in very precise ways, while literature fictionalizes and supposes what an imaginary person might do. Psychology looks at growth and development based on real cases studied scientifically while literature uses imagination go suppose what people might do as they develop. Psychology looks at how people react in given situations in a scientific way, while literature looks at it in terms of how the events drive a story forward.
Examples of how social-psychological issues are portrayed in literature can be seen, for instance, in the stories of Edgar Allen Poe, such as in "The Cask of Amontillado," where the protagonist wreaks vengeance on a friend for imagined slights. It might be considered…… [Read More]
OCTAVIO PAZ "TRANSPLANTED LANGUAGES"
Octavio Paz's 1990 Nobel Lecture accentuated the issue of transplanted languages and the literature that emerged in a transplanted culture. Latin-American and Caribbean literature is good example of the use of transplanted languages since the influence of European and American cultures is quite pronounced. When people migrate from one place to another or are forced to endure foreign rule, the impact on the language is usually the most marked. Words and concepts are borrowed from other languages and cultures, incorporated in native languages and from this fusion, emerges a language which lacks the beauty and grandeur of the original but is well-understood and even widely accepted by the natives influenced by transplantation. This is what Octavio Paz was referring to when he spoke of transplanted languages and its use in Latin American literature.
Languages are born and grow from the native soil, nourished by a common history. The European languages were rooted out from their native soil and their own tradition, and then planted in an unknown and unnamed world: they took root in the new lands and, as they grew within the societies of America, they were transformed. They are the same plant yet also a different plant. Our literatures did not passively accept the changing fortunes of the transplanted languages: they participated in the process and even accelerated it. They very soon ceased to be mere transatlantic reflections: at times they have been the negation of the literatures of Europe; more often, they have been a reply. (Nobel Lecture, 1)
Transplanted languages thus refer to languages which were uprooted from their own area of origin and planted in some new land. The foreign land changed the language because of the cultural and social differences that existed in the new region and thus the language which emerged was different from the original but was nevertheless equally effective for younger generations.
When northern Mexico was seized by the U.S. through the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty (1848), the local population found itself under the powerful cultural and social forces of United States which later transformed the generations of Mexicans born in America. This encounter and similar encounters in the Caribbean regions by Spanish and other imperial powers resulted in broad cultural interaction. The influence on Europeans on Latin American and Caribbean region was far more profound than American impact, the reason being that various conquests…… [Read More]
courtly love your purchase.
COURTLY LOVE AND MIDDLE AGES LITERATURE
In this paper, we shall study the tradition of Courtly love in the Middle Ages as reflected by literary works produced in that period. The paper will first focus on what the exact nature of Courtly Love, then proceed to briefly discuss its development and finally take into account the literary works of Middle Ages that contained elements of this tradition.
Courtly love refers to romance in chivalric tradition that emerged during the first Millennium and endured throughout the medieval period. Andreas Capellanus, in his book, The Art of Courtly Love, defines courtly loved as ". . . A certain inborn suffering derived from the sight of and excessive meditation upon the beauty of the opposite sex, which causes each one to wish above all things the embraces of the other and by common desire to carry out all of love's precepts in the other's embrace." This love had some distinct features as it usually involved a pure, intense feeling of devotion for some unattainable beloved. Women played the dominant role in courtly love equation as men were supposed to remain steadfastly devoted to the woman regardless of her own involvement and with little regard for consequences. This form of love dominated the medieval literature especially from 1100 to 1300. One of the most enduring texts on the subject is Andreas Capellanus' work The Art of Courtly Love and the fact that it has been translated many times, indicates that the concept of courtly love was popular in middle ages and has generated deep interest in modern times as well for students and critics of literature. Barbara Tuchman discusses Courtly Love in her A Distant Mirror. The author captures the very essence of the tradition or feeling when she writes:
Courtly love was understood by its contemporaries to be love for its own sake, romantic love, true love, physical love, unassociated with property or family . . . focused…… [Read More]
During Leo Tolstoy's lifetime (1828-1910), Russia and Europe went through a number of political and intellectual changes. Writing evolved from Romanticism to Realism during the period. As the term "realism" implies the realistic novelists like Tolstoy focused on observation and attention to detail. In Russia the czars retained absolute power by preventing the political and social changes that the Western European countries were experiencing. Intellectuals including Tolstoy led the effort toward reform. The reform efforts met with considerable resistance until the twentieth century. For the writers, retention of power by the czars meant repression of writing. This repression had a severe impact on the realistic writers like Tolstoy who presented a true picture of political and social conditions. Nicholas I, who ruled until 1855, was particularly repressive. In spite of his conservatism, Russian literature experienced a tremendous upsurge during his reign and that of this son, Alexander II. In addition to Tolstoy, Pushkin, Gogol, Turgenev, and Dostoevsky contributed significantly to a literary "golden age" in Russia. In his later years, his religious conversion played an all-encompassing role.
In the early years of Tolstoy's writing, czar Nicholas I ruled Russia. He maintained a tight grip on power. He tolerated no dissent and employed secret police to see that his policies were obeyed. The hallmarks of his philosophy were the practice of state religion, the state above all else, and total dedication to the czar. In such an environment it would be expected that literature would suffer. However in spite Nicholas' best efforts literature flourished during his reign. Ironically the writers, including Tolstoy, born into gentry sought to undermine the Russian institutions. As mentioned in the first paragraph, realism marked the period when Tolstoy wrote his most famous novels, War and Peace and Anna Karenina. Realism entailed a dedication to accurately represent real life and real people. These were not topics that Nicholas wanted covered during his reign. The books exposed the inadequacies of Russian life under the strict leadership of the czars. The excessive detail of realistic writing successfully exposed the specific, individual, and particular as opposed to the general and the group.
Nicholas' preoccupation with maintenance of absolute power encouraged him to support any efforts by other countries to suppress revolution. Unfortunately for him this was a costly approach and eventually led to peasant revolts. Tolstoy's early efforts to…… [Read More]
Beowulf: A Classic Medieval Archetypal Leader
Beowulf is one of the earliest epic poems. It tells a classic tale of a great hero. The style of the epic reflects a much earlier writing style found in the Viking sagas. Yet the story is that of a Danish King. Literature and art are the keys to understanding society. Art is not random, but rather is a product of the society in which it lives. Beowulf is a hero in the society that produced him. It is not known it Beowulf is an exaggeration of a real king, or if he is simply a composite of the values that the society held dear. We learn much about Beowulf through this epic. Through the following research we will examine this idea more carefully. Through examination of other medieval works, a composite will be created of medieval society expected of their leaders. It will support the thesis that Beowulf is a composite of the desirable traits that a medieval leader should possess.
In the last four lines of the poem we learn of four virtues that the men use to describe Beowulf. They call him, "Mild in his mien, Most gentle of men, Kindest to kinfolk, and Keenest for fame." These virtues are echoed throughout the text of Beowulf and form a central theme of the epic. In the Prologue to Beowulf we find that Beowulf was known for gifting gold the those who had earned it and that he earned the respect and loyalty of many in the Northlands.
In Chapter 24, these virtues are contrasted to the opposite character, when it is said that Ecgwela ruled by the slaughtering the enemy. He is contrasted this character to Beowulf in that he gave no money to the worthy and lost the loyalty of his subjects. Then the comment is made to learn from this example. Also in Chapter 24 we find that God gives man the power to rule over others and…… [Read More]
Gothic novel era is widely accepted as the years from 1764 to 1834. The Gothic genre has remained "an elusive minor literary upheaval that has had eminence influenced on most genres today" (Summer 164). The Gothic novel includes magic and mystery; horrors abound, while ghosts, castles, and charnel houses take part in adding to the mood of terror. The true Gothic novel creates an "atmosphere of brooding and unknown terror" (Holman). In addition, Gothic fiction is usually characterized by "a chronic sense of apprehension" (Tracy 1981). "Although all Gothic fiction is tragedy, its key component is the edifice [or building].... Gothic fiction usually takes place in an ancient castle or abbey whose owner discovers his noble line is doomed, usually because some past misdemeanor has caused the family to be cursed" (Ashley 147).
Walter Scott said Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, is a different kind of Gothic novel, or a "philosophical gothic" adding that "the laws of nature are represented as altered... To show the probable effect which the supposed miracles would produce on those who witnessed them" (Walter 613-20). In addition, "all these monstrous concepts are the consequences of the wild and irregular theories of the age" (Edinburgh Magazine). Although the statement from the Edinburgh Magazine was intended as a criticism, it proves to point out the very elements that make the novel so appealing even today. It appears that Frankenstein took the Gothic novel to new heights, exploring and stretching the elements of mood, engaging the reader with exquisite descriptions. This paper will examine how Shelley was able to create very precise moods among her readers as well as an element of suspense by creating elaborate descriptions of scenery and weather and by also using situations and emotions in opposition to each other.
Frankenstein was published in 1818, and it could be said that her novel changed the way the Gothic novel was perceived. Many typical elements of the Gothic novel appear in Frankenstein, including graveyards, murders, elaborate Continental settings, and young innocent women who become victims. (Levine) and it has also been described as "a romance of a peculiar interest" (London Morning Post). One…… [Read More]
Abbe Prevost's tale of Manon Lescaut performs several different functions at once. It is in part a cautionary story. It is in part a push to create a fully modern sensibility in French literature. It is in part an exploration of the trope of Romanticism. And in all of these things it is partly a story about the New World, for to Prevost, as to other Europeans of his time, the New World was a place in which new rules could be written for human behavior. The New World was a metaphor for new ways of looking at what it meant to be human - and not usually complementary ways. This paper examines some of the ways that Prevost used the New World in metaphorical and symbolic ways in Manon Lescaut.
Although Prevost was in fact a very productive writer during his lifetime, he is now remembered almost entirely for the 1731 work Manon Lescaut - the full title of which is the "Story of the Chevalier of Grieux and of Manon Lescaut" ("Histoire du Chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut").
The work was first published as the final chapter of a seven-volume serial novel titled "Memories and Adventures of a Man of Quality Who Has Retired from the World" ("Memoires et aventures d'un homme de qualite qui s'est retire du monde") and it is difficult not to read into the work a good degree of autobiographical detail, although it is important also to understand that while elements of his own life may well have found their way into the book, it is also true that Prevost was writing within a well-established genre, the novel of feeling that was so popular in 18th century France.
In a nutshell, Manon Lescaut is a cautionary tale about what will happen to any young man of noble birth who falls in love with a woman of the lower orders. This is something of a reversal from modern cautionary tales in…… [Read More]
THEIR EYES WERE WATCHING GOD
Zora Hurston's 'Their Eyes were watching God' occupies an important place in African-American literature on account of that fact that it is not part of the protest literature that emerged during Harlem Renaissance. The novel revolves around a powerful belief: a person's failure is caused more by his thinking than his sex or color. In other words, Hurston argues that when man refuses to strive for the satisfaction of his inner desires, he blames external forces for his failure. Such a person finds a convenient excuse in the shape of sex or color when he fails to live his life the way he wanted. Hurston firmly maintains that black race suffered immensely even after emancipation because it refused to let go of its past and the fact that they had been subjugated for a long time.
Throughout the novel, we find Hurston keenly observing the strained relationship between Nanny and Janie to accentuate the generational differences. Her primary purpose was to highlight the reasons behind the problems faced by the black race and unlike other writers; she did not blame color or race for this. For this reason, she was attacked vehemently by other black writers of her time for not portraying the African-American community in its true light. To this Hurston replied, "I do not belong to the sobbing school of Negrohood who hold that nature somehow has given them a lowdown dirty deal and whose feelings are hurt about it. I am not tragically colored."(Foreword) Her beliefs are clearly evident from this novel where she studies the reasons black race has failed to rise above its self-imposed limitations.
Janie here symbolizes Hurston's desire to create new and original identity, one that is completely free of past influences. In other words, by placing Nanny in the novel, Hurston wants her race to understand that the real cause of their problems is the refusal of the old generation to part with their slave mind-set. Not only did they firmly held on to past incidents of pain and suffering, they were also reluctant to let their children seek a brighter future. For some reason, they had come to believe that they had been dealt…… [Read More]
American Cultural Values: Whitman and Otsuka
America has been criticized and praised as having one of the most individualistic systems of cultural values in the world, rather than any cohesive system of national ethics. This is partly the result of America's status as a nation of immigrants. However, merely because America is an individualistic nation, and made up of many peoples and ways of life does not mean that the American government and populace has not acted in a racially exclusive and oppressive manner, at times, such as the case of the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II.
The poet Walt Whitman embodies the individualistic, idealized system of American values in his verse, although he oversaw the tragic consequences of American racism in his own lifetime, in the form of the civil war. When but when Whitman the poet wrote that he sang of himself, he not only celebrated his own individual identity, shorn of any specific references to his lineage or to the religious tradition he comes from, but he celebrated the individualism and plurality of America. Whitman expressed himself in long, winding stretches of free verse that seemed to speak against anything that is of the formulaic European tradition of literature. "Spontaneous me, Nature," he cried. As a poet, he stated, he was one with all that he saw, man and woman, nature and man. (Whitman, "Spontaneous Me," From Leaves of Grass) "I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear ... The delicious singing of the mother -- or of the young wife at work -- or of the girl sewing or washing -- Each singing what belongs to her, and to none else ... (Whitman, "I Hear America singing," From Leaves of Grass)
Japan, in contrast, is noted for its collectivist system of values and its relative uniformity of racial and cultural nature. When the Emperor was Divine, by Julie Otsuka, presents a tightly knit Japanese-American family, which has inherited this tradition in a positive fashion. This family does not stress individualism at its core system of values, but rather a cohesive and obedient family dynamic. However, Otsuka also suggests in her tale, that by seeing…… [Read More]
judge books by covers.
But it is something entirely different to job a story by its form, for the way in which an author chooses to frame a story is as important to our understanding of it as the content of the story itself - something that is becomes clear to us when we examine books that tell very different stories shaped by very different forms. Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights could not have conveyed either the passion or the essential, existential solitude of the characters had it not been written as an amalgam of first-person narratives wrapped in a Romantic form. Likewise, Theodor Fontane's highly realistic Effi Briest would also have been a very different novel had it been written - for example - as a Romantic work. This paper examines the ways in which form and content affect each other in these two works to the extent that they become essentially indistinguishable from each other.
Wuthering Heights is an essential Romantic work, and we cannot understand the skill with which Bronte married form to content within it if we do not ourselves read it within the broader context of the Romantic novel, a form concerned not solely (and often not even particularly) about happily-ever-after-endings but rather with an exploration of a particularly intense, personal relationship with the world. This kind of intensity can best (and arguably only) be told through a first-person narrative, which explains Bronte's rather unusual choice in structuring the novel as a series of first-person narratives rather than using a single first-person narrator or a single first-person narrator in combination with an omniscient authorial voice.
Published in 1847, the year before Emily Bronte died of tuberculosis, Wuthering Heights tells of the passionate relationship between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff, a relationship that we learn about through a number of different narratives. Each one of these narratives convinces us that the two are psychological matches for each other - both equally wild and free souls. But Catherine marries the gentler Edgar Linton, thereby prompting the thirst…… [Read More]
British and Australian characters based on stereotypes. Discuss how the characters are different.
Review the book and relevant literature on the book and the author.
Nevil Shute's characters epitomize the British and Australian stereotypes but are also characters of depth with moral values.
Town Like Alice, (Alice) written in 1950 is often categorized as one of Nevil Shute's "anti-war" novels and is part of a set of novels that was not produced sequentially.
During the 1950s, Shute's writing took a drastic turn and was an affirmation in support of the democratic spirit of the "plain and simple" people, a description that fit many of his characters. Shute had strong ideas about how society should be organized and maintains a credo that is evident in his writing
Town Like Alice is the story of two people who meet during WWII. Jean Paget, who is an Englishwoman and Joe Harmon, an Australian POW. Shute wrote about what he called his "plain and simple" folks; people who recognize their possibilities and seize opportunities but also know and accept the realities of life. They compromise a progressive society where each person rises to the occasion and becomes the best they can be while accepting their own limitations.
In Alice, Jean who is working in Malaya at the start of WWII is taken prisoner by the Japanese and she and many other women and children are moved from prison camp to prison camp because the Japanese have no place for them. She depicts a strong woman who is stepped in English tradition. A bit stodgy and affected at first, but definitely a woman of substance.
Joe Harmon is the taciturn cattle rancher who ends up as a POW. The typical blustery Australian who typifies the "plain and simple"…… [Read More]
House of Mirth, by Edith Wharton. Specifically, it will look at the theme of success in the novel, and how a success-oriented society can destroy the weak and untrained.
THE HOUSE OF MIRTH"
Lily Bart begins her tumble into poverty from the very beginning of the book, because she does not conform to society, and she cannot become a success in the world of business, because she does not even understand what success is. From the very start of the novel, success is a strong and prevalent theme, and it is clear Lily is not going to be a success, when she does not even understand the concept. "Later he [Selden] inquires: 'Is there any final test of genius but success?' Lily replies: 'Success?' She hesitated. 'Why, to get as much as one can out of life I suppose. It's a relative quality after all. Isn't that your idea of it?'" (Underwood 365).
The only success Lily understands is the success society puts on a well-dressed woman. "The clothes are the background, the frame, if you like: they don't make success, but they are a part of it. Who wants a dingy woman? We are expected to be pretty and well-dressed till we drop -- and if we can't keep it up alone; we have to go into partnership" (Wharton 14). Lily is beautiful, but poor, which means she cannot even be well-dressed, so what chance does she have to "go into partnership." Ultimately, Lily's pathetic idea of success is what society says it is for a young girl, marriage to the right man. She fights against it throughout the entire novel, and in the end, she dies because she cannot conform to this societal idea of success.
From the onset, Lily is painted as a tragic figure, even when she is laughing and "gay." It is clear she is unhappy and even bored with her life, and cannot see any way out except to marry, and who can she marry, when she has "nothing" to offer…… [Read More]
Taming of the Shrew, by William Shakespeare. Specifically, it will show how the play demonstrates the comedic aspect of thematic concern with love and beauty. In Shakespearean Comedy, a shallow, often narcissistic type of love at the start is not only grounded too heavily in "beauty" of the conventional sort, but also leads to a mistaken notion of what beauty really is.
LOVE AND BEAUTY IN "TAMING OF THE SHREW"
Taming of the Shrew" is a classic Shakespearean comedy in every sense. It is not only funny and amusing for the audience; it contains themes they can connect with, basic themes such as love and beauty. Early in the play, Katherine appears anything but beautiful, for she is sharp-tongued and disagreeable, arguing with anyone who might show the slightest interest in her, including the newly arrived Petruchio.
Petruchio: Come, come, you wasp, i' faith you are too angry. Katherine: If I be waspish, best beware my sting. Petruchio: My remedy is then to pluck it out. Katherine: Ay, if the fool could find where it lies. Petruchio: Who knows not where a wasp does wear his sting? In his tail. Katherine: In his tongue. Petruchio: Whose tongue? Katherine: Yours, if you talk of tales, and so farewell. Petruchio: What, with my tongue in your tail? (Shakespeare, II.i.207-214).
Love of course is a central theme in the play, but from the first, Shakespeare shows this is not your "typical" love match. "At times Petruchio behaves like a bully and a brute, and his tactics with Katherine can be read as gratuitously severe and prolonged tormenting of her" (Brown, 1995, p. 286). Kate does not want to marry, and Petruchio seems to be more interested in the lands he will acquire than specifically in Kate's hand. Yet, he sets out to tame her, and is taming her, he falls in love with her.
The sub-plot, between Kate's beautiful sister Bianca and Lucentio also clearly illustrates the theme of love. All Lucentio has to do is look at the beautiful Bianca and he is madly in love,…… [Read More]
Department of Science
Over time, dry needling has turned out to be a well-liked therapy method in manual physical rehabilitation (Dommerholt et al., 2006). Physiotherapists as well as other healthcare service providers in numerous nations utilize dry needling within the clinical therapy of individuals with myofascial discomfort and trigger points. Within the U.S.A., roughly 20 states and also the District of Columbia have authorized dry needling by physiotherapists, that is an impressive improve ever since 2004, when only 4 states authorized dry needling (Dommerholt, 2004). During 2009, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physiotherapists implemented a position proclamation that dry needling is actually in the capacity of manual physical rehabilitation. The benefits of dry needling happen to be significantly reported (Dommerholt and Gerwin, 2010) and consist of an instant decrease in local, known, as well as prevalent discomfort (Hsieh et al., 2007), recovery of variety of movement as well as muscle activation designs (Lucas et al., 2004) along with a normalization of the instant chemical environment associated with active myofascial trigger factors (Shah et al., 2003). Dry needling may decrease peripheral as well as central sensitization (Affaitati et al., 2011). Famous answers of myofascial discomfort tend to become fairly simplified and don't usually provide a well- confirmed theoretical basis to lead clinical therapy methods (Dommerholt et al., 2010). Traditionally numerous researchers as well as clinicians have deemed a vicious circle theory, referred to as the pain-spasm-pain cycle, which contemplated that muscle mass discomfort might trigger spasm in the exact same muscle, and as a result might trigger much more discomfort contributing to much more spasms. The idea is based upon the belief that discomfort might stimulate alpha-motor neurons and perhaps also gammamotor neurons. There exists, nevertheless, experimental as well as human evidence that not only alpha- but also gammamotor neurons usually happen to be inhibited by nociceptive input via the exact same muscle mass (Le Pera et al., 2001). Animal research confirmed that the modification in muscle mass spindle susceptibility might change proprioceptive performance, however there's no proof of facilitation of spindle action (Masri and Capra, 2005). Quite simply, muscle discomfort doesn't seem to trigger a boost in fusimotor drive (Birznieks et al., 2008). Nonetheless,…… [Read More]
Chastity in Renaissance Literature and Political Power
Chastity was a concept that was promoted throughout Renaissance society by the church and those in political power. Chastity was promoted not only as a virtue and measure of the worthiness of a woman at the time of her marriage, it was also utilized as a means to repress women and their ability to gain their own power in society. However, in some ways, it served as a route to power for women as well. Although chastity was promoted for both men and women by the church, in reality it was not applied equally. Men were expected to have extramarital affairs, while women were expected to may remain faithful throughout her marriage and to place all of her efforts on raising children in taking care of the home. This research will explore the ideal of chastity and political power among both the genders in Renaissance society as embodied and the character Britomart in Spenser's "Fairie Queen."
An Exploration of the symbolism of Britomart
Britomart does not appear in any significant role until Volume III. The focus of volume III begins with the tale of Britomart and her actions. However, when one examines Britomart more carefully, both in virtue, and her actions, it becomes apparent that Britomart was more than just a character in the story. Britomart symbolizes political power in many ways. Britomart is al allegorical representation of the virtue of chastity.
Britomart represents the virtue of chastity, but Britomart's chastity goes beyond merely refraining from sexual activities. Chastity in the character of Britomart means refraining from the actions that would make her of lower virtue according to the other virtues addressed in the Faerie Queene. The virtues are considered to be intertwined and dependent upon each other. St. Gregory explains the connection of chastity and power. It is likened to the ability to see God.
"I venture to affirm that, to one who has cleansed all the powers of his being from every form of vice, the Beauty which is essential, the source of every beauty and every good, will become visible. The visual eye, purged from its blinding humour, can clearly discern objects even on the…… [Read More]
Diversity Management -- Literature Search
The following articles provide an overview of diversity in the workplace, specifically within teams and managerial groups. With respect to team effectiveness, these articles address how various conceptualizations of diversity can impact team effectiveness. Overall, many of the articles point to mixed results, with some studies finding positive effects on team effectiveness and others finding negative outcomes. Other articles therefore discuss the best ways of managing diversity so that the best possible outcomes can be achieved while minimizing the potential negative outcomes of diversity in management teams. With respect to team leadership, one article discusses how diversity within upper management can lead to positive outcomes in some respects, but also lead to the development of social subgroups that can lead to division within the upper management teams which can inhibit a company's ability to move into new geographic areas.
Bunderson, J.S. & Sutcliffe, K.M. (2002). Comparing alternative conceptualizations of functional diversity in management teams: process and performance effects. The Academy of Management Journal, 45(5), pp. 875-893.
This article examined two different conceptualizations of diversity and their consequent links to process and performance effects on management teams. Specifically, the article examined functional diversity in teams, and whether or not this can promote team effectiveness, performance and process. The authors argue that the impact of functional diversity may be associated with how functional diversity is conceptualized and measured. The research identified two different and important conceptualizations: (1) Dominant Function Diversity: where the diversity is made up of narrow functional specialists and (2) Intrapersonal functional diversity: where the diversity is made up of broad generalists with wide ranges of experience. Ultimately, the research presented in this paper found that Dominant Function Diversity was associated with negative outcomes for team performance while Interpersonal Functional Diversity was associated with positive outcomes for team performance and effectiveness.
Jackson, S.E., Joshi, A. & Erhardt, N.L. (2003). Recent research…… [Read More]
Art, as defined by Plato in his paradigmatic work The Republic, serves both as a definition qua definition - a way of telling us what art should be in and of itself - and as an exemplar of other aspects of society. Plato was fundamentally concerned with the relationship between the world and art (including all media of art) because he argued passionately that the true purpose of literature was a mimetic one. Art should, in other worlds, imitate life in all things and as closely as possible. (Aristotle, one of Plato's students, would extend this idea of Plato's even farther.) This paper examines how Plato's understanding of the form and function of art can help us to situate the epistemological stance of Gothic Victorian literature - a set of literary endeavors that was also deeply committed to the mimetic, although not precisely in the way that Plato outlined.
We should begin by laying out, albeit in abbreviated form, Plato's understanding of artistic mimesis. For Plato, deviations from mimesis in artworks were to be considered to be flaws in the work of art. This to us might seem to be a very limited definition of the range of art, but it is not without merit. Such a definition emphasizes the importance of craft, of the skill of the individual who is trying to re-create the world (which to many seems a perfect creation and so absolutely worthy of copying). Nature's glory or the gods' design is a wondrous thing, and when Aristotle urged writers and other artists to copy it he was arguing not only for mimesis (and perhaps not even primarily for mimesis at all) but for an insistence upon the highest standards. No artist, he argued, should ever try for less than perfection, and as perfection lies in the world all around us the proper study, subject and goal of the artist is that world.
This argument that art should attempt to recreate as closely as possible the…… [Read More]
Storytelling Review of Literature
For hundreds of years, stories have been used to teach children about morality and ethics. Indeed, many of the same myths, legends and fairy tales have been handed down from generation to generation, remaining largely intact.
However, these myths also contain hidden meanings that illuminate the cultural or historical aspects of their origin.
The first part of this paper studies the literature examining hidden meanings, cultural norms and morals that are embedded in myths and fairy tales.
The second part of the paper looks at how these meanings and cultural norms get imbued and reproduced in the minds of their audience - primarily children.
Aside from serving as a vehicle for reproducing cultural norms, this paper looks at the psychological and social uses of storytelling. In the third part, this paper looks at how psychologists like Bruno Bettelheim maintain that storytelling can serve a therapeutic value for the individual. Finally, the paper studies literature concerning how myths also serve an ideological purpose and, through critical appropriation, how these stories could also have a subversive value.
Since this paper examines the transmission of cultural norms through stories, it becomes necessary to define what constitutes "culture" itself. In The Silent Language, Edward Hall (1973) defines culture as "the way of life of a people, for the sum of their learned behavior patterns, attitudes and material things" (20). As such, culture encompasses a wide body of a people's practices, behavior and beliefs. Furthermore, Hall maintains that though individual cultures may vary through time, people search for stability and continuity by locating parts of culture that remain constant. This is done through "identifying a common particule or element that can be found in every aspect of culture" (20).
One aspect common to all cultures is the aspect of mythology. In The Power of Myth, Joseph Campbell (1988) defines a myth as "stories about gods"…… [Read More]