Management Development Techniques
All business organizations seek to maximize the profitability using the least available resources. The bottom-line in realizing such coveted success is by making their management processes efficient. In this regard, managers will often employ various techniques in developing and improving their existing management styles. This is because new issues always would come up and have to be addressed through the necessary change management initiatives. This study will look at the various techniques that would develop effective management practices for a business organization. The study will discuss the management development techniques, which are necessary for an effective business organization. This significant area of study enhances the effectiveness of organizations in addressing the challenges they face through the development of various management techniques.
Various management development techniques may be employed by organizations in different contexts. This is because various business organizations are faced with dynamic challenges, which may require unique approaches to handle. However, keeping this aside, various management development techniques have been advanced by various authors. Indeed, different schools of thoughts have brought the various management development techniques employed by various organizations. The changing business environment has also brought about new demands in management of organizations. This development has been contributed by issues of business IT, the dynamic global business market, and intense competition among businesses, and the development of business new communication media among others.
This research will outline the various management development techniques, which may be embraced in organizations. The study will outline the various techniques argued by various authored literatures. This study will be crucial in enhancing my skills of training on how effective a business organization can be maintained through employing the discussed techniques. This study will also equip me with management skills and attitudes, which will make me a better business leader in the practice. It would also enhance the progress of management skills among its audience.
Objective…… [Read More]
Management accounting is an important factor that helps organizations to map their future directions through providing managers with necessary information for the establishment of strategies that ensures all inputs, processes, and outputs are in line with the organizational goals. Through the information provided by management accounting, managers access information that is critical in formulating policy, making comparison between alternative situations, and evaluate and examine performance. While management accounting has similar roles across organizations, the accounting procedures and techniques tend o differ significantly in the private and public sector.
Management Accounting in the Public Sector:
Management accounting in the public sector is usually conducted by the government with the main aim of protecting public treasury through preventing and identifying corruption and graft. Therefore, this process is normally geared towards facilitating and promoting sound financial management and public accountability. In an efficiently managed process, management accounting involves planning and budgeting for financial management activities like collecting revenues and taxes, borrowing, paying bills, and repaying debts. Public accountability through this process is promoted through the accountability of the chief executive's bureaucracy, legislature, and government to the people.
In the public sector, information obtained from management accounting is also used for external communication to users interested in the direction and effectiveness of a governmental entity (Hoque & Adams, 2008). The recipients of this information can be classified into three categories i.e. providers of resources, recipients of products and services, and parties conducting a supervisory function. While resource providers include lenders, suppliers, and employees; recipients of products and services include taxpayers and ratepayers and oversight parties include parliament, labor unions, employer groups, analysts, and regulatory bodies.
In addition to accounting in the service of managers only, management accounting in the public sector also incorporates budgeting and control. Generally, these initiatives can be considered as instruments of financial policy on revenue and expenditure to accomplish macroeconomic objectives. Consequently, management accounting in the public sector is not only…… [Read More]
Management vs. leadership in nursing
Managers and leaders, though they are often thought to mean the same thing, are actually different people in an organization. Managers are involved in controlling and guiding the activities in the organization through effective supervision and handling while leaders are those who motivate their followers towards meeting a common goal. There are also significant differences in the characteristics and behavioral descriptions of managers and leaders. However, as stated by Marquis and Huston (2009)
, it is important for an organization to have both managers and leaders in order for it to succeed towards meeting its goals and objectives.
How roles of managers and leaders differ in supporting the organization
Managers and leaders handle different responsibilities; however, they also share some responsibilities. Leaders and managers are both responsible for keeping track of the progress of the organization and keeping track of where the organization is in trying to meet its goals and objectives. As stated by McAlearney (2006)
also states that leaders identify needs and prepare an action plan for the organization to meet the goals and cultivate team work, delegation of roles towards meeting the needs of the organization and realizing its vision.Sama and Shoaf (2008)
argue that leaders are responsible for effectiveness of the organization while managers are responsible for the efficiencies in the organization. Together, managers and leaders ensure that the organization is both effective and efficient towards meeting the set goals and objectives. Marquis and Huston (2009)
, leaders are involved in paving the way for the members of the organization to meet the goal while managers are responsible for shouldering the responsibility of ensuring the various members of the organization function well together. Leaders thus look further ahead than managers and try to steer the organization towards the various phases to be ahead while managers ensure that throughout this way, the organization's productivity remains high and that the milestones reached are stated clearly.
Another key difference in the responsibilities of managers and leaders come in the expectations that are set for them. Leaders are expected to be risk-takers and entrepreneurial in nature while managers are expected to be calm and deliver predictable outcomes. Therefore the managers are expected…… [Read More]
Management as a Profession
According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, a Profession is: a. A calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive academic preparation b. A principal calling, vocation, or employment and c. The whole body of persons engaged in a calling. Increasingly management as a class of employment has come to be seen as a profession which qualifies on all three levels of this definition. Though there are ways into this particular profession that do not necessarily require years of intensive academic education, varying by industry and often pay scale there is a clear sense that those who engage in management as a vocational calling often require both years of education and years of internal preparation to hold the position (Crainer, 2010, pp. 12-16). Increasingly, the prerequisite to a management position is sought through formal education and a combination of formal education and provable experience in or out of the industry where the former organisation managed is seen as successful and profitable. Crainer states:
The last century witnessed the dramatic genesis of management -- management emerged as a profession. It has moved from an unspoken, informal, ad hoc activity into one that is routinely analysed and commented on from every angle possible. Management has emerged from the shadows to be recognized as one of the driving forces of economic and personal life. Nothing -- no organisation, no activity -- now appears beyond the scope or ambition of management. (p. 13)
By varying degree of field and organisation management has become a much more formal ideation and practice, with higher standards of professionalism and higher standards of action for those who participate.
Management as a profession is the administration and organisation of people, resources and the business aspects of an organisation to optimize the conditions of profit and salability of a product and depending on the organisation a multitude of other things that make it possible for employees to carry out their various tasks. Managers as a group are more now than ever seen as a profession, defined by skill, education both on the job and in a formal setting and by their ability to lead and organize in a professional manner to meet the desired outcomes of the organisation. There are probably more works of non-fiction produced in the area of management than in nearly any other profession every year…… [Read More]
reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester Drawing learning experiences semester (group case study, relevant change management theory, reflections relevant personal experiences organisational change), reflect critically personal perspective philosophy managing change changed ( ) semester.
The world we are living in is always changing. The nature of the business world today is very different than the way it was decades ago. Change is inevitable. This is because, as people are always faced with new problems and as such, come up with new ways of doing things in order to better their lives. The people therefore come up with new technologies to meet this needs. For an organization to remain relevant, it must be flexible enough to change with the changing times. Resisting to the wind of change will make the organization obsolete and lead to their collapsing Zilwa, 2010.
Nevertheless, people are always resistant to change. They crave security and feel more secure doing things that they are have tested and are afraid of getting into unknown grounds. For these reasons, it is important that corporate managers be aware of how to manage change in order to be successful in today's highly dynamic business world Williams et al., 2002.
The course on change management and the evaluation of the major change theories has impacted a great change on my perspective of change management. In this paper, my original concept on the subject of change management and how they have changed over the semester will be evaluated.
My Perspective on Change Management and How It Has Changed Over the Semester
Originally, I believed that there was no need to change as it is always followed by resistance which results in major losses. For instance, major revolutions in a company may result in the workers boycotts and strikes which halts the process of production. Why bother to institute change when the structures that are already in place are working? There is no point of putting the company at risk…… [Read More]
The document states the plan of an organization in different phases. For each phase there will be a different management strategy. The document has described the management strategy and the effects that they will have on the performance of the business and why that particular management strategy has been chosen.
Management structure needs to be examined carefully when a new business venture is setup. In order to develop and build on the business plan a compact management structure is necessary. The managers are the people who are responsible for steering an organization towards achieving the business objectives. In the second phase the business plan will be implemented on the basis of geographical region and the management structure will be based accordingly.
The four key functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling the business. The type of managers which are selected for the business venture must be appointed according to the management styles required and the organizational structure. Similarly the management structure also plays an integral part in a company's success. The management structure will consist of different kind of managers performing different functions. Since in the second phase the organization will be operating on a regional basis therefore regional managers will be appointed who will be held responsible for their respective regions. The functional managers will be setup in accordance with the split functions of the organization. The business will also be split in terms of different departments, for example a retailing outlet. The general managers will be responsible for managing the other managers as they will all report to him. It is the general manager's responsibility to make sure that the functional objectives are in line with the overall objectives of the company.
The management structure will make the managers responsible for establishing and prioritizing the objectives and make sure that they are achieved through proper management. The motivation of the employees is also an essential part of management and…… [Read More]
There are a number of different definitions of management. The dictionary definition from Google is "the process of dealing with or controlling things or people." The Merriam-Webster definition adds that the process must be done "with a degree of skill." Management, therefore, is a professional discipline, one that can be studied, theorized about, and for which techniques can be developed and studied.
Management literature generally agrees with this core, but elaborates. The current practice and study of management have become highly fragmented in recent decades, such that there is no real study of generic "management," but rather specific study of different management subjects. Thus, we see "supply chain management," "human resources management" and "strategic management" as examples of studies in management. Yet at their heart, they all involve the core processes of organizing and controlling. Further study is focused on the distinction between management and leadership.
Boddy (2010), in contrast sees leadership as one of the functions of management. His view holds that the role of the manager is to plan, organize, lead and control. The organization's inputs are turned into outputs through all of these processes, therefore all form the core of the management function. There is merit to this argument -- leadership is simply another way of transforming inputs into outputs. This paper will examine the different roles of management, and how managers contribute to the organization's successes and failures.
The Tasks of Management
In practice, managers do tend to focus on a specific area of expertise. Compartmentalization and specialization in business today mean that there are few generalist managers outside of the smallest companies. Managers work with the resources of the organization, shepherding and directing those resources to achieve various organizational objectives. The complexity of most business functions today demands specialized managers. At a base level, they are all performing the same task of taking inputs through processes to achieve outputs. Managers use a wide range of tools to help manage the resources at their disposal and to measure the outputs of their group's activities (Ingram, 2012). Thus, in practice the management function tends to be specialized along the lines of functional expertise. Yet, the root actions of management do not change, no matter what the…… [Read More]
In addition, given its bureaucratic and restricted nature, budgets become out of date within a few months. This challenge is associated with the frequent changes to assumptions arising from changes in the market like commodity prices, demand, exchange, and interest rates. A tight budget presents a challenge to an organization and management today in terms of loss of competitive edge (Steele, 2008). This is associated with the current driver's of success, which require continuous innovation and fast response, over the traditional management of human resource and budgets. This implies that management that follows the traditional management style dominated by budget management is not in a position to accommodate innovation (Steele, 2008). This is presents a serious challenge for management today as budgets are traditional separate from strategy. It is a major problem for management since businesses and organizations thrive in the principle of strategic themes in operations, core business, and organizational management. Therefore, the construction of a budget will require the organization of the different functions and departments in a coherent strategy.… [Read More]
Samsung group is South Korean company headquartered in Seoul Samsung town. Samsung group comprises of many subsidiary groups that are under the Samsung group. Founded in 1938 by LeeByung-chull as a trading company, Samsung group has grown to diversify into insurance, textile industry, retail and security industries. Samsung entered the electronics industry in the 1960s. It has grown to be the leading manufacturer of cell phones in the world. Samsung makes more annual sales and profits in the communication industry than any other company. Samsung is a multinational company that has employed thousands of people in all the subsidiaries that it owns. This makes management a huge task. Samsung needs to incorporate management strategies that will enable it to manage the employees effectively. Effective management practices will ensure that the company grows since there will be minimal errors associated will poor management practices. Samsung should develop a management philosophy that will ensure that all the employees practice good management.
Constructivism is a management philosophy that Samsung group needs to incorporate in the organization. Constructivism is as a management theory explains the construction of knowledge in human beings (Leonard 2002). This happens when information comes to contact with existing knowledge developed by experiences. An early exposure and collaboration will help people to develop their skills towards management (Leonard 2002). Samsung group should ensure that their employees learn management skills through a process of knowledge formation. Samsung will benefit from constructivism because it will make them achieve company objectives and projects. Using constructivism management philosophy, managers in Samsung group will lead subordinate employees by emphasizing the company's goals. This management approach requires managers to plan, organize, lead, staff and control employees in consideration of learning objectives of the company. A manager needs to teach his employees of management practices that will push the company into attaining objectives. This will improve the performance of Samsung group since it will focus on the objectives of the company as the main driving factor to increased profitability of the company. Constructivism encourages evolution and discovery (Powell 2009). Discovering new knowledge, will make the company change the way it manages employees.
Constructivism has its roots in cognitive psychology, which shows the creation of knowledge in order to…… [Read More]
Management's principal characteristic is the directing and leading towards the achievement of predetermined objectives. An organization runs and works based on defined specific objectives, and the role of management to direct efforts and resources towards the achievement of these objectives. Over the decades, different management approaches and strategies formulation entail in an attempt to find the most suitable approach that can effectively and sustainably direct towards achievement of organizational strategies. This report makes a summary of management philosophies and approaches proposed by different scholars. The work identifies the different opinions on management and the theories proposed on management thought.
Of interest is the article by Kralev (2011) that identifies the importance of the Management by Objectives approach. The scholar proposes this management thought for it defines and uses organizational objectives in directing processes and functions in an organization. Kralev (2011) identifies that in today's business world a manager should lead by emphasizing on organizational objectives, which are directed towards the broad environment, achieving profits, and define paths of operations. Kralev (2011) that the core concept of MBO requires the management processes of planning, organizing, leading, staffing, and controlling, be directed to the achievement of key organizational objectives.
Drucker (1955) derives management by objectives, which is described by Kralev (2011), from MBO theory. Drucker (1955) conceptualized management by objectives as a system of management that is founded on goal congruence for the improvement of performance. The Drucker (1955) believes that the organization is more successful if, "...their efforts ... all pull in the same direction, and their contributions ... fit together to produce a whole, without gaps, without friction, without unnecessary duplication of effort..." (Dinesh & Palmer, 1998). Therefore, Kralev's (2011) management approach derives its basic principle from the management by objective theory as stipulated by Drucker (1955). In this…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to discuss and evaluate the purpose and effectiveness of strategic management accounting for modern businesses. The answer should be supported with at least one business currently in operation on the London Stock Exchange, discussing the ways in which strategic management accounting can support the business in managing the current challenges it faces.
Strategic Management Accounting is addressed in the work of Cheong (nd) who states that modern business environments are increasingly competitive and dynamic. International competition through e-commerce and demand-based supply chain management dominate business. It is important for companies to develop coherent and consistent business strategies and to utilize management accounting tools to support strategic planning, decision-making and control." (Cheong, nd)
Integration of business strategies with the tools used for accounting makes a requirement of companies in identifying precisely what type business they are in so that products, customer types, services, delivery channels, and geographic markets can be identified. Cheong notes the usefulness of matching the strategic business unit with the related business unit strategy." (nd)
I. Involvement of Management Accountants in Strategic Management Processes
The work of Ferriera and Moulang (2007) examine the involvement of management accountants in strategic management processes and state The role of management accountants within organizations is said to be in a state of change and many researchers have called for a greater involvement of management accountants in strategic management processes as means of regaining the 'relevance lost' and increasing the value creation of their activities."
Reported in the work of Ferriera and Moulang (2007) is a postal survey conducted among management accountants in Australian businesses, which resulted in 279 usable observations. Findings include that management accountants' involvement in the strategic analysis stage leads to their involvement in strategic choice and to strategic implementation stages." ( ) Also stated in the findings was a "direct relationship between involvement in the strategic analysis and strategic implementation stages." (Ferriera and Moulang, 2007)
A more fundamental finding is that "only the involvement of management accounts in strategic implementation is associated with organizations' strategic effectiveness." (Ferriera and Moulang, 2007) In a separate study conducted by Granlund and Lukka (1998b) which examined the changing role of management accounts in a Finnish cultural context states findings that evidence…… [Read More]
Leadership Model Paper: Management Principles
Research suggests that everyone is a manager in their own way. For instance, everyone manages his finances, time, careers and relationships. These examples of managing are simple and straightforward. However, when concepts of management apply in organizations, management becomes complex. At such a point, it calls for extensive studying in order to understand the theoretical basis of management. The application of management and the enunciation of management practices date back to the 19th century. In addition, management, organization, leadership, and organizational concepts have a link, in that they all connect to an organization's effectiveness (Bolden et al., 2003). The establishment of management as an academic discipline is a recent development attributed to the works of Peter F. Ducker in the 20th century.
The body of knowledge is taught in learning institutions and in programs that prepare managers for tasks in every organization. Managers are people who receive a formal appointment to positions of authority in firms, companies or organizations. Owing to their authority, the managers facilitate others to do their work and are responsible to a higher power for work outcomes. The main differences between levels of managers are the extent of authority and scope of their responsibility for work outcomes. Line managers are responsible for managing people and things while staff managers, for instance the human resource manager support the work done by the line managers.
The society will judge managers owing to their organizational performance. The way they set their organization's standards, coordinate and integrate teamwork, make decisions, and design the organization, will have a hand in the results on the performance. Research suggests that high-performing organizations have a value approach that enhances their organization's objectives. Additionally, research also distinguishes managers and leaders based on the perception that managing is central to caretaking and maintaining status quo, whereas leading is central to vision and dynamic. However, this distinction does not hold any practical application (Crippen, 2005). Therefore, managers will have to ensure effective and current organizational activities. In addition, they will have to ensure they envision the organization's future and use the vision to transform the organization when needed.
Background of the Study…… [Read More]
Individuals work half a day, or weekly based on the sharing arrangements. Split and sharing of the jobs leads to the organizations benefit, as talented individuals who are unable to work on a fulltime basis get an employment chance. Although adjustment problems occur, the arrangement of a proper schedule is required.
III. Telecommuting also known as the flexiplace, is a working condition that allows the least portion of the scheduled work to be completed outside the office, with the work-at-home as the only option (DAHLGAARD, S.M.P. 2000 page87). This strategy influences the jobholder based on the need of observance of the work fixed hours, dressing in distinct work attire, enduring the normal limitations of commuting, and having unswerving contact with the administrator. The Home workers often encounter increased productivity, in which they report minimal distractions, enjoy the sovereignty of directing themselves, and appreciating the advantage of having more time by themselves (CRAINER, S. 2000 page78). The presence of positive factors indicates that even the negatives are present. Majority of the home workers feel that they work too much leading to the isolation of their friends and family members. The additional feelings of loneliness encompass them making them to lack visibility at their offices because of low promotions.
Motivational Theories: Behavior
This theory explains how the workers behave to meet their needs and their determined choices. This theory offers advice and motivation to the people while they make choices. The decision of working hard depends on the individual preferences, availability of rewards, and the possible outcomes.
According the equity theory, based on the work of J. Stacy Adams principles, the worker gives and compares their rewards to the implicated efforts. The equity that exists when the workers perceive their equal efforts is illustrated in the diagram below.
Employee's underestimation of their potential rewards, indicates that they compare their abilities with that of their colleagues. The feeling of inequality occurs when people believe that their rewards are mediocre to the…… [Read More]
A Comparison of Six Sigma to Lean Manufacturing, Strategic Quality Management, and Total Quality Management
There are a plethora of management strategies and perspectives that are being employed in operations and supply chain management in the modern business environment. Among the various theories being implemented, Six Sigma, Lean Manufacturing, Strategic Quality Management, and Total Quality Management are among the most popular. This paper will compare and contrast some of the different points associated with these models to provide an introduction into the different strategies as well as look at some of the research that has been conducted in these areas.
Six Sigma, Lean Manufacturing, Strategic Quality Management and Total Quality Management Discussion
Six Sigma has gained a significant amount of attention in industry however comparatively little research has been conducted on the conceptual definition and underlying theory associated with this model (Schroeder, Linderman, Liedtke, & Choo, 2008). In fact, in the beginning of Six Sigma's development, many business professional felt that it was just another fad that was that was built upon a model that was basically Total Quality Management (Basu & Wright, 2012). Even hybrid models were developed that mixed Six Sigma with other models such as FIT Sigma which incorporated Lean Manufacturing ideas into it. However, today Six Sigma has stood the proverbial test of time and is a theory that has stood on its own two feet.
The central idea to the Six Sigma model is that statistical modeling of production processes can help reduce defects down to the sixth sigma in a normal distribution model; or three point four defects per one million items produced. This is a rather aggressive feat that requires intense dedication from the organization to constantly work to improve quality. Though this is similar to the approach used in Total Quality Management, there are major differences between the two theories. For example, the Six Sigma approach is heavily dependent upon structure and statistical analysis to drive quality improvements while TQM is more focus on teamwork and the underlying philosophy of quality management. Yet the two theories are still similar enough that researchers have been studying the organizational cultures involved with both models to try to tease out the subtleties involved with each.…… [Read More]
Functions Management Model
This paper is divided into three parts. The first part discusses the implications of the four functions of management model for today's managers and defends why these four functions are still applicable to each and every role of a manager in today's challenging business environment. The second part explains the importance of sustainability efforts for an organization and their impacts on the job responsibilities of a manager. It also suggests a number of activities which managers need to focus in order to help their organization in becoming a socially and environmentally responsible entity. The final part is dedicated to highlight the applicability of universality of management for an employee during his professional growth at his organization.
The Four Functions of Management and their implications for Today's Managers
The four functions of management are: Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling. These functions are based on the Scientific Management principles that define the areas on which a manager focuses and performs in order to run his organization in an effective and efficient way (Robbins & Coulter, 2006). Although the model of Four Functions of Management was presented a number of decades ago; the significance and relevance of all these functions is same for today's managers (Saxena, 2009). However, there is a group of researchers that criticizes the four functions of management model by arguing that it has limited implications for today's business managers. They criticize these functions for not being effective enough for managers to face the challenges and threats of today's complex business environment.
The most recent research studies conducted on the manager's roles and responsibilities suggest that each and every function of management takes its foundation from the four functions of management model in one way or another. Modern researchers support their arguments by linking all the roles and responsibilities of today's managers to planning, organizing, leading, or controlling. By reviewing these research studies and analyzing the contemporary business environment, one can acknowledge that a manager needs to specialize in all these functions in order to perform his responsibilities in an effective and well-organized fashion (Robbins, Judge, & Sanghi, 2007). For example, a manager has to perform his planning function whenever his organization has to formulate policies and strategies for the short run or long run. Similarly, he has to organize the workforce of his…… [Read More]
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (Riccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth to quite a number of challenges for the management at the workplace. The approach with which employers hold this opportunity of diversity is the determining factor that will unmistakably make a distinction between successful and well-organized organizations from those that are uncreative and not capable to meet the requirements and necessities of the people in the 21st century (Riccucci, 2002).
In the present day, municipal and private sector companies are on the edge for creating creative workforces that can actually represent the global population instead of symbolizing the national populace (Riccucci, 2002). This paper discusses the current status of diversity management and equal opportunities and the ways to manage a diverse workforce.
A diverse workforce can be defined as "a workforce made ... distinct by the presence of many religions, cultures or skin colours, both sexes (in non-stereotypical roles), differing sexual orientations, varying styles of behaviour, differing capabilities, and usually, unlike backgrounds" (as qtd. In Ollapally & Bhatnagar, 2009).
Workplaces where there is a lack of management of diversity are…… [Read More]
Managing Human Resources
Change and conflict are some of the manager's current challenges. This thesis tries to inquire into the change processes and managers response to conflicts that arise as a result of change resistance. The manifestation of conflict and the impact of conflict are also discussed. The thesis also looks into the different theories formulated to explain change process and their relationship to conflict management. Also covered is the way decision makers can mitigate conflict and bring sanity in their organizations.
Today's managers are faced with the trade off between change and conflict. Change has become an irresistible part of organization and managers must therefore come up withy strategies and policies of managing change in an order to reduce conflict that may hinder the performance and also to reduce performance gap.
Conflict is bound to occur when different individuals have different perception, opinion, ideas and thought. Change and conflicts are two things that unfold at the same time. Change is indispensable in any organization that aspires to attain its objectives and the management must strive to ensure that change is realized in a manner that leads the organization to success (Paton, Paton, & McCalman, 2008). Various names have been given to the term like reengineering, transformation, restructuring and right sizing but what remains is that all of them represents change. Change can be defined as the alteration of the status quo. Others may define change as the creation of new structures and processes with the intention of achieving better results (Paton, Paton, & McCalman, 2008). The driving force for change is the realization of performance gap i.e. When an organization realizes that it can achieve higher results, it restructures in order to maximize its turnover.
On the other hand conflict can be defined as the clashing of opinions and the incompatibility of the wishes and needs of individuals to frustrate him/her (Vliert & Kabanoff, 1990). It may also be defined as disagreement opposing behavior or antagonisms between people. Conflict begins when one party begins to feel…… [Read More]
Part of the supervisor's job is to education social workers, help social workers "internalize the service aspirations of social work practice" and moreover help sustain "the worker-as-person in the face of difficult challenges" (Kadushin, 22-23).
Following the reading of this book, I am aware that when social workers perform "non-uniform tasks" in "uncertain and unpredictable contexts" -- toward objectives that are perhaps "ambiguous" -- that leads directly to more "decentralization of decision making" and hence a greater need for "autonomy" (Kadushin, 36). This is not intended to promote the idea that social workers should be out on their own following their own values and goals. But rather, it is an admission that I do need structure, and when there is uncertainty as to how to proceed, and where my intervention may result in possible failure, I need to know my supervisor has provided direction for me. The book is clear in that regard, because the "desirability" of a supervisor lies not just in leadership, but also in the full use of that supervisor's knowledge and experience.
An Empowering Approach to Management in Social Work -- an Overview
Author Donna Hardina -- professor of social work education at California State University in Fresno -- offers a number of empowering advice and examples in her book, an Empowering Approach to Managing Social Service Organizations. For example she offers a chapter on how to promote the psychological empowerment of workers, suggesting that a social workers duties do not have to lead to "dull, routine, and mechanical" outcomes for the worker (Hardina, 2007). Monotonous work and low motivation lead to very poor quality efforts, so it is the supervisor's job to keep workers engaged and enthusiastic.
Hardina relates empowerment to self-efficacy in the sense that the social worker is trained to empower clients and to assist them in discovering their "inner power," and to help clients increase their sense of self-efficacy by relating to the "true causes of…… [Read More]
The History of Apple Corporation
Strategy Development and Implementation
The History of Apple Corporation
The corporation has an exciting history, as it has transformed to the biggest and most successful technology firms in the world, under the best managers of time. Both the employees of the firm, the management and the product consumers have been linked to the firm's success. The firm was started with the two Steves, who from their early lives had shown considerable interest in electronics. Steve Jobs and Steve Woznlak were former employees at Atari and HP respectively. However, in April 1976, the two conceptualized the Apple computer, which was among the first personal computers at that time. The company has focused on products that are innovative and new in the market ever since it was started. It is Job that started developed the legendary Macintosh, which is known to many as 'Mac'. There have been tremendous changes and product developments in the firm and currently the firm has products that meet the consumer demands, in terms of design and innovation (Schermerhorn, 2011).
SWOT and IE Matrices for Apple
The SWOT Matrix
When a business is undergoing transformation and development, the SWOT matrix is a powerful tool that can be used to decide on the best strategies any organization, so that the strategies focus on the advantages of the organization, which include the strengths and opportunities of the organization. The advantage the organization holds can be used to counter the external threats and overcome the weaknesses of the firm. The SWOT matrix for Apple Corporation is illustrated in figure 1.1.
The IE Matrix
This is the Internal External matrix, which is the other management tool that is used to assist in the strategizing of businesses. Typically, the IE matrix works based on the EFE and IFE matrices, which are plotted on a nine-cell template, with the EFE on the y-axis and the IFE on the x-axis. Lines are drawn from the axes, and their meeting point is the position where the strategies are to focus. Total weighted scores are used to determine the positions. When drawing the EFE on the y-axis, the scores from 1.0 to 1.99 indicate the low position. Score 2.0 to 2.99 indicate medium position and the…… [Read More]
Management Organizational Structure
Organizational structure of an organization is highly determined by the kind of the products, services it is engaged in. Equally important is the size of the organization in determining which type of management structure will be well suited for it. Organization structure thus, is the way the organization is organized according to leadership of the organization. Many studies today reveal that, the nature of organization structure has a direct impact on its performance and success. For the purpose of this short study paper we shall examine organizational structure, as noted before a key aspect within an organization.
Traditional organizations structures
The organizations structure of each organization differs with others in some ways. However all organizational structures are meant to help the organization attains its stated objectives. Normally, a structure of an organization will change as the organization develops over period.
In general, scholars have advanced four main decisions that managers are supposed to make when formulating the structure of their organization. Though, they may formulate a structure not necessarily following these four decisions. To begin with, managers must divide the organizations work into separate jobs or duties. This process is termed as division of labor. This is then followed by grouping the jobs into a specific manner that is called departmentalization. The third process involves deciding how many people will perform those jobs. This will as well involve knowing how many people can be managed by one person. Lastly, decision making power has to be distributed towards different people, and this has to be settled.
In making these decisions, various choices can be made. When the management wants to create highly specialized workforce, then it has to narrow the jobs performed by the employees, where employees are allowed to perform a large range of duties, specialization is not encouraged. In traditional bureaucratic organizational structures, they seem to increase job specialization when the organization grows big. Jobs are mainly grouped by their functions, for instances marketing jobs can be grouped into marketing department. Similarly, the size of the group will depend on how big the size of the organization. Decision making power also differs; normally the highest authority in decision making is laced on the top management. Though, with a lot of…… [Read More]