Media Censorship Essays

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Censorship Is it Ever Permissible to Restrain Essay

Words: 1377 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17255611

Censorship: Is it ever Permissible to Restrain Speech?

"Censorship." The word is such a powerful one that to many Americans the idea of any type of censorship seems to be the worst human rights violation imaginable. After all, if speech is controlled, how can people express differing political views and bring about desired social change? This viewpoint of the primary importance of free speech in a free society is a very American approach to the concept of censorship. However, as the internet has made it possible for people to cross country and boundaries with simply the click of a mouse, more and more people are becoming aware that American ideals of free speech are hardly universal. In other countries, some human rights are seen as even more important than the freedom of speech. This paper will explore the concept of free speech as it exists in America, limitations on free speech in other countries, and the possible conflict that will may exist between American and foreign free speech laws when a company provides internet services to people in multiple countries.

Americans base their right to free speech in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The First Amendment provides that, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances" (U.S. Const. amend. I). While the text of the language is broad, it does not protect all speech in all circumstances. On the contrary, only two categories of speech, religious speech and political speech, generally receive the greatest protections for free speech and there are several well-recognized exceptions in which the government can abridge the freedom of speech.

For example, when the act of speech is expected to create a dangerous situation, then the First Amendment does not protect the speech (Freedom Forum). Likewise, if the words are fighting words that are likely to incite immediate violence, then they are not protected under the First Amendment (Freedom Forum). Libel and slander can be punished, but the government will not generally put prior restraints on that type of speech. Finally, obscene materials are not protected under the First Amendment, but the definition of obscenity is constantly evolving; indecent (or adult-oriented) material…… [Read More]

References:
Allen, Jennifer and George Norris. "International Comparisons of Approaches to Hate Speech."

Race, Racism, and the Law. 1-5. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.
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Censorship on the Internet Essay

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29814351

Censorship on the Internet

Kaul, V. (2012). "The pros and cons of new media and media freedom." Journal of Mass Communication and Journalism, Vol. 2, Issue 5.

In his research study, author-researcher Kaul discussed the implications of using the Internet technology in launching what is called the new media, both in the context of journalistic/press freedom and freedom of expression of the civil society in general. More specifically, the author provided a comparison of the "old" (traditional) versus "new" (Internet/online) media, considering both as tools for freedom of expression, albeit the latter is more accessible. However, the article also discussed how the rise of the new media has not 'revolutionized' press freedom in some countries (namely, countries in South Asia and South Africa). What Kaul emphasized is the proliferation of new media as a replacement of old media, but without the expected improvement in press freedom. Instead, what occurred is a simple "transplantation" of old media to new media, maintaining the limited freedom in expression of the press and the general public.

Merlis, S. (2005). "Preserving the Internet expression while protecting our children: Solutions following Ashcroft v. ACLU." Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property, Vol. 4, Issue 1.

Merlis discussed in his analysis of the U.S. Congress' failed attempts to pass the Child Online Protection Act (COPA) in the Supreme Court the issue of creating a balance between maintaining the freedom of expression online and at the same time, protecting children from pornographic content readily available on the Internet. COPA is the U.S. Congress' solution to ensure and monitor the flow of information and content over the Internet, particularly when individuals aged under 18 years old are using the technology. However, the Congress has failed to pass the COPA in the Supreme Court because the latter considered COPA as too stringent, bordering on curbing an individual's right to information…… [Read More]

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Media Society Book Section Summary Croteau Essay

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64535589

Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an anti-Marxist stance by the modern media, not a neutral one (171). Advertising and corporate sponsorship also plays an ideological role: "Some people are more valuable [as audience members] than others," in short, wealthier Americans buy more things (216). But through some media, such as the arts, alternative points-of-view are articulated and even become popular, as in the case of early, highly combative rap music. Yet it could be argued that later rap has been subsumed by corporations and rendered into a commodity of 'hip urban life' rather than functions as a challenge to the system (181).

Part IV: Audience

Politics as spectator sport, politics as image -- all of this can be seen even in today's presidential campaign. However, audiences are not merely passive recipients of meaning. The media may be encoded in hegemonic constructs of gender, class, race, and other assumptions, but audiences can still be influenced by context, from watching television as a family unit to reading a romance novel…… [Read More]

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Media and Violence Contradicting Causes Essay

Words: 4155 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68376205



A in millions)

Current in millions)

Provided by Federal Bureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"

CHART: National Correctional Populations

National Correctional Populations

The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.

A in millions)

Current million in millions)

Provided by Bureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics Briefing Room, 2006)

More Statistics

Violence in the Media

Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. Big World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)

41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).

56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)

Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend watching alone and unsupervised: 81 (Kaiser Family Foundation, 1999. "Kids and Media @ the New Millennium.")

Television alone is responsible for 10% of youth violence. (Senate Judiciary Committee Staff Report, 1999.)

Average time per week that the American child ages 2-17 spends watching television: 19 hours, 40 minutes (Nielsen Media Research, 2000)

Percentage of day care centers that use TV during a typical day: 70 (Tashman, Billy. "Sorry Ernie, TV Isn't Teaching." New York Times. Nov 12, 1994.)

Hours per year the average American youth spends in school: 900 (Barber, Benjamin. Harper's. Nov 1993: 41)

Hours per year the average American youth watches television: 1,023 (Nielsen Media Research, 2000) (Statistics, 2005)

The Media Coalition, founded in 1973, reportedly "defends the First Amendment right to create and distribute books, magazines, recordings, movies, videotapes and videogames; and defends the American public's First Amendment right to have access to the broadest possible range of opinion and entertainment." Members consist of U.S. publishers: librarians, booksellers, publishers, periodical distributors, recording and videogame manufacturers and retailers. Members include:

American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression

Association of American Publishers

Freedom to Read Foundation

Interactive Digital Software Association

International Periodical Distributors Association

Magazine Publishers…… [Read More]

Sources:
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.

Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
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Media Accompanying the Military to Battle Essay

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69392831

Media With the Military in Battle

Government

There must be a cost-benefit analysis performed before formally agreeing to attach reporters to military units during active engagements. There are pros and cons for the side of the press and on the side of the military. It has become practice or tradition since the Vietnam War for journalists to be permitted to accompany and document the activities of various military units. Therefore, there is a fairly substantial precedent set for this form of cooperation. When considering this situation, imagining the outcome can assist in adequately preparing both sides for the accompaniment.

The military units that would have journalists should be provided as much notice as possible. This would give the commanding officers a chance to prepare assignments that would both satisfy the journalists and provide a respectable amount of operational secrecy. The journalists should receive some kind of basic military training and debriefing regarding the conditions into which they will enter with the military. Awareness is critical during battle situations. If the journalists have some kind of idea as to how military operations work, what kind of conditions the units live in, and what some of the more common situations they will be in before departure, this will help very much. The journalists will not seem so ignorant about the battle and the military. This will increase their chances of not causing accidental harm and of not accidently getting into harm's way. Socially, preparation of this cooperation will be beneficial for both sides. Active battle situations are tense enough without additional tensions between distinct groups of military members and groups of journalists. Knowledge and empathy can go a long way toward cooperation. This is not to say that the aim is for the military and the media to be friends necessarily, but they need to get along well enough that lives are not unnecessarily threatened and sacrificed.

Pros for the military include increased knowledge and respect. Media coverage of a battle…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2012). Press Freedom vs. Military Censorship. Web, Available from:  http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/press-freedom-versus-military-censorship.html . 2012 November 09.

Ricchiardi, S. (2006). Dangerous Assignment. American Journalism Review, Web, Available from: http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4003. 2012 November 10.
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Media Images Are Not Harmful Essay

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29893817

Providing a strong cultural and personal role model may be more important than attempting to socially engineer the messages teens and all citizens receive. The lesser susceptibility of certain ethnic groups to media pressures to live up to an ideal of thinness or physical perfection highlights the complex interplay between cultural, social, and psychological factors that produce self-esteem and what might be called body image. The interplay of these factors is more important in creating a 'body image' than what constitutes an individual's media exposure.

This is an important topic of research because it highlights the fact that censorship of media has limited value in engineering positive social results. While it would be tempting and easy to suggest that developing minds and bodies should be shielded from toxic media influence as though it were the plague, this type of isolation would have a limited effect. It would not screen out the cultural and personal influences that impact an individual's susceptibility to the media, and certainly would do little to impact the biological and genetic hard-wiring within some brains that predispose them to develop eating disorders and other mental conditions. Part of growing up is becoming a critical consumer of the media, and one possible reason the fact that individuals who consume 'more' media sources seem less apt to have negative body images is that they are more critical viewers of the various images and messages they find themselves bombarded with on a daily basis.

Works… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Girls get anorexia 'because their brains are wired differently' (17 Dec 2007). The Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at ttp:/ / www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-502705/Girls-anorexia-brains-wired-differently.html

Holmstrom, Amanda J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis.
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Media Institutions and Regulations A Discussion on Essay

Words: 1753 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84474612

Media Institutions and Regulations:

A Discussion on the Twitter Phenomenon

Words change meaning all the time. Take, for example, awful. Today, it means something terrible, but it used to mean filled with awe (aweful). In this case, a different spelling has led to a different interpretation. Yet sometimes, the same word may mean the same exact thing, only in a completely different context. This refers to the example of Twitter. Traditionally, "twitter" as a verb meant "to utter a succession of small, tremulous sounds, as a bird" or "to talk lightly and rapidly, especially of trivial matters." In this day and age, however, a mention of "twitter" will conjure up images of the phenomenon that the technological age has brought about. Yes, twitter can still mean trivial talk, even in this technological context, but most likely, it will refer to the "information network" that connects friends to coworkers and even celebrities in a matter of seconds. This paper will thus discuss the benefits and dangers of the so-called "twitterverse" and the "twitter" phenomenon in general, and will focus to these aspects especially when compared to traditional news publications and traditional media outlets. [1: No Author. "Definition of Twitter." Dictionary.com. 2011. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/twitter ]

About Twitter

According to the website itself, "Twitter is a real-time information network that connects [the user] to the latest information about what [he or she] find[s] interesting." A follower would have to simply follow those channels or people that he or she finds interesting, and he or she would have all sorts of information in real time. The website "about" section also offers information on how the process works:

"At the heart of Twitter are small bursts of information called Tweets. Each Tweet is 140 characters in length, but don't let the small size fool you -- you can share a lot with a little space. Connected to each Tweet is a rich details pane that provides additional information, deeper context and embedded media. You can tell your story within your Tweet, or you can think of a Tweet as the headline, and use the details pane to tell the rest with photos, videos and other media content […]" [2: http://twitter.com/about ]

Indeed, Twitter is a marvel not only…… [Read More]

References:

\"Beyond the dippy lingo, the idea that something intelligent, something worthy of mindshare, might occur in the space of 140 characters -- Twitter\'s parameters were set by what would fit in a text message on a phone -- seems unlikely. But it was clear […] the primary news platform was Twitter, with real-time annotation of the panels on stage and critical updates about what was happening elsewhere at a very hectic convention.\" [9: Carr, David. \"Why Twitter Will Endure.\" New York Times, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/03/weekinreview/03carr.html ]
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Media Critical Analysis Hamlet Hamlet Essay

Words: 4649 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32409674

Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)

Hemlet and Postcolonial theory

Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era seems a utopia. (Elsaesser, 1998, p9-26)

At a time when some thought and creative dynamic scramble to raise new concepts to identify the problems of today, new concepts that go beyond the usual talk of post-colonial era seems redundant, boring and not very inventive. (Miller, 1997, p11-18)

The school intends to study postcolonial "engaging postcolonial" as exceeding colonial studies (African studies, for example) and as an over the political discourse of decolonization discourse, according to Verges (2005, 88-89) Limit analysis of political and cultural societies formerly colonized an indictment of colonialism. (Baetens, 2007, p226-38)

The name given by Freud in "Oedipus Complex" was based on Sophocles' play Oedipus Rex. This complex is the set of hostile feelings and death wishes of rival or parent of the same sex, and sexual desires towards the opposite sex parent, generating a non-differentiation between self and other. (Aragay, 2005, p88-96)

Internalization becomes the process by which relations between people in relationships are transformed, that is what is reproduced above was taken in the individual psychic agencies such as the relationship of authority between father and son becomes on SUPER YO-YO, which lays the groundwork for instance lead…… [Read More]

Sources:
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.

Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
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Media's Coverage of Terrorism Essay

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54958227

Media and Terrorism

The role of the media and its impact in reporting terrorist cases has attracted significant concern in the recent past given the increase in terrorist activities across the globe. The increased concern has contributed to controversy and debates on whether the media helps in advancing the agenda of terrorists. Actually, some scholars argue that too often the media assists in advancing terrorists' agenda while others disagree. However, the determination of whether the media promotes terrorists' agenda requires an evaluation of the intentions of terrorists and the goals of the media during coverage of terrorist attacks.

While terrorists carry out their activities for various reasons including ideological, religious and nationalist objectives, some terrorist groups and organizations utilize the media as a means of obtaining recognition or publicity for the causes and goals of their groups. In contrast, media's role in coverage of terror attacks is to providing information and knowledge of events that are taking place in the world. This implies that the media does not necessary promote terrorists' agenda through it coverage of terror attacks. Even though some of the coverage may play into terrorists' agenda, especially those that want to gain publicity, the media does not promote terrorists' agenda.

The media usually serves acts as a tool for soliciting the support of citizens toward action or initiatives that fight terrorism. Moreover, the media coverage of such attacks focuses on reporting unbiased information in a manner that does not persuade or contribute to dramatic representation of events. Mahan & Griset (2008) argues that journalists have the responsibility of present accurate information only while the audience analyzes and draws conclusions…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Anderson, T. (1993). Terrorism and Censorship: The Media in Chains. Journal of International

Affairs, 47(1), 127.
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Media Literacy Educators in the Essay

Words: 2023 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95938523



As an alternative to the protectionist approach, Kellner advocates a media literacy that demonstrates the potential of new media and technology to empower students. Media can be used as strong avenues of self-expression and social activism (7). We should use media as a tool, and cease viewing the media as the enemy to educated civilization, as a pedestrian form of social expression. Protectionists fail to recognize the positive power of all media by overemphasizing the relevance of print. On the other hand, Kellner notes that educators must "avoid an uncritical media populism," in which we pander to the lowest common denominator in popular culture (8). Kellner's message is on balance and critical thinking. What modern educators need is a blend between the glorification of pop culture imagery and censorship. When technology is adapted for the use of education, it can be an immensely powerful tool. For example, students who are encouraged to create their own websites can learn about how media affects the ways they are perceived by others.

In the third and final section of Kellner's "Multiple Literacies," entitled "New Technologies, Multiple Literacies, and Postmodern Pedagogy: The New Frontier," Kellner bridges his opinions regarding multiculturalism and media literacy with the specifics of information technology. Kellner asserts that computers definitely encourage student participation in the classroom and allow them to take more control over their own education. With computers, students can participate in the "production of culture," according to Kellner," (9). Kellner wisely notes that computer literacy means more than just knowing how to open Microsoft Word or how to surf the Web. Computer literacy extends beyond knowledge of programming languages as well. According to Kellner, computer literacy implies a mastery of the specific discourse of information technologies, including an appreciation of the nature of hypertext and the implications of interpersonal Internet…… [Read More]

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Front-Page War How Media Complicity Essay

Words: 3781 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19321252

The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa, (George W. Bush, State of the Union Address, Jan. 28, 2003) the claims were quickly picked up and repeated by the media. So were claims that Iraq had nuclear weapons. "We believe [Hussein] has, in fact, reconstituted nuclear weapons." (Dick Cheney, NBC's Meet the Press, March 16, 2003) Yet, after the search for chemical and nuclear weapons was eventually called off without any actual discover of such weapons, the media made startling little of the fact that Donald Rumsfeld said "I don't believe anyone that I know in the administration ever said that Iraq had nuclear weapons." (Senate appropriations subcommittee on defense hearing, May 14, 2003)

In fact, shortly thereafter "USA Today and the Los Angeles Times, echoed this fudging -- last year 'weapons,' this year 'programs' -- declaring that 'the jury's still out' on whether Iraq had WMD and that 'I am a long way at this stage from concluding that somehow there was some fundamental flaw in our intelligence.'" (Scheer et al.) similar phenomena occured with another major falsehood widely distributed in the media, albeit less vociferously insisted upon by the administration itself. Through-out the early months leading up to the invasion of Iraq, the media was filled with the idea that attacking this nation would be a reasonable part of the "war on terror," and implied that Hussein had some direct connection with the events to September 11th.

To this day, over a third of Americans continue to believe that Hussein personally arranged the hijackings.

Even after the middle pages of major newspapers had already explained that intelligence showed Hussein was not directly involved in the September 11th terror attacks, a CNN/Gallup poll reported that "42% of Americans still believe that Saddam Hussein was involved in the Sept. 11 terrorist attack on the U.S. And 32% believe that Saddam Hussein personally planned the attack." (Roberts) Predictably, this has led to an environment in which a large number of people support the war on Iraq precisely because they believe that this is a direct act of retribution against those who stroke a blow to our nation. It is common to hear, in every day conversation, the assertion that Iraq started this war by…… [Read More]

References:
Ridge, George. "Embedded: the media at war in Iraq." Military Review. January-February 2004. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0PBZ/is_1_84/ai_n6112518

Roberts, Paul Craig. "The Brownshirting of America." AntiWar.Com. 16 October 2004.  http://www.antiwar.com/roberts/?articleid=3798 

Scheer, Christopher; Scher, Robert; Chaudhry, Lakshmi. "Bush's Lies About Iraq." The Nation. 11 March 2004. http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml%3Fi=20040329&s=scheer
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Chip Censorship Vchip Significance Essay

Words: 2391 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7676598

Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?

In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the television industry, governmental, and citizen bodies banded together again in the mid-1980's to begin the process of looking into alternative ways to actually keep children from watching violent acts in a society that maintains that freedom of expression is a critical part of our social order (Hornaday N01). One of the methods that is now commonplace is the television rating scale. Seen at the beginning of shows and upon returning from advertising breaks, broadcast networks have begun to voluntarily participate in the program of flashing a rating such as G, TV-MA, etc. On the screen indicating the content in the program.

Ratings, however, are simply not an effective deterrent. The determined child can simply keep his eyes open and watch as people kill each other on the screen. Ratings do not prevent actual viewing and it is viewing violence that creates violence. Therefore, the only course of action remaining, apparently, is to actually prevent children from watching particularly violent television shows. There are two basic ways to accomplish this that the broadcasting industry has agreed to participate in. First there is the "windowing" of television. During certain hours of the day, the television industry has agreed not to broadcast particular kinds of movies and television shows. This, in part, explains why children do not come home to seeing network broadcasts of Boys n the Hood, or Saving Private Ryan. The second…… [Read More]

Sources:
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail:

http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_tv_violence.Acc: 12 Oct, 2007.
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Media Favorite Form Media You Choose Essay

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27116073

media / favorite form media. You choose . Analysis

In my opinion, the most preferable form of mass media is the fairly conventional compact disc. CDs are an excellent sociological tool in learning about one's environment and the relevant issues that affect society today. Additionally, CD's allow for a highly limited form of intervention between the message that the music artist is attempting to convey and its reception by the listener. Conversely, I believe that one of the least preferable forms of media is the internet. Despite the fact that there are vast amounts of information accessible to users on it, there are a number of ways in which using the internet inherently impinges on the privacy of a particular user. Cookies and other sorts of intelligence metrics track the particular activity of people. Moreover, this capability of the internet, when combined with aspects of data governance, data stewardship, and business intelligence, can preserve this information for inordinate amounts of time, sell it or transfer it to other users, and effectively monitor the habits and activities of internet users.

CDs predominantly have a positive impact on the life of music consumers and aficionados such as myself. In addition to providing quality entertainment in the form of the actual music that artists put into them, they also are viable forms of media in the sense that they contain valuable information about a host of social issues, including those related to politics, economics, and religion. One of the most positive aspects about using CD's as mass media is that people can get exactly what it is they want. If there is a particular artist that someone appreciates, and is known for making music that contains relevant social commentary about current events (as some of the best artists routinely do), then someone can simply buy that person's CD. Although there are basic standards related to decency and obscenity that CDs and artists…… [Read More]

References:
Godwin, Allotey. "Libertarian V. Social Responsibility." Allotey Godwin.  http://alloteygodwin.blogspot.com/2009/05/libertarian-v-social-responsibility.html 

No Author. "Introduction to Mass Communication." Zeepedia.com. No date. Web. http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?media_theories_libertarian_theory_social_responsibility_theory_introduction_to_mass_communication&b=78&c=39
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Media Savvy Kids Essay

Words: 303 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62134296

Raising Media-Savvy Kids." (November/December 2004)

"Every one' knows the 'common sense' cliche -- television is bad, the mass media is bad, anything learned over the Internet is especially bad and of doubtful truth, and today's children would be better off in a technology free-zone, locked in stimulation-free rooms that are lit by candlelight and filled with nothing but volumes of the collected works of Shakespeare and perhaps conduct books from the past century.

Not so, says the author of "Raising Media Savvy-Kids." The media, like so many things, must be approached with a 'use it or lose it' strategy by parents and educators. Use the media to your advantage, parents and educators, or lose children to the media's worst excesses. Disdain the media at your own risk!

Rather than viewing the media with hostility and attempting to eradicate its presence from children's environments -- a Quixotic quest, at best…… [Read More]

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Controlling the Media in Egypt Essay

Words: 4404 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87859540

Media Control in Egypt

The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.

Introduction

The Egyptian media is an important facet of life in that country, and worth discussing on a number of levels. It is largely controlled by the government, which can leave the Egyptian people wondering whether what they are being told is accurate, or whether it is tailored to provide them only what the government thinks they should hear (Shuman). This has led to arguments that the government is protecting them, and has also led to the opinion that the media should be open and independent, allowing the people to decide how they really feel about all of the most important issues that are facing their country today.

Additionally, there is a great deal of influence in both Egypt and the rest of the Arab world that comes through Egyptian media, as there is a very large audience (PressTV). Some government control has been recently lifted, and that has increased the number of people who want to watch and listen to Egyptian media to get unbiased information they may not be able to receive in their home countries. Despite this, there is still a high level of governmental control over the Egyptian media, most prominently by the military (PressTV).

The Controlled Media in Egypt

The media in Egypt has generally always been under the control of the government, and many journalists state that the army and the military…… [Read More]

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Effects Mainstream Social Media Today's Children Essay

Words: 1902 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10387507

Children and Media

Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).

Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media. Social media venues target just about every population in the world and children are no sort of exception. The biggest issue with the existence of the social media world is in the lack of privacy that these mediums offer (Bargh & McKenna, 2003). Privacy is a concern among adults from any sort of background. This concern stems from the potential effects on their children. The idea of one's life being broadcasted so that everyone is able to know what is going on, scares a lot of individuals from even participating in social media world (Bargh & McKenna, 2003). With the lack of privacy that the Internet offers, children are growing up to think that it is quite acceptable to participate in activities online that provides them with the promise of anonymity. Any sort of inclination toward confidentiality through social media is false. What has not come to the full understanding of the children living in today's society is that although anonymity is promised by numerous social…… [Read More]

Sources:
Anderson, D.R. & Hanson, K.G. (2009). Children, media, and methodology. American Behavioral Science. 52(8), 1204-1219.

Bargh, J.A. & McKenna, K.Y.A. (2003). The internet and social life. Annual Review of Psychology. 55, 573-590.
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Global Media Essay

Words: 1874 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45318100

Censorship and Freedom of the Press

In 2009, Frank Bainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (ABC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by Bainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to Bainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace Bainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).

Bainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up in his offices with his full cabinet the next day (Puppet show, 2009). The abrogation of the constitution and dismissal of the judiciary allowed him to be immediately reappointed (Frank Bainimarama, 2010). He went on to make several speeches targeting all the measures of reform that he believed were necessary for Fiji, specifically related to freedoms, civil rights, social change, and leadership. Bainimarama's comments about the dangers freedom of speech in the press arise from his determination to pursue the ideal of promoting public truth and justice as a means of truly educating the public with true facts (Alley, 2010).

Bainimarama is confusing censorship with a valid means for making sure that citizens believe only what the government wants them to believe. It is not about truth and justice for the good of society and protection against a corrupt press but rather truth and justice to ensure that the government remains free of dissent and in absolute power and control over public discourse and political opinions. Bainimarama continues to serve as Prime Minister alongside current President, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau (Fiji's High Commission, 2011). Bainimarama also serves as Minister for Finance, Strategic…… [Read More]

References:
ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/ 

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
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History of the Media in America Media Essay

Words: 2710 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32475062

History Of the Media in America

Media America, a History

Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and Rome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the Renaissance.

Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."

Less than a century after Gutenberg's invention of the moveable type, printing was brought to the Americas -- an area of the world that was unknown fifty years earlier.

When Father Juan de Zumarraga, first bishop of Mexico, arrived in Mexico in 1528, he perceived that if the church could establish a printing press in the new colony, his task of making converts of the Indians would be made immeasurably easier, and the press, the enemy of illiteracy, would be firmly controlled.

It was Father Zumarraga who was responsible for the negotiations that brought Juan Pablos, and Italian from Brescia, to America as its first printer. Pablos' primitive type of equipment had turned out 37 books before he died in the 1560s. He created the kind of "cottage industry in printing and publishing that prevailed in North America for the next 250 years."

In fact, the technology that Pablos used changed so slowly that no substantial breakthrough occurred in printing until the early nineteenth century. The cottage-industry character of publishing didn't change really at all in the American colonies until after the American Revolution transformed them into states. The Roman Catholic Church firmly controlled both printing and learning in the early years of North American Colonial Development.

In the New World, American settlers talked a lot about freedom of the press, but books (the first medium in the colonies), and then newspapers needed the approval of the government before being…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American

Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.
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Social Media by Business Using the Best Essay

Words: 1521 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53801089

social media by business, using the Best Buy case as an example. The benefits of social media in the business context are explained, as are the downsides. There are also recommendations with respect to the use of social media by a law firm, and in this case it is recommended that the law firm should not engage in social media. Compared with a retailer -- especially one with a connection to technology -- there is less upside for a law firm and more downside risk. Understanding the benefits of social media as well as the business context is essential to developing an effective social media plan.

Best Buy has successfully embraced social media, something that fits with its brand image, but also something that has helped to enhance its business. This report will outline the principles of successful social media usage, the value that social media has to business, and also provide a blueprint for social media success for the law firm.

Overview of Social Media

Businesses use social media for a number of reasons, not the least of which is promotion. There are a number of reasons why businesses utilize the promotional power of social media. One of the most evident ones is that social media is widely used. Certainly as a promotional tool, there are very few ways to promote a company, brand or product. There are over 1 billion members of Facebook, and tens of millions of people using Twitter. Facebook for businesses is usually a limited promotional tool, akin to an enhanced Yellow Pages listing. While many businesses have Facebook pages, few will make regular updates, so the page becomes static and serves little marketing purpose. Twitter utilizes updates, which are limited in size to 140 characters, and these updates are the basis for sending messages to the target audience, which consists of the organization's Twitter followers.

Social media in particular is a powerful tool, because the message can be amplified, where people "like" or "retweet" messages, sending them on to other users who would otherwise not see the messages. This amplification can be a powerful tool especially for limited promotions. When a message is amplified substantially -- if it…… [Read More]

References:
Dunn, B.J., (2010, Dec). Best Buy's CEO on Learning to Love Social

Media, Harvard Business Review, 88(12), 43-48. Retrieved from EBSCO.