What music do you associate with childhood? How did/does this music make you feel? How do your choices reflect your childhood experiences?
Music that is associated with childhood has special significance as it not only contributes to the mental development of the child but also reminds one of the happy memories of the childhood. Even the research shows that the music that a child hears has influence on him throughout his life and introducing children to various rhythms can make their experiences positive. (Bilhartz, Bruhn and Olson, 1999) The music that we hear mostly during our childhood is rhymes and lullabies. The one lullaby with which I associate my childhood is "Twinkle Little Star." Its music sounded very sweet and always cheered me up and still brings back memories of the happy days of my childhood. One important part of my childhood involves getting introduced to the stars in the sky. I still remember that when I was a kid, I used to sit on a terrace looking at the beautiful stars while my grandmother sung this rhyme to me. I used to count the twinkling stars and still remember the joy and excitement of doing that. I was really fascinated by them and adored their beauty.
This was also one of the reasons that stars had special place in all of my drawings when I first started my artwork. Also, when we were together with our cousins, we all used to sing this rhyme aloud and tried to jump high and reach the stars with all our innocence. I always wondered about the limits of the dark starry sky and imagined what it would be like to touch the stars. The stanza in the poem "How I wonder what you are" expresses the wonder I felt about the starry sky and the twinkling stars. I also feel that I developed my voice by singing this rhyme. Hence, it helped me develop my listening and communication skills. Although I am an adult now, these stars still appear beautiful to me and I still feel invigorated and soothed after hearing this music.
2. What music do you associate with adolescence? Was this music a way to fit in or rebel?
The music that I associate…… [Read More]
In other words each music performance is different and the impulsiveness of each performance confirms the concept of indeterminate music.
6) Describe an Indonesian Gamelan. (Textbook p. 282-283)
It said that Debussy, when he heard the Indonesian ensemble called gamelan was surprisingly delighted at its diverse and delicate timbers, and decided to use the elements in the impressionistic sound which he was working at developing.
The gamelan, a distinctive Indonesian orchestra consisting mainly of percussion instruments, primarily metallophones (metal keys suspended over a bronze or wooden frame and struck with a mallet) gongs and drums. Accompanied by string and wind instruments for good effect is a widely respected theme. With drums regulating the tempo and rhythm, while a part of the instruments engage in playing melody, others add finesse and the gongs intervene methodically at phrase and section endings to notify the formal structures of a composition. The visually spectacular effects of this music from Java or Bali have attracted rave reviews from the Western World.
Between the Javanese and Balinese gamelan the latter is considered to be a richer and more satisfying experience. The gamelan music is known for the pairing of differently tuned but similar instruments, each tone clearly heard during the slow sections, and opens with the high pitch metallophones followed by regular and frequent interventions by gong strokes which punctuate the each of the first two phrases on the final beat. A 24-inch pitch bass ostinato melody is presented after a small interval dominated by high pitched instruments. In the Balinese gamelan you will be privy to drums, gongs, high- and low-pitched metallophones; pitches lying between the tones of the tonal scales; changes in dynamic level; frequent pauses; alternating sections of relaxed and driving rhythms.
7) Using the musical encounter Listening Example #62 (Einstein on the Beach, Act IV, Scene 37, "Spaceship" by Glass), discuss how that style of music has influenced American popular music. (Textbook p. 356-358)
Philip Glass was contemporary of Nadia Boulanger, who was popular for encouraging the concept of individuality among her students. Glass traveled widely in Africa and Asia to study their unique drumming prowess, and was taken aback by the profundity of Indonesia's Balinese gamelan. Glass always surprises his listeners with his use of the technique of systematically repeating melodic and rhythmic phrases that change slowly later…… [Read More]
Music & Cognition
Music is a fundamental element of human culture that has been in existence nearly as long as humans have existed. Most people who listen to and appreciate music can personally attest to the power or influence music has. We listen to certain songs or types of music to reinforce or change our moods. Each person knows what songs will bring on a rush of memories or sensations that are unique to that person's life and experience. What many people may not be aware of is that the influence and power of music is more than affective; the effects of music on the brain and on people generally have been proven to be scientific. There is substantial scientific research, both from the social sciences and the hard sciences that clearly demonstrate the power of music on the brain, with specific respect to cognition. The paper will explore and analyze how the effects of music on cognition with reference to some of the scientific evidence available as well as reference a real life example of the capacity of music to assist & rebuild cognition in Arizona Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords.
Giffords is the third woman to ever have been elected to Congress. As aforementioned, she represented the state of Arizona up until her formal resignation in late January of this year. Giffords resigned as a result of injuries sustained during a shooting in 2011. She and several other people, including children, were victims of a shooting in January. Giffords herself was shot in the head. During a visit to some of her constituents, Gifford was shot and critically injured; there were more than a dozen fatalities and several injuries. The damage of her injuries was quite severe, imaginably, including loss of the ability to walk, talk, read, and write. When she awoke from her medically induced coma, she began several types of therapy including speech therapy,…… [Read More]
The Music in "Anastasia"
Movies are remembered either for their stories, plot, characters or music. It is the challenge for the director and producer of the movie to make effective use of as many aspects of the movie as he can. The cartoon and animated movies normally are remembered for their graphics and fantasy. Music adds to the fantasy of a movie. Anastasia is one such movie that offers a complete entertainment to children. While some think that the movie did not end well (Anastasia (1997) plot summary, 2012) others believe that despite the fact that the movie fantasizes life a lot, it can be recommended to the children so that they can differentiate between life and a movie.
Anastasia is a fantasy as a princess as well as the movie. Her story has a great impact on the movies as well as the Russian culture. Although the records were opened decades after her family execution telling that she was executed too, the story became a strong plot for the movies. Anastasia belongs to the family of fantasy tales pictures as drama film animated music tale. It was produced in 1997 by Fox Animation Studios. The movie is about the Russian Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna. She could manage to live when her family was executed. She wishes to find her family. The music of the movie was liked by the movie lovers and two of its songs are also Oscar nominated.
The music of Anastasia was composed and carried out by David Newman, the son of Alfred Newman who composed music of Anastasia film of 1956. "Journey to the Past" song got Academy Award for Best Original Song nomination and "Once Upon a December" was nominated by Academy Awards too. It is not the story that is told in the movie only. Rather the movie also includes the music that has…… [Read More]
Music has always been an important part of my life. From the time I was a little boy into my adolescence and through my teenage years, music was my companion whenever I could put my headset on and not get in trouble for listening to music. My good times were accompanied by music and just like my friends, music was there when I wasn't doing so well. In fact music does connect a time and a place for me in my life.
Music I associate with my childhood: Mostly I was into hip hop as a kid. My parents were into various music, some standards like Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald, and they were into some rock music from the sixties and seventies. But when I was nine years old I remember listening to a hip hop tune by 2 Pac called "Keep Your Head Up." The beat of course was what kids got into and learned to dance to. In 2 Pac's song he gave encouragement to a young boy my age: "The glow that the sun gets / Right around sunset / Helps me realize / This is just a journey / Drop your worries / You are gonna turn out fine / You gotta keep your head up / oh, And you can let your hair down, the."
A lot of my classmates and some of my friends didn't care that much about the lyrics, they just wanted to jam and dance and get lost in the beat. I loved the beat too, the rhythm of rap and hip hop, it was infectious, it was part of our youth culture; but I also tried to take an interest in what the song was saying to me. I had a good childhood and I liked 2 Pac. Later I learned more about him after he was shot to death; I learned that he was influential in making hip hop more about people's lives. He went away from what rap had been doing with misogynistic lyrics that put women down and attacked women from a chauvinistic point-of-view.…… [Read More]
Music and the Internet
in order to accommodate these specifications in the number of pages requested (though the paper is 9 1/2 pages as it stands), the paper has utilized ANALYSIS in the article and the discussion section, thereby combining article summary with analysis of sources and thus putting the second point given by the professor "Then write a separate discussion the issue as a whole…" into a proper context
-however, as this paper is a model, it CANNOT be utilized as your own, so please consult the terms and conditions above for proper citation methods
Music and the Internet:
A Shift in Tradition; A Shift to Technology
Many advances in technology have changed the current living population's life, especially in developed countries. These include better food, better medicine, and better connectivity with the rest of the world. Yet perhaps one of the most important things, especially in these Westernized countries, has been the improvement of finding and enjoying entertainment in a variety of mediums, at a higher quality. Film, for example, is not only in color but also in HD (high definition). Cooking shows show simmering pots, for instance, that televisions now render so vivid, one can almost smell the aromas as well. Yet music, another form of entertainment, has perhaps experienced the most transcending change. Whereas only a few decades ago music could only be listened to in the home, on huge record players, one can now have music readily available, literally at one's fingertips, and can download and listen to a song in a matter of seconds. Yes, technology has changed the way people listen to music traditionally, but has also improved the experience, and one of the most important ways in which this has happened has been placing music on the internet, available for all for a small fee (i.e. iTunes $.99 price-wise). Thus, this paper will examine this important topic, music and the internet, and will demonstrate how this has come to…… [Read More]
In his book Lynskey notes that during George W. Bush's administration, when Bush made anti-war people angry by invading Iraq, Neil Young sand "Let's Impeach the President." Earlier in his career Neil Young responded to the killing of four students (by the National Guard) in Kent State in 1970 by writing the protest song, "Ohio," which was performed by Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young. Lynskey called it a "masterpiece" or protest that was full of "…fury, grief, and topical precision" (Wilentz, p. 3).
Lynskey contrasts the protest songs of Bob Dylan with Phil Ochs, which involves a massive amount of lyrics and music from the Sixties and Seventies. The author explains that Ochs was more of an in-person activist than Dylan, showing up at various anti-war rallies, and while Dylan's classic protest songs like "Masters of War" and "Only a Pawn in Their Game" far surpassed Ochs' "preachier material," Ochs made a name for himself in the peace movement with songs like "I Ain't a-Marchin' Anymore" (Wilentz, p. 4).
In conclusion, it is fascinating to see how music and politics -- from slavery days to the anti-Vietnam war and civil rights in the 1960s -- have played an important role in society. The madness of Hitler and the anger of workers that had to toil for 12 and 14 hours a day with little compensation -- it is all part of the blending of music and politics.
Works… [Read More]
Music or Musical Theatre
Like the Rising Sun
Although in conventional times and among younger people jazz music is disparaged as boring 'elevator music', true jazz music is anything but. I reached this conclusion after listening to some excellent concert jazz albums of live music. The work of jazz that I am largely basing the aforementioned thesis on is Charles Lloyd's Forest Flower, which was released in 1966 when jazz music was at the height of its popularity, and before it became diluted into the Kenny G, elevator music that it is largely known as today. Therefore, this paper will largely explain how true jazz music is raucous, "improvisational" (Baraka 262), even revolutionary music -- before it was tamed and delivered to the mass media for safe consumption. I will explore this theme by presenting a response to Forest Flower, as well as an interpretation and an evaluation of this musical recording. In doing so I aim to indicate how this work is exemplary of other works of jazz, which is a wild, party driven music that can become hauntingly melodious at times.
The first time I ever heard Forest Flower was when my father played it for me during a Christmas vacation on his vinyl record player. I had never really listened to jazz before (although he had a sizeable collection), and I generally thought about it as most other young people do -- that it is tedious, safe music for old people. However, very early on in the recording (just a few notes into the first song on the first side) I quickly understood that this perception was incorrect about this particular selection. My father told me that he and my mother used to listen to this album over and over before they produced my sister and me. I could easily see why. The melodies of this piece were extremely gripping. It actually sounds like a gentle forest clearing on the night of a solstice (either winter or summer), and is able to sonically recreate all of the wonder, mystery, and enchantment of such a full-moon drenched evening.
However, what I truly found fascinating about this work is the fact…… [Read More]
A pioneer of electronic music and the godfather of ambient, Brian Eno has always recognized the importance of the studio as a compositional tool. In 1979, Eno delivered a lecture entitled, "The Studio as Compositional Tool" at the New Music America Festival in New York City. Since then, Eno has written about the subject of the role of the studio in musical composition as well as recording. For Eno, the studio is not necessarily a static entity. Eno reportedly set to sell his studio in 2005, because he was "fed up" with it because, in his words, "all this equipment is sitting around looking at me and expecting me to use it," (Eno, cited by Tingen, 2005). The statement may seem ironic, given Eno's celebration of the studio as a compositional tool. However, taken in context of Eno's career and his being influenced by minimalist composition, Eno's assertion that the studio was impeding his creativity seems appropriate. According to Eno, "complexity arises out of simplicity," (cited by Tingen, 2005). Even a laptop can provide a full studio for a composer. A studio need not be a large, dedicated room with fancy gadgets, amps, and five guitars. The studio does not have to have a specific form, with specific tools and instruments. Each studio will be characterized by the unique needs of the musician, composer, or sound engineer. Tingen (2005) describes Eno's "bright and airy workspace," as being peppered with boom boxes hanging from the ceiling. Anything goes.
The studio is a compositional tool because sound engineering is integral to the inputs and outputs of music. As integral to inputs, the nature of the studio determines how the artist will work. The elements contained in the studio determine what, if any, acoustic instruments are used and what kinds of sounds will be recorded from them. Each studio will have strengths and limitations: even if those are purely ergonomic. However, many studios will boast tools that the composer has never before used. For example, there might be a software system that the composer is unfamiliar with. Or, a rock musician who plays the drums might balk at the sight of a drum machine. A digital-only studio will encourage an approach to composition that recognizes the…… [Read More]
The piano plays quick octaves and the urgent bass motive portrays an intense wild ride. This strong galloping is also being formulated by the piano's triplet rhythm which allows for the development of the dramatic storyline's urgency.
5. ) There are four different characters in this piece: the Narrator, the father, the son, and the Erlkonig. Although Schubert uses one singer to portray and sing all of the four parts of the characters, the listener is able to quite clearly differentiate them from one another. The son is sung in the high register in a minor key with dissonant harmonies. On the other hand, the father is sung in low register while the Erlkonig is sung in a coy with pleasant and soft melodies in the major key.
6. ) There are two ways that Schubert builds momentum in his piece. The first way is by using the bass as a method of demonstrating the galloping horse. Every now and then the tones range from low to high and back to low again, insinuating the nervousness felt by the father and the son as they are running away from the Erlkonig. The second way that momentum is built is by the extra tension portrayed through the bass right before the son dies. The excitement of the music just goes silent as listeners get prepared to mourn the death of the son.
7. ) as the Narrator describes the final race to the home, the father holds his son tightly, the tempo begins slowing down as they reach the courtyard until it just suddenly stops. The piano plays a quiet, almost silent chord as the narrator, in a recitative a major, depicts the vivid description of the son in the arms of his father. This touching moment is then interrupted after another chord follows the short pause with the last words being: "was dead!" This loud and intentional voice in an Andante perfect cadence in G minor emphasizes the severity of the situation. They belong together because the stanza is a build up to the final phrase, elevating the impact of the final revelation.
Copland, Simple Gifts from Appalachian Spring
1. ) the work was composed between the years 1943 and 1944. This work was originally intended as a ballet…… [Read More]
In early childhood, I watched the shows on PBS like Sesame Street. I can still remember the songs that permeated my living room, teaching me how to count and spell. I do not know all the formal titles of the songs, but I can sing them almost all by heart. Elmo's songs, the alphabet songs, songs about everyone making mistakes that is okay: Sesame Street taught me a lot about social norms, music, counting, spelling, and words in Spanish, too. These early childhood lessons were instrumental in helping me grow as a person. Although I rarely if ever hear these songs now, I feel warm and happy inside when they come to mind. The Sesame Street songs reflect my childhood experiences because I had a happy childhood, in which learning was encouraged by my parents. Watching educational shows was a big part of my childhood.
During adolescence, it was a time of rebellion and finding my own voice. Therefore, it was suitable that the music I started to gravitate to was the music of rebellious generations prior to my own. At first, I got into listening to the Beatles. This was because my best friend's older brother had a lot of Beatles albums and other music from the 1960s and 1970s. The music was rebellious, talking about sex, drugs, and rock and roll. The sounds of the music, like Jimi Hendrix's guitar, were also rebellious in the sense that they were unlike any sounds that had gone before. Later, I started to listen to punk rock and grunge: both of which were also rebellious forms of music that reflected my adolescent identity. I was not a bad kid, but I could relate to the idea of rebellion from society. I wanted to find new ways of being, other than buying into the myth of materialism. Songs like Anarchy in the UK" by the Sex Pistols also opened my mind to political ideas, which I had never before given much thought to. Therefore, punk music had a big impact on the way I think and feel.
I listen to a lot of different types of music for pure comfort. The type of music…… [Read More]
Music in High Schools
Psychology Research Project
Examining the Effects of Music Education in Various Students
Children are often encouraged to undertake creative activities in order to improve their imagination and achieve a balance between studying and relaxing. One creative activity is to partake in music education. Music is one field in which a student can be as creative as he or she desires, for there is no limit placed on how much or how loudly one can play his or her instrument. Music classes, though structure, encourage these facets, and keep students on their creative toes, and therefore are vitally important for the development of children.
There have been many studies on this topic, especially in light of many schools cutting their music education programs. Most of these studies have proven, beyond a doubt, that music education helps students in many ways, including with development of certain parts of the brain. This research aims to describe these studies in further detail, as well as to find the relationship between the number of music lesson that students take and academic performance. If a positive relationship exists, as the studies state, there are possible chances to design lessons that effectively help students improve their grades. This design may enhance the field of psychology as well, specifically by finding the association between learning creative actions and one's ability to memorize information and solve problems.
The hypothesis needing to be tested here is: "The more music lessons students take per week, the better these students' grades." The research method is descriptive, allowing the researcher to determine the strength of the relationship between taking music lesson and academic performance of students. A survey will be conducted in four local elementary schools. These four schools are close to each other so it is more convenient and faster for data collection.
Research and Survey Design/Method
At each school, 200 surveys will be handed out to the students, who are randomly picked from different classes. The subjects therefore include students from five grades: one, two, three, four and five. This gives more variability in the response. Furthermore, as the sample is randomized, the answers are more likely to approach the true data. The time to conduct the survey is break time between classes and lunchtime when students are free and more willing to finish the survey.…… [Read More]
Biographical Introduction: Teo Macero
Producers work behind the scenes and are the unsung heroes of music. While some producers receive public notoriety like Brian Eno and George Martin; others like Teo Macero remain known mainly to music scholars and serious audiophiles. In 2008, when Macero died, The New York Times ran an obituary with the tagline: "Teo Macero, 82, Record Producer," as if readers would need that crucial bit of vocational data. Indeed, Macero is best known for his work on Miles Davis's masterpieces Kind of Blue and Bitches Brew. He was also a composer, whose approach to music takes into account the big picture rather than attention to minute detail.
Macero was ahead of his time. He incorporated electronic effects and electronic media in ways that made Bitches Brew as momentous and groundbreaking an album as it is. The embrace of new technology is therefore a hallmark of Macero's style. He "used techniques partly inspired by composers like Edgard Varese, who had been using tape-editing and electronic effects to help shape the music," and turned those techniques into his own by applying them to jazz (Ratliff, 2008). Jazz had previously been squarely within the acoustic domain. Even after Macero's influence, jazz returned to its trademark minimalist post-production. As Ratliff (2008) puts it, "Such techniques were then new to jazz and have largely remained separate from it since."
What Macero did with Bitches Brew and other Miles Davis recordings was to elevate them to a new dimension. Macero was experimental at a time when listening audiences hungered for avant-garde sound, which is why his productions proved both trendy and timeless. In fact, Macero is now credited with fomenting a bitches brew of producers who also rely heavily on electronics in the post-production process: a brew that includes luminaries like Brian Eno and German band Can as well as Radiohead (Ratliff, 2008). While the electronic, heady sounds of Radiohead might seem completely natural and appropriate for the genre, the application of electronic elements to traditional jazz was less obvious.
Teo Macero was born Attilio Joseph Macero on October 30, 1925 in Glens Falls, New York. Macero served in the United States Navy before pursuing a music career at the prestigious Juilliard School of Music, from where he graduated in…… [Read More]
Few popular music stars today are as colorful as Lady Gaga. Recently on tour, Lady Gaga is again making the headlines. In South Africa, a group of churches has been organizing protests against Lady Gaga's performances, and even just her presence, in the country. Among other complaints, the South African Council of Churches claims Lady Gaga's visit "could lead to an exponential growth of Satanism," (Engelbrecht, p. 1). For others, Lady Gaga is a welcome presence in the popular culture because she spreads the message of gender equality and positive gender "performativity," (Horn, p. 1). Lady Gaga is like a female "drag queen" and therefore sends a good message about tolerance of gender and sexual identities. Finally, Lady Gaga exemplifies the way social media can be used to promote popular culture and allow for greater fan interactions and control over content. Given that Lady Gaga is associated with Satanism, gender, and social media, few people view Lady Gaga as a pure musician. Lady Gaga is a controversial pop music star because she is a performer, even more than she is a musician.
One of the ways Lady Gaga is a performer is by staging elaborate and expensive stadium shows, which are responsible for the Council of Churches in South Africa's anger and fear over her presence in their country (Engelbrecht). The fact that the Council of Churches in South Africa is not focused on the content of Lady Gaga's lyrics is significant because it shows they object more to her performances and her image than to the music itself. Horn states, "Her outfits and performances proved to be the highlights of the evening at shows like the American Music Awards and MTV Music Awards," (p. 1). Unlike gangsta rap music, Lady Gaga's music is not controversial. It is her stage performances and her public image that are controversial, as well as her association with gay culture.
Thus, another way Lady Gaga is more a performing artist than a musician is in the way she understands how to enact the "drag queen" or "camp" mentality. In "Camping with the Stars: Queer Perfomativity, Pop Intertextuality, and Camp in the Pop Art of Lady Gaga," the author claims that…… [Read More]
Since the band exploded onto the scene in 2005, the White Stripes have wooed casual listeners and hypercritical audiophiles alike. Founded by Jack White, the White Stripes have received much critical acclaim and the most affectionate form of flattery, too, which is imitation. For instance, Vancouver, Canada band the White Blood Cells is "a pair of balding Irish guys who only play White Stripes songs," (Lucas, 2012). Usually cover bands are tributes to rock's greats such as Led Zeppelin. The fact that the White Stripes already have cover bands dedicated to them shows how much of a mark they have made on music. Yet it has been difficult to classify the music of The White Stripes. Using the term "rock" music is overly general. Therefore, the best classification of The White Stripes has been, to date, the term "garage rock." Garage rock refers to a sub-genre of rock music that has a raw and edgy sound and which is produced in order to retain that sonic feel, and is characterized by texture, distortion, and intensity. The White Stripes fit that bill. Moreover, the White Stripes were founded in Detroit, which was home to legendary garage rock sounds from the Stooges and the MC5. The White Stripes have earned their place as a legendary Motor City garage rock band due to their skillful songwriting and music production.
The guitar sounds of Jack White are noisy and distorted but highly skillful, which is testimony to the potential of garage rock. Garage rock is not just about making noise, although its noisiness is one of the major appeals. The players have to also be skilled in manipulating sounds including distortion, while they also master song structure, timing, and phrasing. In other words, garage rock is harder than it looks and Jack White is a master of making difficult music sound relatively simple. To a trained ear, the sounds are complex, but a casual listener might receive all the sonic pleasure without necessarily appreciating what makes critics rave about Jack White.
Furthermore, the root of garage rock is in a bluesy sound, which Jack White is intimately familiar…… [Read More]
Music Voice Borders
John Coltrane's Innovation Exemplified in the piece "In a Sentimental Mood"
"John Coltrane's brief career was one of constant evolution and the innovations of each period of his development have had ramifications for the playing of virtually every contemporary jazz player;" Coltrane's level of innovation was unprecedented, and still is to this day (Baker 1990 p 11). He is now one of the most well-known artists in Jazz music in general, yet he did not always embody the traditional styles of his day. Although there are some clear similarities between "In A Sentimental Mood" and the overall genre, the piece most often stands out as one of great innovation and change; Coltrane's implementation of complex chord changes and progressions, along with incorporating international themes within the piece, prove the song to be incredibly unique when compared to the overall genre in general.
The song itself is am impressive piece of musical synergy between the different instruments used. John Coltrane performed using his soprano saxophone along side Duke Ellington, creating the masterpiece that is "In A Sentimental Mood" in 1962. The most impressive part of this entire piece is often thought of that it was recorded in a single take (Ratcliff 2008). The song itself hails off the album Duke Ellington & John Coltrane. In fact, the piece was originally composed by Duke Ellington in 1935, written after being influenced by a dance. For this particular recording, Ellington had used his own bassist and drummer for the album, and features Duke Ellington on the piano. John Coltrane is seen on the soprano saxophone, one of the earliest elements that makes one realize just how different this piece is from other Jazz that was being produced at the time. The song features a very slow rhythm, with the bass helping carry the sixteen notes, rather than eight. The low lull of the walking bass help slow the tempo down, while the complexities of the solo bring incredibly depth to the piece itself.
There are so many subgroups within the larger Jazz genre, it is important to help place John Coltrane in the genre he was typically assigned at the time to get a better understanding of how he either…… [Read More]
Music therapy as a formal discipline emerged soon after the Second World War, when veteran's hospitals across the United States started to host musicians to improve quality of life of patients. Since then, a wealth of scientific literature has emerged about the efficacy of music therapy. Nearly every patient population seems to respond to music therapy, including animals. Music has been shown to have anti-anxiety, pro-immunity properties and can raise dopamine levels in the brain (Landau, 2013). Moreover, music therapy is a tool that also can be used with patient populations from different age groups and cultural backgrounds. Music therapy has proven especially promising in helping children with autism because of the way music transcends language and enables a more direct and authentic expression of emotional and psychological content (Laudau, 2013). The elderly have responded well to music therapy, too, and so too have patients with Alzheimer's disease. Music therapy even has an impact on unborn babies and neonates, as well as their anxious mothers (Schlez, Litmanovitz, Dolfin, Regev & Arnon, 2011). Because of the universality in its application, its near complete lack of adverse side-effects, and its proven link to healing a number of different conditions, music therapy should become an integral part of health care.
The American Music Therapy Association (2013) defines music therapy as "creating, singing, moving to, and/or listening to music" to evoke positive psychological change. Much research on music therapy involves the participants actively engaged with playing and creating music. For example, Schlez, et al. (2011) found that live harp therapy helped to reduce maternal anxiety, especially when it was combined with kangaroo therapy.
Music therapy has a significant impact on mental and physical health outcomes. Lowered heart rate and improved cardiac health may result from using music therapy. Research shows that music therapy is as effective as relaxation exercises in reducing the incidence of cardiac complications (Guzzetta, 1989). Music therapy has been used on specific patient populations such as children with terminal illnesses. In one study, pediatric patients with terminal cancer were offered music therapy, and it was found that a variety of music therapy interventions…… [Read More]
Music in the 21st century was accused of being increasingly derivative and irrelevant. Interest in individual performers, in the era of iTunes, was being relegated to the sidelines as teens assembled their own 'mixes' rather than sought to embrace the output of an individual artist. It was said that the era of the great soloist and the great musical concept album was dead. With her first album The Fame in 2008, Lady Gaga changed all of that and silenced the industry's critics. Yes, she is frequently outrageous and provokes controversy for her attire as well as her voice. But underneath all of the glam and glitter, Lady Gaga has proved that she a unique mix of vocal talent, showmanship, and social activism. She has also generated a huge following on Facebook and Twitter. Lady Gaga's fans do not simply download "Poker Face," "Telephone" and "Born this Way" online. They love Gaga, and follow her every word and move. She calls them her 'little monsters' -- her code name for people who are unafraid to be different and weird, as she says she was in high school.
Lady Gaga's meteoric rise to fame illustrates the American dream: if you work hard, regardless of your background, you can still succeed if you have talent and tap into the unmet needs of the listening public. She began as an ordinary 'club kid' named Stefani Germanotta attending the Tisch School of Performing Arts at New York University. She had no particular connections to the recording industry. However, she fused her academic studies of the idea of 'performing' femininity. She adopted and exaggerated the styles of old Hollywood starlets -- and drag queens. Although Lady Gaga was a young woman, she set out to become a drag queen herself -- a larger-than-life figure who was 'Gaga,' not merely the ordinary, suburban teen role she was born into but chafed against. Lady Gaga found confidence creating a new identity, but in doing so, she 'found herself.' "When I wake up in the morning, I feel just like any other insecure 24-year-old girl...Then I say, 'Bitch, you're Lady Gaga, you get up and walk the walk today'" ("Lady Gaga tells all," Rolling Stone, 2010).
Lady Gaga works tirelessly at her efforts: "I write music…… [Read More]
'All you need is love,' sang The Beatles. But they sang against a backdrop of militant demonstrations, the hazing of soldiers, environmental 'monkey-wrenching,' self-destructive drug trips, and a knifing death at the Altamont Rock Festival in 1969. Apart from the Weatherman faction of Students for a Democratic Society, which took Charles Manson as its hero, most people who identified with the 1960s counterculture deplored violence as much as they deplored the war in Viet Nam. Yet they were able to adapt the Boone myth to their own purposes by playing down its violence and emphasizing the first half of the regenerative cycle, the Indianizing of white pioneers. For those on the political left, as well as those on the right, the wilderness and the Indian were ideologically charged symbols (Herr 1991) (Bates 29)."
While Herr's assessment was tainted with the experience of a returning Viet Nam era war veteran, he is correct that the assessment of the 1960s counterculture was somewhat self-serving, if not tainted in its own perceptions. The music industry that served to flame the passions and whose lyrics were the call to arms for domestic resistance and unrest, earned literally billions of dollars for he record labels, feeding the wealth and excess of the corporate establishment that the people involved in the movement and even those who sang the songs, claimed to deplore. Yet the musicians did not sing for free, nor did their audiences pass around a coffee collection to fund the bands; it was a business for the stars, the industry, as much as the excessive use of illicit drugs was akin to the illegal governmental operations and the greedy capitalistic corporate ventures that the young people sang about and protested.
The excess of the American counterculture youth is perhaps best memorialized by a series of music industry related events. On March 27, 1969, John Lennon, who was by the time the event took place a "former" Beatle; with his new wife, Yoko Ono, staged a "bed-in" for peace in…… [Read More]
The two aspects that were least convincing were: one, the highly technical passages (241) that explained in esoteric narrative how the brain functions (e.g., it didn't offer coherence to the study at hand to learn that "…the general neurobiological centers for sensory pain are the sensory cortex and the thalamus"); and two, explaining that because only 52% used music to both relax and distract themselves from the pain it must be because "most participants had developed their own ways of listening to music" was a very obvious and simplistic statement (everyone everywhere has his or her own style of listening to music).
This research article relates well with Oliver Sacks' story of Dr. Tony Cicoria (pp. 3-6) who began craving piano music following the lightning attack he had endured. The power of music to heal people -- and move people into new and friendlier consciousness -- is not a new concept, and yet there is new evidence emerging all the time about the various strategies and models used to help people through music. The research in this article adds to Sacks' story (pp. 8-10) of Salimah M. who became "addicted" to her car radio (and other musical sources) following surgery. Sacks asks (10), could someone develop a "pure" musicophilia with changing personality or behavior? Anything is possible, especially when music is part of the equation.
Works… [Read More]