Music & Cognition
Music is a fundamental element of human culture that has been in existence nearly as long as humans have existed. Most people who listen to and appreciate music can personally attest to the power or influence music has. We listen to certain songs or types of music to reinforce or change our moods. Each person knows what songs will bring on a rush of memories or sensations that are unique to that person's life and experience. What many people may not be aware of is that the influence and power of music is more than affective; the effects of music on the brain and on people generally have been proven to be scientific. There is substantial scientific research, both from the social sciences and the hard sciences that clearly demonstrate the power of music on the brain, with specific respect to cognition. The paper will explore and analyze how the effects of music on cognition with reference to some of the scientific evidence available as well as reference a real life example of the capacity of music to assist & rebuild cognition in Arizona Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords.
Giffords is the third woman to ever have been elected to Congress. As aforementioned, she represented the state of Arizona up until her formal resignation in late January of this year. Giffords resigned as a result of injuries sustained during a shooting in 2011. She and several other people, including children, were victims of a shooting in January. Giffords herself was shot in the head. During a visit to some of her constituents, Gifford was shot and critically injured; there were more than a dozen fatalities and several injuries. The damage of her injuries was quite severe, imaginably, including loss of the ability to walk, talk, read, and write. When she awoke from her medically induced coma, she began several types of therapy including speech therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and significantly, musical therapy.
Scientists are still working out the details of how this kind of therapy works. But one likely explanation is that music is represented in many areas of the brain, while just two brain regions process language. Music also tends to dig…… [Read More]
The Music in "Anastasia"
Movies are remembered either for their stories, plot, characters or music. It is the challenge for the director and producer of the movie to make effective use of as many aspects of the movie as he can. The cartoon and animated movies normally are remembered for their graphics and fantasy. Music adds to the fantasy of a movie. Anastasia is one such movie that offers a complete entertainment to children. While some think that the movie did not end well (Anastasia (1997) plot summary, 2012) others believe that despite the fact that the movie fantasizes life a lot, it can be recommended to the children so that they can differentiate between life and a movie.
Anastasia is a fantasy as a princess as well as the movie. Her story has a great impact on the movies as well as the Russian culture. Although the records were opened decades after her family execution telling that she was executed too, the story became a strong plot for the movies. Anastasia belongs to the family of fantasy tales pictures as drama film animated music tale. It was produced in 1997 by Fox Animation Studios. The movie is about the Russian Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna. She could manage to live when her family was executed. She wishes to find her family. The music of the movie was liked by the movie lovers and two of its songs are also Oscar nominated.
The music of Anastasia was composed and carried out by David Newman, the son of Alfred Newman who composed music of Anastasia film of 1956. "Journey to the Past" song got Academy Award for Best Original Song nomination and "Once Upon a December" was nominated by Academy Awards too. It is not the story that is told in the movie only. Rather the movie also includes the music that has not…… [Read More]
Music has always been an important part of my life. From the time I was a little boy into my adolescence and through my teenage years, music was my companion whenever I could put my headset on and not get in trouble for listening to music. My good times were accompanied by music and just like my friends, music was there when I wasn't doing so well. In fact music does connect a time and a place for me in my life.
Music I associate with my childhood: Mostly I was into hip hop as a kid. My parents were into various music, some standards like Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald, and they were into some rock music from the sixties and seventies. But when I was nine years old I remember listening to a hip hop tune by 2 Pac called "Keep Your Head Up." The beat of course was what kids got into and learned to dance to. In 2 Pac's song he gave encouragement to a young boy my age: "The glow that the sun gets / Right around sunset / Helps me realize / This is just a journey / Drop your worries / You are gonna turn out fine / You gotta keep your head up / oh, And you can let your hair down, the."
A lot of my classmates and some of my friends didn't care that much about the lyrics, they just wanted to jam and dance and get lost in the beat. I loved the beat too, the rhythm of rap and hip hop, it was infectious, it was part of our youth culture; but I also tried to take an interest in what the song was saying to me. I had a good childhood and I liked 2 Pac. Later I learned more about him after he was shot to death; I learned that he was influential in making hip hop more about people's lives. He went away from what rap had been doing with…… [Read More]
Music Voice Borders
John Coltrane's Innovation Exemplified in the piece "In a Sentimental Mood"
"John Coltrane's brief career was one of constant evolution and the innovations of each period of his development have had ramifications for the playing of virtually every contemporary jazz player;" Coltrane's level of innovation was unprecedented, and still is to this day (Baker 1990 p 11). He is now one of the most well-known artists in Jazz music in general, yet he did not always embody the traditional styles of his day. Although there are some clear similarities between "In A Sentimental Mood" and the overall genre, the piece most often stands out as one of great innovation and change; Coltrane's implementation of complex chord changes and progressions, along with incorporating international themes within the piece, prove the song to be incredibly unique when compared to the overall genre in general.
The song itself is am impressive piece of musical synergy between the different instruments used. John Coltrane performed using his soprano saxophone along side Duke Ellington, creating the masterpiece that is "In A Sentimental Mood" in 1962. The most impressive part of this entire piece is often thought of that it was recorded in a single take (Ratcliff 2008). The song itself hails off the album Duke Ellington & John Coltrane. In fact, the piece was originally composed by Duke Ellington in 1935, written after being influenced by a dance. For this particular recording, Ellington had used his own bassist and drummer for the album, and features Duke Ellington on the piano. John Coltrane is seen on the soprano saxophone, one of the earliest elements that makes one realize just how different this piece is from other Jazz that was being produced at the time. The song features a very slow rhythm, with the bass helping carry the sixteen notes, rather than eight. The low lull of the walking bass help slow…… [Read More]
Music and the Internet
in order to accommodate these specifications in the number of pages requested (though the paper is 9 1/2 pages as it stands), the paper has utilized ANALYSIS in the article and the discussion section, thereby combining article summary with analysis of sources and thus putting the second point given by the professor "Then write a separate discussion the issue as a whole…" into a proper context
-however, as this paper is a model, it CANNOT be utilized as your own, so please consult the terms and conditions above for proper citation methods
Music and the Internet:
A Shift in Tradition; A Shift to Technology
Many advances in technology have changed the current living population's life, especially in developed countries. These include better food, better medicine, and better connectivity with the rest of the world. Yet perhaps one of the most important things, especially in these Westernized countries, has been the improvement of finding and enjoying entertainment in a variety of mediums, at a higher quality. Film, for example, is not only in color but also in HD (high definition). Cooking shows show simmering pots, for instance, that televisions now render so vivid, one can almost smell the aromas as well. Yet music, another form of entertainment, has perhaps experienced the most transcending change. Whereas only a few decades ago music could only be listened to in the home, on huge record players, one can now have music readily available, literally at one's fingertips, and can download and listen to a song in a matter of seconds. Yes, technology has changed the way people listen to music traditionally, but has also improved the experience, and one of the most important ways in which this has happened has been placing music on the internet, available for all for a small fee (i.e.…… [Read More]
In his book Lynskey notes that during George W. Bush's administration, when Bush made anti-war people angry by invading Iraq, Neil Young sand "Let's Impeach the President." Earlier in his career Neil Young responded to the killing of four students (by the National Guard) in Kent State in 1970 by writing the protest song, "Ohio," which was performed by Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young. Lynskey called it a "masterpiece" or protest that was full of "…fury, grief, and topical precision" (Wilentz, p. 3).
Lynskey contrasts the protest songs of Bob Dylan with Phil Ochs, which involves a massive amount of lyrics and music from the Sixties and Seventies. The author explains that Ochs was more of an in-person activist than Dylan, showing up at various anti-war rallies, and while Dylan's classic protest songs like "Masters of War" and "Only a Pawn in Their Game" far surpassed Ochs' "preachier material," Ochs made a name for himself in the peace movement with songs like "I Ain't a-Marchin' Anymore" (Wilentz, p. 4).
In conclusion, it is fascinating to see how music and politics -- from slavery days to the anti-Vietnam war and civil rights in the 1960s -- have played an important role in society. The madness of Hitler and the anger of workers that had to toil for 12 and 14 hours a day with little compensation -- it is all part of the blending of music and politics.
Works… [Read More]
A pioneer of electronic music and the godfather of ambient, Brian Eno has always recognized the importance of the studio as a compositional tool. In 1979, Eno delivered a lecture entitled, "The Studio as Compositional Tool" at the New Music America Festival in New York City. Since then, Eno has written about the subject of the role of the studio in musical composition as well as recording. For Eno, the studio is not necessarily a static entity. Eno reportedly set to sell his studio in 2005, because he was "fed up" with it because, in his words, "all this equipment is sitting around looking at me and expecting me to use it," (Eno, cited by Tingen, 2005). The statement may seem ironic, given Eno's celebration of the studio as a compositional tool. However, taken in context of Eno's career and his being influenced by minimalist composition, Eno's assertion that the studio was impeding his creativity seems appropriate. According to Eno, "complexity arises out of simplicity," (cited by Tingen, 2005). Even a laptop can provide a full studio for a composer. A studio need not be a large, dedicated room with fancy gadgets, amps, and five guitars. The studio does not have to have a specific form, with specific tools and instruments. Each studio will be characterized by the unique needs of the musician, composer, or sound engineer. Tingen (2005) describes Eno's "bright and airy workspace," as being peppered with boom boxes hanging from the ceiling. Anything goes.
The studio is a compositional tool because sound engineering is integral to the inputs and outputs of music. As integral to inputs, the nature of the studio determines how the artist will work. The elements contained in the studio determine what, if any, acoustic instruments are used and what kinds of sounds will be recorded from them. Each studio will have strengths and limitations: even if those are purely ergonomic. However, many studios will boast tools that the composer has never before used. For example, there might be a software system that the composer is unfamiliar with.…… [Read More]
In early childhood, I watched the shows on PBS like Sesame Street. I can still remember the songs that permeated my living room, teaching me how to count and spell. I do not know all the formal titles of the songs, but I can sing them almost all by heart. Elmo's songs, the alphabet songs, songs about everyone making mistakes that is okay: Sesame Street taught me a lot about social norms, music, counting, spelling, and words in Spanish, too. These early childhood lessons were instrumental in helping me grow as a person. Although I rarely if ever hear these songs now, I feel warm and happy inside when they come to mind. The Sesame Street songs reflect my childhood experiences because I had a happy childhood, in which learning was encouraged by my parents. Watching educational shows was a big part of my childhood.
During adolescence, it was a time of rebellion and finding my own voice. Therefore, it was suitable that the music I started to gravitate to was the music of rebellious generations prior to my own. At first, I got into listening to the Beatles. This was because my best friend's older brother had a lot of Beatles albums and other music from the 1960s and 1970s. The music was rebellious, talking about sex, drugs, and rock and roll. The sounds of the music, like Jimi Hendrix's guitar, were also rebellious in the sense that they were unlike any sounds that had gone before. Later, I started to listen to punk rock and grunge: both of which were also rebellious forms of music that reflected my adolescent identity. I was not a bad kid, but I could relate to the idea of rebellion from society. I wanted to find new ways of being, other than buying into the myth of materialism. Songs like Anarchy in the UK" by the Sex Pistols also opened my mind to political ideas, which I had never before given much thought to. Therefore, punk music had a big impact on the way I think and feel.
I listen to a lot of…… [Read More]
Lyrics like these could be depressing but are instead used to convey a strong message of personal growth and empowerment. The repetition of the title line, "I will survive" suggests increased self-esteem. Ultimately, the lyrics of "I Will Survive" encourage self-actualization, the peak of Maslow's needs hierarchy.
Getting out of an abusive relationship does require a great degree of courage. The individual had once invested his or her self-esteem into the relationship, depending on the other person not just to meet the needs of sexual intimacy but also love, approval, and even financial security. Breaking free from the bondage of abuse is a step towards self-actualization, an empowering moment that affirms independence and personal power. Beyond the theme of abusive relationships, "I Will Survive" can apply to almost any life situation, which is why the song has uplifted so many listeners. Even those who do not listen to all of the lyrics except for the title verse can listen to the song to get through difficult times in their lives.
The way that Gaynor phrases the lyrics, and the intensity of her voice encourage listeners to build upon their personal reserves for motivation, courage, and strength to survive whatever catastrophes life delivers. A steady disco beat and groove capture the listening audience, as if to keep the heart and mind resonating as with a mantra. "I Will Survive" actually does have a discernible effect on listeners, for it is impossible to listen to the song and not feel better afterwards. This is why when the song is sampled, it evokes feelings of joy. The song is about not relying on other people to rescue us, or about depending on the outside world for approval. Instead, the song encourages self-reliance and personal power.… [Read More]
It has been established that in fact the infant is aware of sound from the 24th week. " in the sonic foreground of this sound environment is what has been described within the literature as a 'rhythmic "swooshing" of the blood as it rushes through the placental vessels" (Collins and Kuck, 1990, p.24).
Some of the most significant findings about the affect and importance of music on the human mind can be gleaned from research on early child development and the role of music. This can also be extended to research into the "... relationships between an adult's personal history and musical preferences" (Bunt, 1994, p. 131).
There are many studies in the field of child developmental psychology that link music to growth and development of the young mind. Van Der Linde, (1999) notes that "Plato remarked as early as 300 BC that music was the most powerful educational aid... Children have a natural inclination to sing and play, and these activities form a vital part of their development" (Van Der Linde, 1999, p. 610).
As many other studies have noted," Babies and small children find music and play almost inseparable activities" (Bridges, 1994, p. 36).
With regard to the central issue of the way that music affects the mind, the research into early psychological development is very instructive in terms of the way that music affects the perception and understanding of the world around us. In the first instance music has been found to be important in the stimulation and shaping of various mental activities. "Play and music are important for the development of children's mental capacity and intellect." (Van Der Linde, 1999, p. 610)
Music has also been found to be important in that it is seen as an vital component in language- building and competence. As Van Der Linde, (1999) notes, "....Games accompanied by songs in a second language can extend the vocabulary of the child in that language" (p. 610). Experts also note the connection between music and mathematical skills and development. At early stages of the child's development it has been found that, "Singing games...are extremely helpful in enabling the child to understand how to count. Although music and movement occur spontaneously in children, the process is not so simple as it…… [Read More]
However, this was when the musical elements that were so deeply rooted into my belief system, into my very soul started to appear and I began to clearly recognize that it was possible to pursue the existence of something even stronger and deeper in the world of art, more specifically in the world created by sounds.
Possessing both a keen ability to observe and a very strong aptitude to recall images from memory, I identified the two forces to support my belief that there was something more that would drive me toward the pursuit of self-satisfaction and career enhancement. As the ability of my piano students grew, I noticed that what was happening was much more than simply learning how to interpret a musical piece by Bach or a sonata by Handel. It was the expansion of their emotional and psychological expression as a whole. Something was blossoming; it was extremely expansive, sensitive and creative. I started to carefully watch what I said and how I said it, out of fear that perhaps my remarks would wound the musicians' sensitivity, personal privacy and individualism.
I was like a turtle with its hard and protective shell, which only dares to show its head when it feels secure enough to see ahead and move along in the right direction. In our every day life, with its major stresses and pressures and being forced to consider factors like time and money that can be very overpowering, it is so difficult to hold on to a beautiful thought.
Time after time, I have seen a child change after listening to music. The youth becomes more daring as the music touches his or her imagination thru the creative self. The child has a new sense of freedom of expression, letting the mind travel where and how it wishes, and to listen, to feel, and continually build excitement through this bold journey. Here, in this new imaginary world, the youngster is able to observe and describe a host of rainbow colors, to form and make up new words, to develop and share an opinion, to explain a personal experience, to demonstrate the differences between his or her own imaginary journey and scenes and perceptions and realize how this trip and those of another classmate may differ in some ways, be alike in others
The child recognizes that it is…… [Read More]
Music & Personality
Music has been acknowledged to be a universal form of communication. Even with the barriers of language, music allows the sharing of feelings, thoughts, and meanings. Research is finding that it can be an invaluable tool of communication, education and therapy for those with special needs or disorders. Music is recognized to be able to evoke profound emotions, but modern technology is only just discovering how many of these responses are actually a result of powerful physical and physiological effects various aspects of music has on the human body. (Hargreaves, 1997, 1999)
The importance of music also stems from the fact that it plays an increasingly significant role in the lives of the average modern individual. Each of us is surrounded by music targeted at us from radio, television, films, advertisements, the internet, and various other commercial devices produced by technology. It is no longer a distinct aspect of cultures and traditional rites, but rather a part of everyday life. It affects our moods, and infiltrates the thought processes which shape our identities and behavior. (Hargreaves, 1997, 1999)
The idea of personality and self has evolved over the years to now being described as, 'something which is constantly being reconstructed and renegotiated according to the experiences, situations and other people with whom we interact in everyday life.' (Hargreaves, 1999) Our identities and self-concepts are affected by a complex set of factors that have appeared in lifestyles due to globalization and technology. Interwoven in these influences is the role of music. (Hargreaves, 1997, 1999)
Music psychology is a diverse and ever expanding field that has connections with disciplines such as cognitive science and computing, sociology, cultural studies, anthropology, education, medicine and health studies, acoustics, broadcasting, marketing and communication studies, as well as with music and musicology. (Hargreaves, 1999) Cognitive psychology of music investigates the effects of tones, intervals and scales on listeners and explores the intricacies of musical structure and its impact on memory, and perception. (Hargreaves, 1997) It has even branched out to include topics such as musical expression, performance, emotional effects of music, and other issues of practical importance to musicians. (Hargreaves, 1997, 1999)
What this article attempts to explore however is the social psychology of music. Through analysis of various studies we will investigate how our interaction…… [Read More]
The two aspects that were least convincing were: one, the highly technical passages (241) that explained in esoteric narrative how the brain functions (e.g., it didn't offer coherence to the study at hand to learn that "…the general neurobiological centers for sensory pain are the sensory cortex and the thalamus"); and two, explaining that because only 52% used music to both relax and distract themselves from the pain it must be because "most participants had developed their own ways of listening to music" was a very obvious and simplistic statement (everyone everywhere has his or her own style of listening to music).
This research article relates well with Oliver Sacks' story of Dr. Tony Cicoria (pp. 3-6) who began craving piano music following the lightning attack he had endured. The power of music to heal people -- and move people into new and friendlier consciousness -- is not a new concept, and yet there is new evidence emerging all the time about the various strategies and models used to help people through music. The research in this article adds to Sacks' story (pp. 8-10) of Salimah M. who became "addicted" to her car radio (and other musical sources) following surgery. Sacks asks (10), could someone develop a "pure" musicophilia with changing personality or behavior? Anything is possible, especially when music is part of the equation.
Works… [Read More]
Johnson, R. (2006) What's New in Pedagogy Research? The American Music Teacher v.
Lecanuet, J.-P. Granier-Deferre, C., & Busnel, M.-C. (1988). Fetal cardiac and motor responses to octave-band noises as a function of cerebral frequency, intensity and heart rate variability. Early Human Development, 18:81-93
Lorch, C.A., Lorch, V., Diefendor, O and Early, P.W. (1994). Effect of Stimulative and Sedative Music on Systolic Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Respiratory Rate in Premature Infants. Journal of Music Therapy 31: 105-18
Lynch, M.P, Short L.B, and Chua, R.. (1995): Contributions of Experience to the Development of Musical Processing in Infancy. Developmental Psychobiology 28
Malyarenko, T.N., Kuraev, G.A., Malyarenko, Y.E., Khvatova, M.V., Romanova, N.G., & Gurina, V.I. (1996). The development of brain electric activity in 4-year-old children by long-term sensory stimulation with music. Human Physiology, 22: 76- 81.
Schellenberg, E. Glenn. (2006) Long-Term Positive Associations Between Music Lessons and IQ. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(2): 457-468.
Scott, L.K. (2004) Early childhood brain development and elementary music curricula: are they in tune. 18(1)
Strickland, S.J.(2001) Music and the brain in childhood development. (Review of Research. Childhood Education 78(2)100-104.
Winner, E., & Hetland L. (4, March 1999). Mozart and the S.A.T.'s, New York Times.
March 1999, editorial section.
Campbell, P.S. (2002). The musical cultures of children. In L. Bresler & C. Marme Thompson (Eds), the…… [Read More]
During the 1960's and 1970's, this would influence how the public was viewing various political events as well as their underlying meanings. This is significant, because the questioning of society would play a role in helping to redefine the issue of: civil rights during the 1960's and the meaning of equality. As this was a medium, for helping to push these changes from within. This is when tremendous shifts occurred, with most people supporting the views of the music they listen to. (Berkin, 2009, pp. 678 -- 679)
Cuba is a combination of different forms of music including: Spanish and African. This is because the country is a mixture of both cultures. As a result, it is often seen as form of entertainment and pride. While at the same time, it is used as a way to illustrate various political, social or economic changes that need to occur. An example of this can be seen with the music of Alejandro Catula. As, he would combine: Spanish style sounds with various African tempos. This created a one of a kind jingle that people enjoyed listening to. At same time, he would incorporate various freestyle lyrics and techniques to highlight his liberal views about society. Over the course of time, this artistic style was continually embraced by Cuban musicians to: illustrate the injustices that were taking place in their country from the 1920' to the late 1950's. As, this was a representation of: hope and frustration that many ordinary people were feeling. (Carpentier, 2001, 268 -- 277)
In Chile, a shift was taking place in way music was being composed during the early 20th century. This was occurring based upon influences from other artists around the world. As, radio and television began to have an impact on the way they were composing various songs as well as lyrics. This led to more liberal techniques that were being used to: create a new form of music. ("Latin American Music,"…… [Read More]
The violence in music debate rages on across the mass media of America. Television, magazines, newspapers, and of course the radio blast the commercial marketing of popular music with one wavelength, while simultaneously reprimanding the creators and listeners of this music for their negativity. It is a violent world that we live in, and this violence is reflected in the art that we create. Some people argue that the world today is significantly more violent now than it was in decades and centuries past. It is also said that the violence in our art may in fact be the root cause of the violence in our society. Both popular and alternative music is filled with lyrics about violent events, and the music itself, according to some people, causes violent reactions in the brains of certain people. However, history has shown that it has always been a violent world, and that while the face of violence and the means by which that violence becomes part of the lives of different people changes and evolves with each generation, the core essence of violence does remain. This violence, which would be considered by some people to be the fatal flaw of the human race itself, is difficult to face, for it is a reflection of our own weaknesses. It is much easier to find a scapegoat, someone or something that can take the blame on the behalf of the greater Human Race, than to come to terms with this unavoidable aspect of the self. It is commonly said that today's popular music is ever so violent, and this is treated like a new event. Popular music may in fact be violent, but is it possible to say if a violent society is inspiring commentary through music, or if violent music is inspiring a society to fall? Music historians will argue that while both are somewhat true, the violent nature of music is not new, and has served an important role in…… [Read More]
Music in the therapeutic context is, as Ansdell puts it, "neither pure feeling nor pure form," (128). Rather, music opens the door for a dialogue and communication between client and therapist that might otherwise never occur.
As with any form of creative expression, music ultimately depends on an audience. Otherwise, music cannot be used in a therapeutic setting because the medium is instrumental in helping the client "to get beyond this bubble of self," (126). Yet while the creator, or in the psychotherapeutic setting, the client, is undoubtedly using the medium of music for self-expression, the therapist should take care not to over-speculate about the "product." Music can be a symbolic "language of feeling," as Langer explains, but that language of feeling could take years to decipher (221). If the therapist infers that a drone piece created by the client denotes sadness then the therapist infers too much and does the client a disservice. Rather, the role of the music therapist is to provide an open setting in which therapist and client can communicate in non-verbal ways. Non-verbal communication is essential in some therapeutic settings, such as with clients who are catatonic, autistic, or otherwise emotionally inexpressive.
Music transcends the limitations of conventional language in fostering communication. Like the mother talking to her infant, music does not depend on pure understanding of form or even of feeling. For music to be therapeutically effective the therapist need only to listen to what the client has to "say" and respond to it in turn. The medium levels the playing field and loosens up possible areas of intimidation, mistrust, or shyness. Furthermore, the role of the therapist differs sharply from the role of the music critic, for which the "distinction between good and bad" is foremost (Langer 207). For the therapist, an "improvised dialogue" is the essence of the therapeutic process.
Kivy, Langer, and Ansdell each advocate a middle-ground approach to music and emotional expression. All three authors agree that music is both expressive of universal emotional states independent of the musician; and that music can allow the musician to express personal emotional states dependent on the musician. Moreover, music has the potential to evoke emotional states in the listener, and it is this facet of music that can be the most dangerous because of the possibility of misinterpretation and misattribution of emotional states. The therapist needs…… [Read More]
Music in High Schools
Psychology Research Project
Examining the Effects of Music Education in Various Students
Children are often encouraged to undertake creative activities in order to improve their imagination and achieve a balance between studying and relaxing. One creative activity is to partake in music education. Music is one field in which a student can be as creative as he or she desires, for there is no limit placed on how much or how loudly one can play his or her instrument. Music classes, though structure, encourage these facets, and keep students on their creative toes, and therefore are vitally important for the development of children.
There have been many studies on this topic, especially in light of many schools cutting their music education programs. Most of these studies have proven, beyond a doubt, that music education helps students in many ways, including with development of certain parts of the brain. This research aims to describe these studies in further detail, as well as to find the relationship between the number of music lesson that students take and academic performance. If a positive relationship exists, as the studies state, there are possible chances to design lessons that effectively help students improve their grades. This design may enhance the field of psychology as well, specifically by finding the association between learning creative actions and one's ability to memorize information and solve problems.
The hypothesis needing to be tested here is: "The more music lessons students take per week, the better these students' grades." The research method is descriptive, allowing the researcher to determine the strength of the relationship between taking music lesson and academic performance of students. A survey will be conducted in four local elementary schools. These four schools are close to each other so it is more convenient and faster for data collection.
Research and Survey Design/Method
At each school, 200 surveys will be handed out to the students, who are randomly picked from different classes. The subjects therefore include students from five grades: one, two, three,…… [Read More]
Music in Society
The impact of music on the presidential campaign song
Music has influenced both written and verbal forms of discourse in our society since our nation was founded. The most significant of these has been music's influence on political campaigns and speeches. The advent of the 'campaign song' has had a tremendous impact on political campaigns since President Washington was in office.
The political sect of our society is often demonized. Music has made politics more fun, enjoyable, and at times humorous. Music is a universal language all in its own. Despite ones career, education, or place in society, everyone in our society is familiar with certain traditional songs - such as "Row, Row, Your Boat."
The political world has simply capitalized on the fact that people are fond of songs. Even people who do not enjoy politics like songs. Music is used to communicate ideas to the masses. Just as singers and songwriters use music to convey their messages, politicians use it to convey their political ideas in a way that is not droll or condescending.
As Napoleon said, 'music of all the liberal arts, has the greatest influence over the passions, and is that to which the legislator ought to give the greatest encouragement.'" (http://members.optusnet.com.au/~cateartios/music.html)
Campaign songs can have positive and negative effects when paired with a campaign. If a good campaign song is chosen for a politician, it can enhance his or her popularity greatly. However, there is always more to a campaign than a song, despite what some politicians, past and present, might hope.
Scores of political songs have been used in presidential campaigns throughout history. Politicians and campaigners have used songs to bolster messages about political candidates in the public mind since America's forefathers were in office.
According to Boucher, "in presidential politics, campaign songs have been around longer than campaign races. George Washington didn't have an opponent, but he had a number of sing-along themes, among them "Follow Washington," notes Oscar Brand."(Boucher)
Music used during political speeches and campaigns has evolved a great deal in American history. At first, songs were used to defame one's political opponents. This was typically done with flat out name calling in song format paired with common tunes of the time.
According to Boucher of the Los Angeles Times, "if history were written in the sheet music of presidential campaign songs, every schoolchild would…… [Read More]
From there, Franklin's career skyrocketed. Her notoriety and status as "Queen" is evident in the high-profile performances she made at events like the funeral of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., where she sang "Precious Lord," a Gospel song ("Aretha Franklin," n.d.). She sang at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, the funeral of fellow gospel singer Mahalia Jackson, and at two Presidential inaugurations: those of President Bill Clinton and President Barack Obama. President George W. Bush gave Aretha Franklin the Presidential Medal of Honor (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, 2013). Her music has appeared in movies, too. Aretha Franklin has gone on to win nearly twenty Grammies, and yet her tenure as Queen is independent from mainstream recognition. She would be the Queen of Soul if she won no Grammies at all.
Aretha Franklin has reigned supreme with the undisputed title of Queen of Soul; there is no other soul, R&B, or gospel artist that even comes close or who would dare to contest the title. Franklin bridged the gap between white and black audiences with her music, which is one of the reasons why she is an American icon. Her music is accessible to all, as it is infused with the power of soul and its uplifting messages of universal love. Because Aretha Franklin has also been publically recognized as the Queen of Soul, she has the support of the masses -- which is what any Queen requires.… [Read More]