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Boost for Women's Athletics but Essay

Words: 3098 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40019638

Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.

The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and ear scholarships" at the level of Division I in NCAA schools, and hence, "it's time to erase all institutional gender discrimination, and that includes bias against boys" (

The College Sports Council (August, 2008) launched a petition drive which was aided by a few Olympic champions; John Naber (four Gold medals in 1976), Peter Vidmar (Gold, gymnastics in 1984), Dan Gable (Gold, freestyle wrestling, 1972), among others publicly endorsed the national petition drive. The petition calls for "the men and women across the country" to come together to "discuss and implement a set of common sense reforms" that will make Title IX fair to both genders. The petition alleges that male collegiate teams "are being eliminated" and player rosters "are being capped" -- and that this is happening "at an alarming rate" to the disservice of men's sports programs.

The petition also states: one, when men's teams are pushed out that women athletes are "being robbed of their training partners, teammates and biggest supporters"; two, "Straightforward and common-sense fixes to the enforcement mechanism are already available" including a "simple survey that would allow any student, male or female, to express interest and be given opportunity"; three, the method of enforcement for Title IX is "discriminating against male athletes"…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved

June 28, 2009, from . (2004).
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Sports Race Class Gender the Essay

Words: 2881 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17962225

He got nowhere. "Talking to Barnett was like talking to a wall." Neither Tharp nor Barnett recalls Dave Hnida saying anything about sexual harassment. "If I'd have heard that, I'd have jumped down somebody's throat," Barnett says. "Not one time did I ever see or hear about anybody treating her wrong. I don't believe she was sexually harassed. I don't believe our players would do that. They'd be in too much trouble with me." Barnett says he gave one player a "tongue-lashing" for making a vulgar comment to Katie.

Katie, as a sophomore dropped out of school, despite her historical commitment to her education and her desire to play football. After doing so it is reported by her and her father that she endured several years of deep depression which affected her in every way, and yet she eventually found the courage to move forward, went back to a junior college and finally had the courage to return to football as a walk on at New Mexico. "Last August she became the first woman to score in Division I football history when she kicked two PATs in the Lobos' 72-8 rout of Texas State-San Marcos."

Many attest that her case is not isolated and that many women who endure such events, as a result of sexual discrimination, and a lack of social supervision on the part of those in society or in closer knit communities like athletic teams, do not report because they are afraid.

Some like Hnida are afraid of personal sanction, such as the loss of the hard won position on the team or even fear of escalation of events. Victims seek to find in broader society a reason to believe that the events they have endured are simply some sort of dues payment and that not every situation will be like this. In an interview coach Barnett from CU was quoted saying that Hnida had little skill for the game and that the players simply did not respect her because of it.

Katie Hnida, a former kicker with the University of Colorado football program, says she was raped by a teammate four years ago.To which Barnett said: "It's a guys' sport. [Players] felt like Katie was forced on them. It was obvious…… [Read More]

Primary Sources

Get This Guy out of Here." The Washington Times, 20 February 2004, C01.
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Child Abuse and Mass Media Essay

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9227682

As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).

The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van to protest Joe Paterno's firing and not think: Shame on us all. Shame on us for creating a culture where thousands of students are so caught up in idol worship that they can't see how repugnant it is to pine for a man who essentially looked the other way as serious allegations of rape and child abuse were leveled at his top aide" (Pierre, 2011).

It was important for the media to document this and to capture this footage so that the rest of the country could unite up in arms, voicing their outrage at this reaction and the sunset of decency that had occurred at the school. Even though the community at Penn State was not expressing initial outrage at what had occurred to the victims, but rather what was happening to their beloved football coach, the media, by recording this unsatisfactory reaction, helped to create a national situation that realigned the moral compass on behalf of the victims of the scandal.

When it comes to child abuse and such a complex case as the Penn State scandal, the media can…… [Read More]

Engel, J. (2012, July 16). Penn State should get death penalty. Retrieved from

Hamilton, M. (May, 27 2012). Penn State and Catholic Church Child Sex-Abuse Trials Divide Penn. Public. Retrieved from 
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Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective Annotated Bibliography Essay

Words: 1699 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64934906

Sporting Activities or Gender Perspective

Annotated… [Read More]

McKinney, Scott. "Student-Athletes Bring Billions, But What Are They Getting?" Mississippi

Business Journal 22.37 (2000): 25. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 20 June 2012.
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Supplements for Athletes Ripped Fuel &Copy Is Essay

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928638

Supplements for Athletes

Ripped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand has promised his teenage athlete, Ripped Fuel © has been questioned due to the possible negative consequences that are produced by its ingredients.

Ripped Fuel © contains an herb called ephedrine (Brown). This works by immediately tightening the individual's blood vessels in order to reduce the amount of blood that flows through them. By doing this, the heart gets stimulated, as it is forced to work harder in order to make up for the lack of blood flow to it (Brown). The immediate results are a boost in energy and performance. However, the results after prolonged use can result in hypertension, or high blood pressure, and tachycardia, or an irregular heartbeat (Brown). Another ingredient in this supplement is Guarana, which has caffeine as its main active component. That is, the fruit itself is guarana, but the ingredient that actually makes it effective and work as a stimulant is caffeine (Brown). Caffeine stimulates brain processes in order to speed up reaction times; it also provides a rapid burning of fat as the metabolism of cells is increased. The increase in psychomotor ability…… [Read More]

Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from ipped-fuel-capsules-do/

OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from  -legal-and-illegal-supplements
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Basketball Game Coverage Sports if I Were Essay

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82191722

Basketball Game Coverage


If I were to imagine myself as a sports journalist covering a basketball game, I would want to provide coverage for games that take place during "March Madness," a term used to describe a competition among NCAA universities for champion standing. March Madness is an annual event that is as much of a sports tradition as it is a media and journalism tradition.

Covering a game in NCAA March Madness was very exciting and required substantial preparations. It was necessary for me to acquire a press pass. I had to get permission or the "go ahead" from my supervisor to proceed with covering the game. I had to prepare a proposal for travel and hotel expenses. I additionally needed to borrow or purchase or otherwise acquire (legally) the materials I needed to write the story. I covered a Division I Men's Basketball game between Syracuse and Ohio State. I continued my preparation of game coverage by researching each team and their histories. I watched as much as game and practice footage I could locate. I read a lot of background information in print, online, and through other media sources. I also consulted with fans and fan forums to add some perspective and excitement to the coverage.

I was not the only journalist by a long short to cover this game. My preparation would have to serve me well to compose an article about the game that would stand out among all the press of March Madness and this specific game. I did not sleep much while out on assignment for this article. This was all right with me. I slept when I could and because I was getting so little sleep, whenever I did sleep, I slept really well. I got up early every day to go the stadium. I brought plenty of supplies such as batteries and memory carts. I brought a notebook and an iPad. I also brought with me a digital recorder.

Because of my preparedness, I was in great position to cover the game. I…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
National Sports Journalism Center. (2013). Home. Indiana University, Web, Available from: . 2013 March 10.

Sherman, G. (2011). How sports journalists learned to go for the hard tackle. New York Magazine, Web, Available from: . 2013 March 10.
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Unionizing College Football Essay

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13489560


There are a few different benefits that college players might receive from joining the union. The first is that they would see increased bargaining power with the universities. This means that they might have improved access to the revenue that is generated by college football -- with bargaining power they can use that revenue as leverage for better wages. At present, these football players really do not have any meaningful bargaining power. The second benefit that they players might well receive is worker protections. The key shift in this ruling is not the ability to organize but the recognition that the players are employees. As an organized union, these football players will have the ability to influence their conditions of employment, in particular with respect to safety. Football is a dangerous game, and joining a union might give the players better ability to bargain their working conditions to improve safety, something in which they have essentially no voice right now.

There are definitely drawbacks as well to unionization. The first is that the ruling only applies to one single school, so players joining a union at Northwestern might find that this affects their ability to play -- the school could drop its football program as not financially viable, or it could get kicked out of the NCAA. In either case, the union is a threat to the existence of the program. The second drawback at this point is that the students might see their pay or benefits cut. If they join the union, the school might be forced to cut all scholarships, since those are the "pay." That would mean they could still play football, but without the benefit of a scholarship.


If the NLRB ruling stands, it might not have much implication because it is limited to one school, but if the ruling not…… [Read More]

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Troubled by a Large Number Essay

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52456807

This is because; there are consortiums of regulations that provide no clear policy. The Colorado Court of Appeals sided with the NCAA. They felt that these rules were within the scope of their authority of controlling the actions of athletes and the college sports. These facts can be used to demonstrate that the policy of coaches breaching their contracts is in compliance with legal guidelines and case precedent. ("Bloom v. National Collegiate Athletic Association")

The biggest challenge against this policy is Law v. NCAA. Under this ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals found that any kind of attempts to restrict a coach's salary is considered to be in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. At the same time, they found that the rule is discriminating against coaches by limiting their salaries and the numbers that can serve on a team. This is supposed to maintain the competitive balance inside the NCAA. However, the court found that the biggest beneficiary is the NCAA (who is reducing their costs dramatically). This can be used to show how there is case precedent, giving coaches the power to earn more money. As a result, if a coach opts out of their contract (using this clause), they have the right to seek out higher compensation and meet this requirement.

What legal theories could the NCAA use to defend its action for implementing such a rule?

The basic legal theory that the NCAA can use, is to show how their actions are in compliance with previous court rulings on contract law. Moreover, they can demonstrate how they are exempt from Title IX and other anti-discriminatory provisions. This is because they are not receiving direct funding from the federal government. Under NCAA v. Smith, the NCAA does not fall under this designation. The combination of these elements are showing how the NCAA is enforcing existing contracts and is not subject to anti-discrimination laws (i.e. Title IX). ("Title IX Cases")

Works… [Read More]

"Bloom v. National Collegiate Athletic Association." Find Law, 2012. Web. 8 May 2012 < >

"Kiffin to Coach USC." ESPN, 2010. Web. 8 May 2012 < >
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Legal Implications of Steroid Use Essay

Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88637779

, 2003, p. 3).


The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.… [Read More]

Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.

Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).
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Sports and Betting Essay

Words: 2592 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20627805

sports betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy. Seven sources are used.

Sports and Betting

More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans. It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography (McDonald 1998). Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a Republican attorney. Soccer parents talk goalies and the high school jocks talk about steroids and scholarships (McDonald 1998).

Sports and betting have gone hand in hand for centuries throughout the world. People in the United States have been gambling on sports since there has been organized sports, and some claim it can be traced back in this country for roughly four hundred years.

Americans bet billions of dollars, legally and illegally, on sports every year. It has become a huge underground part of the economy. Ninety-five percent of sports gambling in the United States occurs illegally. It's untaxed and unregulated. Nevada is the only state where college sports betting is legal (

Sports history is filled with scandals. Many of them read like a novel or Hollywood script and some have actually been immortalized on films, such as the 1919 fix of the World Series, known infamously as the Black Sox Scandal (Krystal 2002). "Baseball's darling "Charlie Hustle" Pete Rose was banned from baseball after gambling on his own team. The most timely example, however, is that of the case of the alleged pressure on a French figure skating…… [Read More]

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Rules & Regs Of College Essay

Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38226137

In the past, the NCAA believes the fouled team could gain an advantage by selecting its best shooter from the roster. Now it appears that it's okay, though, for the opposing coach to select the worst shooter.

Both men's and women's committees are placing a more significant emphasis on sportsmanship. A growing number of taunting incidents, along with throwing elbows under the basket, and the charging and blocking incidents are being looked at for further action. Officials have been notified that they should put an emphasis on controlling those situations.

(Associated Press)… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Halpin, T. "NCAA Men's and Women's Basketball Rules Committees Announce Rules Changes Including a Focus on Sportsmanship." 6 May 2009. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). 15 September 2009 .

Smith, M. "A New Basketball Rule for 2009-2010: What was the NCAA thinking?" 9 June 2009. Bleacher Report. 15 September 2009 < >.
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Fundamentals of Social Sciences Essay

Words: 5347 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84621325

Safety Decisions in High School Football

This paper focuses on one aspect of high school football safety. The study explores the issue of higher levels of injury being associated with a particular brand or brands of football helmets worn by high school athletes who play football, and the institutional decisions and actions that follow disclosure of such information. A recent study by Virginia Tech rated helmets worn by professional football players -- helmets worn by high school students have not yet been rated by the university. The study compared helmets manufactured by three companies. High ratings were given to the Riddell Speed, the Riddell Revolution, the Riddell Revolution IA, the Schutt Ion 4D, the Schutt DNA, and the Xenith X1. Medium ratings were given to the Schutt Air XP and Schutt Air Advantage. Players were warned by Virginia Tech not to wear the Riddell VSR4 and the Adams A2000. No correlation exists between safety and the price of a helmet. The Adams 2000 is the lowest rated helmet, but it costs $200. The four-star high-rated Schutt DNA costs $170.

It is important to note that the Riddell VSR4 -- the second-lowest-rated helmet -- was the most commonly worn helmet in the NFL games last season, and the helmet is also worn by college student and high school student football players. The industry and the institutions have been reluctant to issue ultimatums about which helmets their players must wear. Apparently, the NFL has been given legal advice that disclosing information about helmets without mandating a particular brand or type of helmet reduces their legal risk. Sports broadcasters enthusiastically calling attention to helmet-to-helmet contact, referees ignoring unnecessary roughness in football games, football practice -- for all practical purposes -- completely unregulated, ill-advised coaches demand nutcracker drills and other cumulatively dangerous training approaches, and pro-football players wearing the least safe brand and type of helmets, Young football athletes are exposed to cultural pressure and branding messages that can result in unsafe decisions (Gerberich, 1983; Saunders and Harbaugh, 1984).

Further, academic budgets have been reduced across the nation in response to the residual effects of the 2009 fiscal crisis and, typically, cuts to athletic programs are some…… [Read More]

Di Scala, C., S. Scavo Gallagher, and S.E. Schneps. (1997). Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school, Journal of School Health, 67, 384-9.

FACTS About Certified Athletic Trainers and The National Athletic Trainers' Association Retrieved
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Use of Metal Bat in High School College Baseball Essay

Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62335734

Argument for BBcor Baseball Bats in High School/College

National Federation of State HS Associations

According to the National Federation of State High School Associations, which is the governing body of high school sports (including baseball), with the 2011 season also comes important new bat rules that now match the bat rules of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which is the governing body of collegiate sports (including baseball). (NFSHSA, 2011). It was only about a year ago that the NCAA banned certain 100% composite bats and now the NFSHSA will ensure the same for its players by changing Rule 1.3.2, now requiring that any use of a non-wood bat must meet the BBCOR (Batted Coefficient of Restitution) Standard, a much stricter standard than the previous one in place (NFSHSA, 2011).

Batted coefficient of restitution and analysis

The move towards the stricter standards is based on a the following 3 expectations: That these stricter standards will (1) Provide for greater comparability in performance with wood bats which are still highly encouraged throughout baseball; (2) Lessen risk of injuries; (3) Raise the level of play and performance; and (4) Provide for better teaching opportunities (NFSHSA, 2011). The switch to the BBCOR standards is not being made without cause but rather as the result of extensive research, primarily executed by the NCAA, and with the intent of great expectations in both amateur leagues.

Generally speaking, this switch in standards is a good decision. It is not a switch that is being made lightly. Instead, it is the result of thorough research and there are no noticeable corruptions in the system that suggest the switch is being made for anything other than the previous 4 reason that are mentioned. In fact, manufacturers will have to catch up with the time rather than have it suggested…… [Read More]

NFSHSA (National Federation of State High School Associations). (2011). Retrieved from

NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association). (2011). Retrieved from
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American Disabilities Act American's With Essay

Words: 7288 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45502422

(Schall, 1998)

In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.


In the context of Title 3 there are two notable exceptions to the physical alteration mandate (Stowe, 2000). Historical buildings such as are reported on the national register of historic buildings and landmarks may abstain from changes to their structure or facade which would in some way be detrimental to the historical value or integrity of the structure. Such places whose architecture is of specific historical relevance may site that protected status as a reason for not complying with Title 3 guidelines.

The second exception to the physical code of the Title is if the necessary amendments are outside the financial possibility of a business. Extensive renovation and redesign of in progress building projects can be extremely costly. It is not the intention of the Congress of the United States to impose financial burdens upon businesses which would ultimately drive those businesses to financial ruin (Stowe, 2000). Necessarily a large fortune five hundred corporation would be able to afford necessary remodeling where a smaller local business might not. If through presentation of complete financial records, and projected costs of renovation it can be observed that it is outside a company's financial means…… [Read More]

1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.

2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
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Dangers of Aluminum Bats Essay

Words: 2298 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59872985

Dangers of Aluminum Bats

When asked about the use of aluminum bats, high school baseball coach, Gene Schultz, said he knew that because of the durability of metal that they were going to last, but he did not think that they would take over the high school baseball scene as they have (High pp). Personally, Schultz said he would like to see high school ball do what the college have done and go back to "good 'ol wood ... cracked bats, broken bat singles and inside pitches are all part of true baseball" (High pp). According to Schultz, metal bats have certainly increased the offense in high school baseball, but if they were really good for the sport, then the Major Leagues would be using them (High pp). He adds that bunts have gone for doubles, inside pitches for home runs, and a 95-pound freshman can hit a baseball 350+ feet (High pp). Schultz said he was surprised that more high school pitchers are not injured by the "liner" up the middle, and believes that metal bats have turned baseball into a high scoring game, rather than a strategic battle (High pp). When asked if he would like to see a return to the wood bat for high school players, Schultz answered, "Yes" (High pp).

The issue of wood verses aluminum bats came to a vote in October 2002, when the baseball committee of the Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association voted to require wood bats beginning in the 2002 tournament play and in all games starting in 2004 (Dreyfuss pp). The rationale behind this move is that balls hit off aluminum bats travel faster than balls hit off wood, thus a pitcher has less time to avoid being hit by a line drive (Dreyfuss pp). John Crisco, director of Brown Medical School's bioengineering lab, put the issue to test, using two wood and five metal bats used by 19 batters who had played on the high school, college or semipro level (Dreyfuss pp). Results indicated that four of the metal bats did make the ball go faster than the wood bats, however the fifth bat was similar in performance to the wood (Dreyfuss pp). The balls were pitched at speeds of 50 mph to 66 mph, and hit off the bats at average speed ranging from 91 mph to 93 mph with the metal bats and 86 mph with the…… [Read More]

Coffey, Wayne. "Scrape metal: Pols, parents & players going to bat for wood"

Daily News.