Personality Theory Essays Examples

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Personality Theories Personality vs Situation Personality Refers

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45035209

Personality Theories

PERSONALITY VS SITUATION

Personality refers to the unique set of relatively constant behaviors and mental processes in a person and his or her interactions with the environment (Kevin 2011). It is generally accepted that personality is influenced by genetics in the form of dispositions or temperament at 40-60% and by the environment. The tasks of the psychologist are to characterize and describe personality traits, investigate the relationship between these traits and behavior, and understand and predict behavior from these traits. The approaches to the study of personality are descriptive; biological or genetic; learning; psychodynamic; and humanistic, existential or phenomenological (Kevin).

Existentialism vs. Humanism

Existentialism is difficult to define as those who conceived it denied they started it or it even started (Corbett, 1985). It can be vaguely described as a spirit or atmosphere of one's response to human existence. Among its precursors were Soren Kierkegaard and Fredrich Nietzsche. They were later joined by Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger and Albert Camus (Cobertt). Existentialism uses phenomenology as philosophical approach. This refers to the careful and thorough study of phenomena, the creation of Edmund Husserl. Phenomena consist of the contents of consciousness one experiences and allows to reveal experiences to consciousness…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
- (2003). Individual, existential and humanistic psychology. General Psychology. Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/genpsychumanists.html

Corbett, B. (1985). What is existentialism? Philosophy Department: Webster University.

Retrieved on May 31, 2011 from http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/philosophy/existentialism/whatis.html
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Personality Theories and Assessments Though

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53496899

Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.

Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior as consistent, but rather see the underlying cognitive rules that determine an individual's behavior in a given situation as consistent. Both use objective tests to asses personality, however, with social-learning theorists also using simple observation as a measure.

The Jungian word test at similarminds.com appears to be a mostly objective…… [Read More]

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Personality Theories of Personality This Paper Analyses

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7638137

Personality

Theories of Personality

This paper analyses the process of personality development in detail. It discusses how various genetic, environmental, cognitive, unconscious and socioculture factors affect the process of personality development in different individuals.

Theory of Personality

Personality can be defined as the sum total of all the characteristics that make an individual unique and different from other individuals. In order to analyze one's personality you do not necessarily need a psychologist to speculate and observe it. In our day-to-day dealings we refer to a large number of personality traits that various individuals possess. Different authors and playwrights usually use key figures and role models in their novels and plays to attract people. The word 'personality' is frequently used in day-to-day conversations nowadays. All of us develop our own theories of personality, each and every time we answer the question ' how is he or she like?'. There are five major dimensions of personality development, namely; 1) The genetic perspective, 2) The environmental perspective, 3) The unconscious perspective, 4) The cognitive perspective and 5) The sociocultural perspective. (Houston, 2005)

Impact of Genes on Personaity

Recent studies have shown the impact of genes and heredity on personality development. It has been…… [Read More]

Sources:
Houston, D. Islamic Azad University, (2005). Personality. Retrieved from Islamic Azad University website: http://dralizadeh.iauq.ac.ir/imagesMasterPage/Files/dralizadeh/file/chapter14.pdf

Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., & Jokela, M. (2010). Nature and nurture in personality. The Journal Of Lifelong Learning In Psychiatry, 8(2), 180-184. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org/data/Journals/FOCUS/1842/foc00210000180.pdf
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Personality Development Most Personality Theories

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77661972

shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation; and ego integrity vs. despair. Like Piaget, Erikson's theory also explains the factors that influence personality development albeit through a framework of psychosocial factors. Thus, this theory too is immensely valuable as it enables parents and teachers to help a child successfully negotiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a healthy sense of self.

Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the focus is on explaining the process through which personality develops. Thus, both theories stop short of explaining final personality outcomes and their functioning. For this reason, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory more than any other since it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by itself, and in terms of its relation to the universe. In fact, I find that Jung's personality typology explains my own personality accurately as a "ESFJ" or "Extroverted Feeling with Sensing" type. With a score of extroverted 56%, Sensing 22%, Feeling 56%, and Judging 33%, the test results describe my personality as a highly expressed extrovert and feeling person, a slightly expressed sensing person, and a moderately…… [Read More]

References:
AllPsych. (2004, March 21). Personality Development. Psychology 101. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2004: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
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Personality Theories Including Evolutionary and Dispositional

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74900828

Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories

What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain with them throughout their lives. The two major assumptions of personality psychology are that personality is stable across the course of a person's life, and the other is that people with different personality types are inherently different from one another ("Personality: Theories and Perspectives," 2007).

Evolutionary theory of personality acknowledges…… [Read More]

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Application of Personality Theories to Counseling and Therapy

Words: 2507 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86383313

Personality Therapy

Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.

Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic personality traits are those that are relevant to every person, and ideographic ones are unique to some individuals. Professionals who specialize in dispositional perspectives, use self-report inventories as a means of personal assessment -- helping people better understand their unique qualities as well as similarities and differences with others.

Although…… [Read More]

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Personality Theories Determinants of Behavior

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12720253

Personality and Behavior: Changing for the Better

Hundreds of thousands of years of instinctive programming influence the behavior of modern humans in ways they do not fully understand, and in many cases, people may not even be aware of these influences on their behavior. This is not to say, of course, that modern humans are incapable of thoughtful and purposeful action, but it is to say that such unconscious influences on behavior can cause problems if they are not recognized and dealt with in a meaningful fashion. To gain additional insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning personality and behavior, followed by a discussion concerning how behavior can be influenced by personality in ways that can cause individual problems such as risky behaviors that lead to substance abuse or unprotected premarital sex. Finally, an examination concerning how the interactionism view of personality can be used to help people overcome this problem. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

The specific determinants of behavior that influence humans have been of interest to personality theorists for some time, but there remains some debate…… [Read More]

Sources:
Aizen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Maidenhead, England: Open University

Press.
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Personality Theories

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21028139

Jet Li-Psychological Personality Analysis

The Image of Jet Li: Development of a Wu-Shu Master

For many years, Asian actors have not been given enough opportunities to break into the entertainment industry in the United States, popularly called the Hollywood. Only few Asian actors have made it big in Hollywood, of which the famed martial arts master Bruce Lee is considered as the first Asian who brought fame in the Asian entertainment industry through his martial arts movies. Jackie Chan, similarly, shares Bruce Lee's glory but in a different genre, where Chan uses martial arts not as a form of physical violence, but a form of art movement. Also, Chan's movies are mostly humorous, illustrating Chan's penchant for a feel-good movie for his audience.

Another name that has emerged as another potential Asian martial arts actor is Jet Li, a wu-shu expert who hailed from Beijing, China. Jet Li is popularly known for his movies Once Upon a Time in China, as the Triad leader and villain in Lethal Weapon, and once again as the 'fighter against evil forces' -- with the movies The One and The Hero. Apart from these movies, Li had also been other movies that were originally…… [Read More]

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Self and Personality Theories Ethics

Words: 1518 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89122867

The causes of human actions and behavior are generally sought for in the psyche of the individual or in the social environment.

References

Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Boeree C. ABRAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html

Guy T.M. (2004) Freud's Theory of Culture: Eros, Loss, and Politics. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology; 3/22/2004. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-125869018.html

Jantzen, Grace M.(2004) Death and the Displacement of Beauty. New York: Routledge.

McKeachie W. And Doyle C. ( 1971) Psychology. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Rathna I. Ethics in the practice of clinical psychology. Retrieved from http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/172ar69.html

Roth. M. Conflict and Culture. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9810/freud.html

Strachey, James, ed. (1961) Civilization and Its Discontents. 1st ed. New York W.W. Norton.

The Final Struggle and Victory of Science - Pinel and Tuke. Retrieved from http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/White/insanity/pinel.html

The Genetic Self. Retrieved from http://www.trans4mind.com/transformation/transform7.1.htm

The Scope Of Psychology. Distinction from other Sciences. Retrieved from http://chestofbooks.com/health/psychology/G-F-Stout/A-Manual-Of-Psychology/The-Scope-Of-Psychology-Distinction-from-other-Sciences.html

What is the relationship of psychology to other sciences? Retrieved from http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_relationship_of_psychology_to_other_sciences… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah,

NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet Abraham

Words: 462 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72938416

Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet

Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs theory of personality.

According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of self-actualization needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that basic needs must be satisfied before secondary/higher level needs will become motivators for behavior.

The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is evolution.

The ideal self according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.

Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered undifferentiated.

Rogers believed that counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are necessary elements of psychotherapy.

Intentionality is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.

May proposed that existential freedom is the freedom of action, whereas essential freedom is the freedom of being.

10. The basic concepts of existential theory are freedom and responsibility.

Matching

Match the following theoretical components with their correct theorist or theorists.

Theoretical component

Theorist

1. Unconditional positive regard

B. Carl Rogers

2. Eros

C. Rollo May

3. Love and belongingness needs

A. Abraham Maslow

4. The self-concept

B. Rogers

5. Guilt

C.…… [Read More]

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Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet Abraham

Words: 318 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45544846

Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet

Abraham Maslow proposed the _humanistic__ theory of personality.

According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of _self-actualization____ needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that _lower____ needs must be satisfied before ____higher____ needs will become motivators for behavior.

The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is formative tendency.

The _actualizing tendency, according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.

Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered _shattered self-concept__.

7. Rogers believed that ____empathy____, ____unconditional positive regard____, and ____congruence____ are necessary elements of psychotherapy.

8. ____Intentionality____ is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.

9. May proposed that __self-awareness____ is the freedom of action, whereas _essential freedom____ is the freedom of being.

10. The basic concepts of existential theory are ____freedom____ and ____responsibility

Theoretical component…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Biological Personalities Theories

Words: 2270 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72500693

Theoretical Perspective of the Approach

The approach's personality models are grounded on biological models. The models are based on empirical human and animal findings concerning the associations between neurological system functions and personality dimensions. Traits that are measured are reward-dependence, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking etc. The hypothesis is that they are grounded on genetic and neurochemical influences. For instance, sensation-seeking and explorative tendencies like drug usage make use of dopaminergic pathways, and such a characteristic corresponds to novelty-seeking behavior in Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TQP). People who are high on the novelty-seeking spectrum tend to be impulsive and take a lot of risks. Serotonin is linked to harm and punishment avoidance. Lower serotonin levels result in a "neurotic" personality. Reward dependence is linked to noradrenaline. People that lean more towards harm avoidance tend to be more affectionate and sentimental. Those on the other end of the scale tend to be pragmatic and tough. Heritable biases are reflected by the personalities and there are a number of traits that correspond to one another. For instance, neuroticism is correlated to harm avoidance while extroversion is correlated with novelty-seeking. This avails evidence for cross-validating measures as regards their ability to capture personalities (In Colarelli &…… [Read More]

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Personality Therapy

Words: 326 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25066044

Personality Theories: A Road to the Self

Knowing oneself is not an easy task by any stretch of the imagination; and being able to definitively describe one's own personality is even more difficult. However, the basic groundwork in truly knowing oneself is in one's ability to fully understand the concept of personality. Before garnering embarking on a possible endless journey deciphering the endless labyrinth of available personality theories it is best to start from a more sociological perspective, namely the one proposed by Charles Cooley and known as the "Looking Glass Self" for it is on the basis of how one perceives the self, how others perceive the self and how one would like others to perceive the self that personality is born.

Knowing the self is molded from three perspectives continuation in, and the depth of, knowing the self is brought about through the study of personality. Regardless of the theory being expounded upon, whether based on the works of Freud, Jung,…… [Read More]

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Personality Theorist Isabel Briggs Myers

Words: 2424 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75063505

Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).

In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping or battling tiredness, the noise of a theoretically intriguing concept would trigger her to sit up, her eyes shimmering, her incisive mind all interested and in deep thought. Throughout her research life, any reference of a sample where members had high quality or demonstrable issues set her off to research…… [Read More]

References:
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
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Personality Trait and Factor Theories Personality Trait

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32010011

Personality

Trait and Factor Theories:

Personality trait and factor theories have been developed as a means of identifying common elements within the personality of different people, indeed the entire populace. Within any given group of people there are common threads of experiences, similar nurturing, and even shared genetic, yet the personality of each member is a unique construction individual elements which work together. Among those who have produced work in this area are Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck. Each used scientific factor analysis to identify common traits or permanent dispositions of people. Cattell has identified a large number of personality traits, whereas Eysenck's research extracted only three general factors.(mcgraw-hill.com, online) Like Freud who identifies the id, ego and superego as the measurements of the personal mind, will and emotion, the categories identified by these researchers give men the ability to understand the unique functions of the person, emotions and desires.

Allport's Dispositional Theory

Allport distinguished between common traits held within the group and personal dispositions, which are individual. He believed that individuals have overlapping levels of personally, which included:

Cardinal dispositions which are controlling and dominating characteristics.

Central dispositions which are genera characteristics around which their lives revolve

Secondary dispositions,…… [Read More]

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Theory Discussed Attempt Explain a Real Criminal

Words: 1193 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65800862

theory discussed attempt explain a real criminal crimes. Gary Ridgeway America's notorious serial killers. Your assignment analyze Ridgeway's criminal life Hans Eysenck's theory Personality.

When considering Gary Leon Ridgway's (The Green River Killer) criminal case in the context of Hans J. Eysenck's theory on personality and crime, one is likely to observe a series of parallels between the murderer's personality and behavior and a series of events that occurred throughout his life up to the moment when he became a serial killer. Eyseneck considered that genetics plays an important role in shaping one's personality and this thus points toward the belief that Ridgway was probably influenced by biological factors when he put across criminal thinking. According to Eyseneck, individuals like Ridgway have a neurophysiologic structure that influences them to express certain attitudes when they come across particular circumstances.

While someone might be inclined to think otherwise consequent to consulting the theory, it would be wrong to say that Ridgway was born a criminal, as when considering Eysenck's theory, such a person respond to a complex set of neurobiological factors, environments, and ideas. These respective factors played important roles in making Ridgway consider that it would be normal for him to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Hadden, B, & Luce, H.R. (2002). Time, Volume 159.

Putwain, D., & Sammons, A. (2013). Psychology and Crime. Routledge.
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Personality - Sigmund Freud In a Healty

Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62182263

personality - Sigmund Freud.

In a healty person, parts interact? 3) In unhealthy person, interact? Give a faulty interaction lead problems a person? 4) In ur words Defense Mechanisms? 5) Give 2 examples Defense Mechanism: Repression Displacement Rationalization Regression Projection Reaction Formation Sublimation.

Sigmund Freud's personality theory describes the three parts of the personality as the id, the ego, and the superego. The Austrian psychoanalyst considered that people are born with an id, a feature that assists them in getting them whatever pleasures them. The Id will stop at nothing from accomplishing an individual's basic needs and does not allow him or her to express any interests in things other than his or her own well being. As a child's understanding of the world evolves, the ego starts to govern his or her thinking as he or she starts to notice that other people's interests are also important. The ego focuses on assisting the id concomitantly with focusing on the reality of the world. When children reach five years old, the superego intervenes as a result of the fact that society provides them with more information regarding the difference between right and wrong. The superego is considered to be responsible…… [Read More]

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Personality and Transformational Leadership Most

Words: 3184 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29687957

Therefore they have more kind of skills that will be able to get better results with the same individuals than transactional leaders. Subordinates who will examine leaders as transformational are highly dedicated (Humpreys, Weyant & Sprague 2003) and they have high development need and high needs of independence (Deluga 2005)). Furthermore the dependents of transformational leaders have frequency that is higher of information pursuing (Charbonneau, D. 2004)).

Likewise subordinates' behavior is what had some kind of influences regarding the leadership process. Madzar's (2001) investigations showed that subordinates that have lower Organization -- Based Self -- Esteem (OBSE) will be the ones that will take advantage of the developing support they get from a transformational leader, whereas subordinates with advanced OBSE may not be as much inclined by the excellence of their association with the leader and would not seek to take the same type of advantage (Furnham 2009). It also needs to be noted that this suggestion doe refer only to persons with an extremely lesser level of OBSE and within this sample, there actually very few such individuals. Nevertheless, the results of the study that took place really did provide support to the impression that the transformational leaders identify…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Alban-Metcalfe, R. & B. Alimo-Metcalfe (2007). The transformational leadership questionnaire (TLQ-LGV): a convergent and discriminant validation study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 21:6, 280-296.

Alimo-Metcalfe, B. & R. Alban-Metcalfe (2008). The development of a new transformational leadership questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 71, 1-27.
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Personality Theorist Sigmund Freud's Period

Words: 3767 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74750464

"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).

When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).

One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his wife in order for their relationship to be healthy. Furthermore, he attributed the high rate of divorce in the U.S. To the fact that American men were inexperienced in performing intercourse. European men were much more experienced from his point-of-view, as they apparently imposed their power in the family and…… [Read More]

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Personality Development

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99876368

human personality is a complex process that has been tackled by a number of great psychologists, each with important contributions. Each theory outlined below offers something new to the study of personality, and as such, I feel that any "ultimate" theory of personality must try to incorporate the best parts of each theory.

Gordon Allport, along with Maslow and Rogers was one of the early humanists. He argued that the proprium, or sense of self was made up of seven different components that include sense of body, self-image, self-esteem, and rational coping. Carl Rogers was a humanistic theorist who felt that people have a basic "actualizing tendency" that drives all of their behaviors and thoughts. The personality, or "self" in Roger's terms is created by the sum of a person's conscious and unconscious experiences. Abraham Maslow's famed hierarchy of needs, in which he argues that all humans move toward self-actualization, has become one of the most important concepts in humanistic psychology today. Rollo May was an existential psychologist who felt that human personality was essentially self-determined.

Behaviorist psychology has been largely influential in the past decades. B.F. Skinner is one of the founders of the behaviorist approach, who based his…… [Read More]

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Personality the Concept of Personality

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36047896

This approach assumes that the psychological apparatus of the mind is dependent upon some type of energy to make it function (Personality pp). This energy is used in psychological work such as planning, thinking, feeling, and remembering (Personality pp). Everything that happens in an individual's mind and everything he or she does have a specific, identifiable cause, which is referred to as psychic determinism (Personality pp). According to Freud, "people are driven, fundamentally, by unconscious, animalistic, instinctual urges, particularly lust and aggression" (Personality pp). The unconscious is understood to be the large part of the mind that is hidden from view, and the internal structure of the mind is divided into three separate motivations, the Id, which is the irrational and emotional part of the mind, the Ego, which is the rational part, and the Superego, the moral part (Personality pp).

The basic assumption of the learning perspective is that all behavior is learned through experiences and by interaction with the environment (Personality pp). This perspective views the individual as entering the world as a "tabula rasa," or blank slate, although it acknowledges that there are instincts and pre-set responses to stimuli, as well as a preference for pleasure and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Boeree, C. George. Personality Theories: Introduction. http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/persintro.html

Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality. http://64.233.187.104/search?q=cache:UxKqbHF4VjwJ:www.bsu.edu/web/00t0holtgrav/317/evolution.ppt+Perspectives+on+Personality&hl=en
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Acculturation and Personality in Immigrant Children

Words: 2157 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59853281

Personality Development in Immigrant Children

Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.

The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.

This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and cultural anthropology, specifically Bandura, Erickson, Freud, Kohlberg, Piaget, and Mead. That said, a significant thrust of this writing is to articulate the networked relationships that have, in essence, blurred the lines that have separated psychology from other science. It is not accidental that these networks have formed in tandem with…… [Read More]

References:
Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x

Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved  http://search.proquest.com/docview/198088703?accountid=25340 
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Blog Article on Various Personality and Assessment Theories

Words: 867 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13820986

Personality Theory Blog

Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment

According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews that provide just a hint of who the person is, as far as personality is concerned. There are Big Five personality traits, which are used by psychologist to understand how a patient views him/herself and the areas that need personality development or improvement. The psychologists can then determine why the…… [Read More]

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Analyzing the Personality Psychology Phenomenon

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97920269

Personality Psychology

Character: Patrick Baterman- 'American Psycho'

A unique concept of personality theories is generated in American Psycho. This character has been cross examined through the principles of psychoanalytic theory. There character exhibits a super ego driven by skewed moral patterns and an id (self-perception) that lets out all the deeply held fantasies of which it has been deprived. The case demonstrates the possibility of the superego and the id coalescing to stir sadistic violence and failure to distinguish between the real and that exists only in perception. This unique predisposition also means that self-actualization is seen to be a possibility for any form of behaviour. Although it is easy to class Baterman as an evil person, his needs are met in line with the hierarchy of needs. This happens until his heinous and violent acts emerge a continuation of the skewed ideals shared in a way with his victims. The application of theories here presents a great opportunity to show the importance of extreme characters in fiction works to test the extent and limits of perspectives of theories (Schaffer, 2013).

a) Behavioural Theory and Character analysis

According to B.F. Skinner, people's differences in behavior are caused by the varying…… [Read More]

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Personality Motivation and Managing Staff Personality Motivation

Words: 2963 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71308896

Personality, Motivation and Managing Staff

Personality, Motivation Managing Staff

The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the ability to form an accurate understanding of people and to apply theory appropriately. To do this, I have studied English Character is Dylan Harper played by Justin Timberlake, in the movie Friends with Benefits. This report seeks to apply course theory, and develop actions (the actions can be initiated by others, managers, work colleagues, family members and/or by the characters themselves). In effect, this report has used the movie Friends with Benefits as an enriched case study that allows viewers to explore the complexity and subtlety of workplace behavior and, crucially, the critical application of course theory. This report is enthralling to read because it is based on a character whose behavior is richly depicted and open to multiple interpretations. Ultimately, this report analyzes Dylan Harper using course ideas and materials. The analysis will be essential in determining form of managerial actions relevant in improving the Dylan Harper's level of motivation (Wojtkowski, 2009).

This report has been structured on the ordinary life formula of Dylan Harper based on the concept of mutual relationship between two friends. These friends engage naughty activities when…… [Read More]

Resources:
Davies, S.J., & Hertig, C.A. (2008). Security supervision and management: The theory and practice of asset protection. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier.

Herzog, P. (2011). Open and closed innovation: Different cultures for different strategies. Wiesbaden: Gabler.
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Personality Motivation and Managing Staff

Words: 2815 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77442490

Personality, Motivation, And Managing Staff

This discussion aims to address the intricacies and detail of workplace conducts as the course theory presents and explains them. The reports explore the character of Andrea Sachs that Anne Hathaway depicts in the movie the "Devil Wears Prada," in presenting this relationship. Using the behaviours and experiences of the character, the discussion explains the way different individuals operate and perform in the work environment. Through an analysis of Andrea Sachs, the discussion also establishes the nature of managerial conducts that would prove appropriate in improving Andrea's level of motivation. This report is worth reading considering the choice of character and the in-depth analysis that the report provides. Besides settling on a character with traits that are open to numerous interpretations, as that the movie presents splendidly, the discussion extensively and vividly establishes the characters experience and behaviours with the theory in use. The reader is therefore able to make clear and direct relationships between the character, her traits, the psychological needs for motivation, and the managerial skills that are significant in motivating the character in different organizational levels. In exploring the issues of interest in this paper, the report presents quotes and examples in…… [Read More]

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Personality the Definition of Personality

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28844403



Erik Erikson postulated that personality is a progress through a number of stages and facing conflicts in the course of progression and the in order to pass through a process, the individual has to overcome these conflicts. These internal conflicts therefore aroused defense mechanisms that thereafter dictated the personality of an individual (Kendra, 2010).

Humanistic approach

Humanistic approach emphasizes the individual worth and the centrality of the value of a person. It is pegged on the philosophy of existentialism and emphasized on creativity, spontaneity and activeness of human beings. The approach focuses on the development and possibility of humans to defeat hardship and misery as opposed to defeat and pessimis.

Under this approach, there is emphasis on free will and the experience of an individual to be fundamental in the shaping of the personality. It looks at the concept of self-actualization, which is an internal natural need for personal growth to the fullest possible to be a motivator to behavior shaping hence personality. The major proponents of this theory are Carl Rogers and the renowned Abraham Maslow. The Maslow hierarchy of needs ranges from deficit needs to the being needs and each of these stages represent the various personalities that…… [Read More]

Sources:
Kendra Cherry, (2010). Theories of Personality. Personality Psychology Study Guide. Retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm

Warren & Carmichael, (1930). Elements of human psychology (Rev. Ed.; Boston, MA:
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Personality Analysis Life History Like Most People

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42476373

Personality Analysis

Life History

Like most people, I have experienced ups and downs, highs and lows. The major upheavals in my life have revealed some of the core personality traits that have been with me since childhood. I believe that crisis and stress challenge us, and also bring to light our true selves. However, I also believe strongly in the power of each person to change. I used to have anger management problems and other emotional issues, just like most people. Mainly these problems were related to my not having in place a set of established coping mechanisms in my life. Part of this is related to the culture and upbringing, and part also to personality traits. Yet after I was divorced from a husband of 22 years, it was a shock. I did not feel like myself because my emotions were getting the best of me. Knowing this, I joined support groups and saw a therapist. These tools helped, but only temporarily. I failed to see long-term change until I made a conscientious decision to walk away from negative emotion entirely. This was accomplished in conjunction with spiritual growth and development. I had asked a friend for help, and…… [Read More]

References:
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L. & Hetherington, E. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting. American Psychologist 55(2): 218-232.

Jussim, L. (2012). Social Perception and Social Reality. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Personality and Individual Differences

Words: 855 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94323273

Personality and Individual Differences

Max is an individual who has long been interested in acting. He gained this interest when he took part in a school play at age 12. After Max completed his secondary schooling, he wanted greatly to enroll in a local arts college, but his parents protested. They communicated to him that they desired him to gain a "real career," or in other words, follow in their footsteps and become an engineer. Max relented and kept his interest in theatrical arts strictly as a hobby. Through the years, Max studied hard. He rarely complained, and eventually he graduated with an engineering degree. Max now got along with his parents and the three maintained a stable relationship. However, Max sometimes felt empty and wondered if a different life may be awaiting him. Two years into Max's first engineering job, Max learned that his close friend had been diagnosed with cancer and was given an estimated on year to live. Since this point in time, Max has devoted more time to theatrical arts by volunteering at a local theatrical studio and taking up acting classes during his free time. Max now feels more at ease with himself and tells…… [Read More]

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Personality Social Psychology

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87885133

Personality Social Psychology

Suzanne Kobasa's Personality and Social Psychology article entitled "Stressful Life Events, Personality, and Health: An Inquiry into Hardiness" builds upon past research to examine individual and group differences regarding responses to stressful life events. The author provides extensive reviews of past literature, pointing out the limitations that led to her conducting the current study. Much literature has shown a correlation between stressful life events and physical illness; namely, that "stressful life events precipitate somatic and psychological disease," (Kobasa 1979, p.1). The current article in particular examines personality as a major mediating factor in the presence of physical illness following a series of stressful life events. Because prior research has shown that "the recent life histories of hospitalized persons contain significantly more frequent and serious stressful events than do histories of matched controls from the general population," Kobasa designed the current research to discover which personality factors were most significant in determining how a person reacts to stressful events.

Kobasa clearly defines her terms and her hypotheses. Based on the discoveries made by prior researchers, Kobasa chose to study one variable in particular on the relationship between stress and physical illness: personality. Studies have shown that many highly…… [Read More]

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Personality Tests Can Pose Problematic

Words: 349 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59296708



The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.

References

Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at  http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
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Personality Permanent It Has Been a Long

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5870792

Personality: Permanent?

It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.

Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.

Behavior may change, he states, as a person encounters "alterations in biological structures or processes," mechanically or chemically. For instance, a person's gentle personality may change dramatically after an accident that causes brain injury, therefore chemical treatment or medications - or even gene modification - is necessary to control the disorder and fix the problem.

However, this…… [Read More]

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Theories Presented in Understandable Narrative

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93014618

In addition to an automatic evaluation, there needs to also be a "reflective evaluative process" in order to store information from present experiences for use in future experiences (Cunningham, et al., 2007). Basically this theory is that "reflective evaluative processes" are created (based on experience) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which takes the formulation of evaluation to a higher level, beyond attitude and beyond basic emotional responses. In other words, the PFC house learned "rules" and they play a key role when humans evaluate situations.

Affect and Proto-Affect in Effective Functioning

Andrew Ortony and colleagues posit that when humans process different levels of information four "relatively independent domains" are in play and help functioning processes; those four are: affect (value); motivation (action tendencies); cognition (meaning); and behavior (the actions of the organism) (Ortony, et al., 2005, p. 173). Within those four levels the authors break functioning down to three components, the heart of their theory: a) "reactive level" (responses to "unconditioned stimuli," the simplest forms of conditioning); b) "routine level" (this level interrupts "higher-level processing" when unexpected conditions or emergencies are encountered); and c) "reflective level" (this level effectively monitors any activity at all three levels; it is operating at…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Barrett, Feldman L., Ochsner, K.N., and Gross, J.J. (2007). "Automaticity and Emotion." in

J. Bargh (Ed.) Social Psychology and the Unconscious (173-218). New York: Psychology
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Personality Assessment Inventory PAI Personality

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1198736

The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative Relationships and Self-Harm.

The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. Raw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey, 2007).

Test Application

The PAI has been used in a number of different settings, including inpatient and outpatient psychiatric treatment, personnel selection, medical screening, criminal justice and forensic settings, assessment of PTSD in veterans, and substance abuse treatment and assessment. The scale is very relevant to clinical diagnosis, making it…… [Read More]

References:
Blais, M.A., Baity, M.R., & Hopwood, C.J. (2010). Clinical applications of the Personality Assessment Inventory. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Butchner, J.N. (2010). Personality assessment from the nineteenth to the early twenty-first century: Past achievements and contemporary challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1-20.
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Personality in Psychology the Object-Relations

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18132771

As the individual grows, the extended family becomes an increasing part of his or her life. At a certain age, the individual goes to preschool or primary school, and thus becomes part of society as a whole. This is where the primary relationship with the first family unit plays its most important role.

I believe that object-relations theory has much to offer in terms of ensuring the healthy development of the individual during his or her first years. This development should be seen as the basis of future development, rather than the basis of all other relationships during the individual's life. Furthermore, I also feel that the theory can be used in combination with other theories in order to achieve a balance between the importance of the individual as self, as well as the individual as part of other entities, or "wholes," including the family, school, work, as well as society in general.… [Read More]

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Personality Interview One of the

Words: 1413 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61550377

Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.

As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will have 4 or more by the time he retires, if he retires. So for him, personality is shaped not just by archetypes and family, but by his own experiences, observations, and what ideas he gleans from books, both fictional and non-fictional. Tom has spent time in Latin America, Europe, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.

"Levels of Learning," 2009. Benjamin Bloom and the Taxonomy of Learning, Cited in:

 http://oaks.nvg.org/taxonomy-bloom.html
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Psychology Theories of Personality Focus on Inner

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37863305

Psychology

Theories of personality focus on inner traits of individuals, which may or may not be viewed as static. The most important schools of personality psychology include Psychodynamic Theory, Freud's Theory of Personality, Humanistic Theory, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Personality, Social Learning Theory, and Evolutionary Personality Theory. While all these theories share in common their goal to explain, analyze, and understand human behavior in terms of personality explanations, there are important differences in these main approaches. The differences will affect theory but also practice of psychology.

Behaviorism was one of the earliest expressions of psychological inquiry. Therefore, it makes sense to begin with an understanding of behavioral theories of personality. Behaviorism suggests that individual behavior is the key to understanding personality. Because of its emphasis on behavior rather than emotion or cognition, behavioral theories of personality are relatively weak and limited in scope. However, it is still worth understanding the contributions of B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson to the study of personality.

Psychodynamic theories of personality are highly relevant to the study of psychology because they have become pervasive in the understanding of human nature. Sigmund Freud's theory of personality falls under the rubric of Psychodynamic theories of personality.…… [Read More]

Resources:
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Theories of Personality. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm

McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online:  http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html 
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Cliff Huxtable Sigmund Freud's Personality

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46309090

Cliff likes to challenge people to games, sometimes making bets. Yet when he loses, he does not take the situation too seriously. Cliff does not avoid conflict or argument, and yet he also tries to create win-win situations. Cliff is frequently portrayed as the voice of reason in the show, such as when he tries to talk his wife out of having another baby. He points out where his children are acting on their impulses, and proves to be a good disciplinarian. A psychoanalytic personality perspective suggests that Cliff Huxtable is an ideal person with a healthy, well-developed ego.

In the Cosby Show, the Huxtable children are developing their superegos based on what they learn from their parents and Cliff serves as an excellent role model for them. Cliff Huxtable is a well-adjusted man who does not demonstrate any apparent neuroses. Difficult emotions such as anger, fear, and embarrassment are raised in the Cosby Show, through the various characters. Cliff Huxtable shows remarkable wisdom when dealing with his children. For instance, in one episode he tells them that anger is a normal human emotion and that he loves his children even when they are feeling angry. Cliff also understands that…… [Read More]

References:
Reference

Stevenson, D.B. (1998). Freud's division of the mind. The Victorian Web. retrieved April 30, 2010 from  http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/division.html
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Psychology Theories in Psychology Personality Can Be

Words: 1438 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67545435

Psychology Theories

In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud in which he considered the human personality as a whole by dividing it into 3 functional parts namely id, ego, and superego. Freud regarded the id as the unfathomable stage of the unconscious, subjugated by the gratification principle. He viewed it as having an object to gratify the instinctual drives.…… [Read More]

Sources:
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.

Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
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George Kelly's Theory Is a

Words: 2361 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37419541

("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)

Social Cognitive theories are a primary focus in today's clinical world. The person is seen as a proactive vs. reactive organizer of his or her life. Utilizing the main concepts of this theory explain why Jane is having such difficulty coping with life? How would Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck intervene in Jane's lifestyle?

The social cognitive theory is when there is focus on learning by watching what others do. The successes and failures that they experience are used to shape how the individual will view the world around them and their role in it. This is accomplished by teaching them techniques during the process that can be applied to their daily lives. (Santrock, 2008, pp. 26 -- 30) When this occurs on a regular basis, is the point that the person will begin to use these events as experiences that will shape how they react to different situations.

At the heart of these concepts, are the ideas of moral competence and moral performance. Moral competence is when there is an emphasis on the ability of the individual to perform moral actions. While moral performance is used by the person to motivate them to…… [Read More]

References:
The Beginning of Cognitivist. (2002). All Psych. Retrieved from:

http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/kelly.html