PSYCHOLOGY as a SCIENCE
Psychology is a relatively new field of science as opposed to the natural sciences because it was born out of the spirit of humanism after the Renaissance (Hergenhahn, 108). As a result, methods and norms in the field are still being developed. In addition, the subject matter of the field includes the mind, personality and other intangible entities that cannot be subjected to the same kind of testing and experimentation as in medicine or physics.
Psychology has intended to become a branch of science to gain greater credibility and reliability for its claims. Science is recognized as objective whereas other fields may be treated as subjective and based on philosophical speculation rather than rigorous experimentation and research. In fact, the history of science in the modern world can be traced to the moment in 1600 when William Gilbert published his work on magnetism based on objective analysis and experimentation as opposed to the philosophical approach of Aristotelianism prevalent in those days. To be considered a science, therefore, psychology would have to accommodate experimentation and objective analysis of its observations in the methodology.
Science involves repeated experiments and trials to test a hypothesis. Therefore, psychology should possess the capacity for hypotheses to be developed based on observations and then tested through controlled experiments to verify or negate those hypotheses. There should be adequate arrangements for laboratories and other contexts where factors can be controlled and the subjects of the experiment monitored for their observations (McDougall, 4). The psychologists should also consider the extent to which experiments on human beings can be conducted as this could have social costs for the study. Currently, experiments on the same scale of control as those in natural sciences cannot be performed in psychology.
Psychology has been studied from a variety of perspectives that may not all be considered as scientific. They are not based on observation, experimentation and testing of hypotheses. One of these perspectives is the psychodynamic perspective. Developed and popularized by the efforts of Freud, this perspective is based on a unique conceptualization of the human mind. Freud believed that the human mind was comprised of the conscious and the subconscious and that a number of innate drives and suppressed desires affected human behavior. This was not a scientific approach because the claims of Freudian psychology…… [Read More]
Theories of personality focus on inner traits of individuals, which may or may not be viewed as static. The most important schools of personality psychology include Psychodynamic Theory, Freud's Theory of Personality, Humanistic Theory, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Personality, Social Learning Theory, and Evolutionary Personality Theory. While all these theories share in common their goal to explain, analyze, and understand human behavior in terms of personality explanations, there are important differences in these main approaches. The differences will affect theory but also practice of psychology.
Behaviorism was one of the earliest expressions of psychological inquiry. Therefore, it makes sense to begin with an understanding of behavioral theories of personality. Behaviorism suggests that individual behavior is the key to understanding personality. Because of its emphasis on behavior rather than emotion or cognition, behavioral theories of personality are relatively weak and limited in scope. However, it is still worth understanding the contributions of B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson to the study of personality.
Psychodynamic theories of personality are highly relevant to the study of psychology because they have become pervasive in the understanding of human nature. Sigmund Freud's theory of personality falls under the rubric of Psychodynamic theories of personality. However, other famous psychologists such as Erik Erikson and Alfred Adler also have developed personality theories that remain extant in the study of personality psychology ("Psychodynamic Theories of Personality," n.d.). According to Sigmund Freud, the person is a structure that comprises of three different dimensions or levels. Those dimensions include the id, or the childhood impulses that people need to keep under control; the ego, or the core identity of the individual and face a person shows the world; and the superego, or the conscience that tells a person right from wrong or good from bad. The way these three personality structures interact determines the gamut of the personality. There are dysfunctional and healthy dynamics between these functions.
Alfred Adler developed a different psychodynamic theory from Freud. Adler's theory suggests that individuals are born with the sense of being inferior, and that they will struggle to maintain identity in opposition to this sense of inferiority. Moreover Adler emphasized…… [Read More]
Psychology is an important field of study mainly because it can be used to enhance the lives of people as it increases an individual's level of self-understanding, well-being, and quality of relationships. The main reason for the impact of psychology on people's lives is because this field focuses on describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling the mental and behavioral processes of an individual. As a broad field of study, the field of psychology consists of several important topics like introduction to psychology, its scientific method, sensation and perception, learning, and memory. Developing an understanding of the field of psychology through its basic topics is significant in comprehending the wide impact of the field on people's lives.
As an important field of study with huge impacts on the lives of people, psychology can be described as the science of mental and behavioral processes that seeks to define and explain the various aspects of human feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and actions (Hamilton, 2001). The field is guided by several psychology approaches like behavioral, biological, and psychodynamic approaches. Psychodynamic approach was introduced by Freud who argued that unconscious desires and conflicts are deeply rooted on symptoms-free will. Through this theory, the behavioral aspects of a person are the product of his/her interactions with psychological factors outside the conscious awareness. In contrast, the behaviorism approach is a school of psychology that focuses on examining observable and measurable behavior. The biological approach uses biological processes and genetics to describe human behavior, study the brain and the central nervous system. Given that the field of psychology focuses understanding human functioning; its professionals focus on describing and explaining the behaviors of human beings in their respective environments ("What do Psychologists Do?" n.d.). Consequently, psychologists generally engage in every aspect of human thinking processes, feelings, and behavior ("What Does a Psychologist Do?" n.d.).…… [Read More]
Psychology is considered to be an area of study that involves behavior. Behavior is demonstrated in a lot of diverse areas in the field of psychology. Some of these examples are mental illness, relationships, sexuality, depression, family dynamics, or culture. Accepting of behavior is picked up by various techniques and it could be from society or changes in individuals or the overall population. Psychologists look at various factors such as experimentation, observation, and analysis and psychoanalysis methods. The area has a lot of different branches some areas to be looked at to be applied are research, consultants in governments, or societies or health care organization.
Psychologist are able to work by themselves or with a group or team of psychologists. The area of psychology is to bring some kind of assistance to others, to discover the source of the issue and then try to bring some kind of solution to the issue. It is also involves trying to supply certain coping instruments or self -awareness of a person's well-being. Awareness in the area of psychology has numerous benefits because it involves being a solution someone's problem, nonetheless in the end can be extremely rewarding to see a client overcome their hardships. Being a Psychologist is a difficult occupation it calls for total devotion and consideration to every way involved. Responsibilities are towards avoiding illness, instead of simply diagnosing and trying to treat the issue, require individuals to learn how to make healthy behavior a predictable part of existing. With that said, this essay will explore all the avenues when it comes to the fields of psychology.
Historical Foundations in the Field of Psychology
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who were the Greek Philosophers, became the first group to question the state of mind and how the mental process works. This took place during the fourth and fifth centuries B.C (Beal, 2009). This development is acknowledged as Psychology. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, questioned Aristotle, throughout the fourth and fifth periods B.C. Hippocrates was a Greek medical doctor that was likewise called the predecessor of medicine. Hippocrates was extremely absorbed in the study of the breathing organism and its parts. Hippocrates witnessed how the brain was able to control many parts of the body. Hippocrates medicinal morals are now…… [Read More]
" Dorothy deserves a lot of credit for the level of motivation she exhibits in the Wizard of Oz. When she gets to Oz, her primary goal is to reach the Wizard so that she can return home to Kansas. The motivation Dorothy exhibited to save Toto from the old woman was a more instinctual type of motivation; whereas in Oz she was also stimulated externally by several factors including the strangeness of her environment, the fact that she had been distanced from her initial or primary goal of saving Toto, and also the fact that she met three other characters who likewise had motivation to go to Oz. Motivation is therefore a prevailing theme in the Wizard of Oz.
The interactions between Dorothy and her newfound friends in Oz can be understood in terms of psychological principles, namely those of social psychology and developmental psychology. Described in Chapter 12, social psychology includes how the individual perceives others, and how the individual develops and responds to interpersonal relationships. Dorothy's willingness to disobey the old woman at the beginning of the movie shows how she is developing a sense of individuality in accordance with Erikson's stages of development. In fact, the Wizard of Oz can be "read" as a rite of passage in which Dorothy goes from being an adolescent concerned with identity vs. role confusion (Erikson's Adolescent stage of development) to being a young adult concerned with maintaining strong intimate relationships with other people. After all, she is willing to run away from home to save her dog at the beginning of the movie. When the charlatan man tells her that she has a family who loves and misses her, Dorothy realizes that she had been acting selfishly. This is the moment she becomes a young adult. When Dorothy is in Oz, her primary motivation is related to her need to maintain healthy relationships with her family. This is why she is compelled to find a way home. At the same time, Dorothy is open to forming new friendships with the Scarecrow, Tin Man, and Lion. As she has entered the stage of young adulthood, Dorothy's primary concern…… [Read More]
Psychology Statement of Purpose with a Brief Personal Statement
My interest in psychology has over time been stimulated by a number of experiences. Top amongst these is my reading of a book I stumbled upon several years ago. The book, The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka, essentially concerns itself with a character by the name Gregor Samsa who one day finds himself turned into a giant vermin. As a result, Samsa ends up experiencing untold emotional and psychological anguish. Although I was only aged 15 when I first read the book, the questions it triggered in me regarding both mental illness and general psychology further prompted my curiosity in the subject. I have also been a member of my campus' Psychology Club. In addition to giving me an opportunity to interact with my peers, being a member of the club also allowed me to learn many other things I would not have ordinarily learnt in a classroom setting. This in a way also furthered my desire to pursue psychology beyond the M.A. In General Psychology for which I am currently interested in.
I view an M.A. In General Psychology as a critical step towards the other specific goals I have set for myself. I am already aware that an M.A in general psychology opens the door to a variety of other opportunities in diverse settings such as law enforcement, mental health clinics, research laboratories, etc. I plan to pursue my education past graduate studies. In the next five to seven years, I plan to have received a Ph.D. In Counseling Psychology. My choice of disciplines is in this case largely founded on my desire to play a prominent role in the improvement of the well-being of people through the alleviation of their maladjustment and distress amongst other things. In addition to entering into private practice, I also plan to offer…… [Read More]
Psychology Statement of Purpose and Personal Statement
When I was 12 years old, a cousin (let us call her Jenny) who was living with us at the time as her parents sorted out their marital problems started exhibiting strange behavior. At the time, she was only 14. At first, her strange behavior was barely noticeable but with time, it became clear that something was amiss. We became alarmed when she started refusing to eat meals claiming that her dad could have sneaked in the house (or sent someone) to poison the food as it was being prepared so as to get rid of her. Apparently, for one reason or another, Jenny had quite a low opinion of her dad. To cut the long story short, Jenny was later-on diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. All along, I had been particularly close to Jenny and her change of behavior left me totally confused. When she was eventually diagnosed with the condition, I became naturally curious and soon, I took it upon myself to learn as much as I could about the condition. With time, I came to learn that there were many other types of schizophrenia including but not limited to catatonic-type schizophrenia and disorganized-type schizophrenia. I also came to learn of the suffering those diagnosed with the condition went through especially given the society's indifference towards the same. I was slowly becoming an 'expert' in clinical psychology. My journey towards becoming a clinical psychologist had effectively begun!
A journey of a thousand miles starts with a single step. My journey towards becoming a clinical psychologist began when I was 12 years old - after my interest in psychology was stirred by my reading of various texts on schizophrenia. Completing an M.A. In General Psychology will be an important part of that journey. Indeed, my graduate studies are part…… [Read More]
The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.
Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)
3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.
1. To treat drug abuse
This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if a the CS could somehow be associated with the ill effects of drug use, such as vomiting, then maybe the CR could change.
2. To reduce arguing with a significant other
A spouse could possibly use a rubber band and snap their wrists while arguing. This could act to limit arguing for the avoidance of the negative CS.
3. To treat bulimia
This one is also difficult because vomiting is a rather negative response to eating (one would think). Therefore something that was perceived even more negative than vomiting itself would have to be used as a CS.
4. To reduce time spent watching TV
The tv viewer could put their feet in ice cold water until it was painful. Eventually the U.S. (ice cold water) would equate the act of watching television to a painful experience (CR).
5. To reduce stress
An individual could associate an object, such as a stress ball for example, with happy experiences. Then in times of stress the object could be used to generate the learned response of pleasure and act to reduce the effects of stress.
Regarding the five scenarios listed above, determining which one would be the most successful is…… [Read More]
The Field of Psychology:
An Overview of Foundations, Influence and Pertinence in Today's World
One of the most fascinating and complex fields of study in today's scientific world is psychology, the scientific examination of human behavior. Psychologists, as professionals, can prove to be an extremely useful resource, especially since mental disorders tend to be just as complicated as physical disorders, and, often, much less apparent. The field of psychology has grown tremendously in the past century, with numerous innovations coming to the fore from various illustrious individuals, and proving that theories can be attributed to any human being, and his or her behavior, regardless of whether there is a problem or not. Psychology, therefore, is no longer a study of those who cannot function well in society, but it has rather become a means through which we, as a society, can understand ourselves and function better as individuals. The following paragraphs will examine this vast and intricate field by beginning with a history of its foundations, continuing with the way psychology has been influenced contemporarily by individuals and pertinent issues and what theories arose from this influence, and finally concluding with the way psychology functions in society today, both in diverse and personal mediums.
Foundations of Psychology
If a person were to ask on what foundations psychology is based, he or she would receive three main answers: historical, philosophical and empirical. This section will therefore examine these elements; however, before beginning this analysis, it is important to provide some clear definitions in order to place the various elements into context. Though previously mentioned in the very first sentences above, it is important now to define psychology once again. According to an article, the concept can be defined as "a science of behavior and mental functioning that uses both quantitative and qualitative research studies to develop and test hypotheses and put forward theories and models that explain human behavior."[footnoteRef:1] [1: Spear, L. (2007). "Foundations of Psychology." Psychology -- Socyberty. Retrieved July 28, 2011, < http://socyberty.com/psychology/foundations-of-psychology / >.]
In other words, psychology is the study of man, of human nature, and of humans as being who are constantly responding to an ever-changing environment. Scientists further claim that the complexity of the study of psychology cannot…… [Read More]
Psychology first developed as a formal discipline in the late 19th century, even though its origins actually date back to ancient Greece (Wright, 2011, p.407). As philosophers began to probe the nature of the human mind, the theory of psychology and its overall acceptance in society began to evolve. As we look back at psychology's early beginnings, evidence of the emergence of several different schools of thought are revealed and their differences clearly delineated.
One of the first schools of thought to emerge was that of functionalism. Proponents of this school felt that the role of psychology was to investigate the function of consciousness, or the purpose of human thought (Wright, 2011, p.407). The functionalists wanted to understand how the mind worked rather than merely describing its contents and they focused on the motivations of mental processes and behavior (Hergenhahn, 2009, p.336). The functionalist school of thought was in direct contrast to structuralism. Structuralists believed that psychology should describe the basic elements of consciousness (Wright, 2011, p.407). The focus of structuralism inevitably became the structure of the mind and the observation of conscious events, hence the name structuralism (Hergenhahn, 2009, p.275).
Surely the most famous of all schools of thought was that of psychoanalysis, which was founded by the most famous practitioner of psychology, Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that people were motivated by unconscious forces and that if they were able to find a suitable outlet for these forces, they could develop a more healthy personality (Wright, 2011, p.408). Freud believed that merely discussing the mental and emotional ailments that tormented a person was enough to alleviate many of the symptoms associated with these problems. Behaviorism rejected this approach, preferring instead to focus on the direct observation of human behavior (Wright, 2011, p.409). This school encompasses the theories of conditioning in which a person associates a certain response with a given stimulus.
Humanistic psychology sought to bridge the gap between the study of the unconscious mind and behavioral psychology by focusing on a better understanding of the conscious mind (Wright, 2011, p.409). The general belief that all humans are driven to achieve their full capacity led…… [Read More]
Psychology of Adaptation
In order to understand the concept of adaptation in psychology, I conducted a number of experiments to demonstrate this theory in the "real" sensory world.
First, I took a piece of very coarse sandpaper, the kind that is used to smooth down furniture before applying paint or varnish. The paper at first felt very uncomfortable as I rubbed it across my fingers. I rated this sensation of roughness initially at a level of 7 because the paper felt very rough as it came into contact with my fingers. There was a tingling sensation that I would not quite describe as pain, but as extreme discomfort and irritation.
After waiting several minutes, I conducted the experiment again, using the same exact testing conditions. As I rubbed the same piece of paper over my finger, I again felt a distinct sense of discomfort. However, the discomfort level was not as severe as it was during the first part of the experiment. I would rate this level is number 4 because while still an irritant, the sandpaper did not affect my skin with the level of roughness as did in the first part of the experiment, just a few minutes earlier.
In order to demonstrate the experience of adaptation using a different sensation, I filled two cups, one with a solution of sugar water, the other with a solution of plain, fresh water. I took a sip of the solution of sugar water and gently swished it around in my mouth without swallowing. At first, the taste was quite sweet, cloyingly so. After discarding the sugar water, I then took a sip of fresh water. The sensation was quite surprising. The solution did not taste sweet, which I did not expect. However, it did taste almost salty, which I did not expect. It was a very strange and surprising taste. It was followed by a strong desire to brush my teeth.
In this experiment, I again worked with liquid. This time, however, instead of using a liquid that would affect the sense of taste, I filled three medium-sized bowls with water of different temperatures. The first bowl…… [Read More]
Describe the relationship between Behaviorism and Cognitive psychology as movements within the science of psychology in the last century. Is one better than the other? Why or why not? Compare and contrast.
The Behavioral School of thought, founded by BF Skinner and his classical conditioning approach was the natural precedent of Freud's psychoanalytical approach. According to behaviorism, all behavior is learnt and that people can be taught various things by conditioning them through the use of stimuli, response and reward/punishments.
The behavioral school of thought, in terms of conditioning was used as a psychological tool in order to cater to the needs of patients, when it was thought that rectifying behavior would stop the problems from recurring.
Then, Noam Chomsky, in 1957, reviewed Skinner's book, where it was indicated, as an example of a situation that language could not be learnt through conditioning or through stimuli and response models as were used in behavioral psychology.
The reason why language was used as a case in point by the reviewer was because, children are only taught the basic grammatical framework and words. These are put into various contexts as they grow older, with no need for conditioning or stimuli needed to learn the language.
Instead, it was argued that cognitive processes in the brain, where various nerves and synaptic connection were working, were where the psychological process lay. It was not only behavior that impacted actions and thoughts; it was the actual thought processes that enabled learning and retention, rather than merely behavior.
Another psychologist, Albert Bandura, indicated that children can learn by observation, so that they did not only need constant approval or disapproval in order to learn something about the world around them. They did this by observing the situation and simply absorbing what they could in the world around them.
Over the years,…… [Read More]
Abnormal Psychology - the study of mental and emotional disorders or maladaptive behaviors, or of mental phenomena such as dreams, hypnosis, and altered states or levels of consciousness.
Social norms - Group-held beliefs about how members should behave in a given context. Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern society's behaviors,]while psychologists have adopted a more general definition, recognizing smaller group units, like a team or an office, may also endorse norms separate or in addition to cultural or societal expectations. The psychological definition emphasizes social norms' behavioral component, stating norms have two dimensions: how much behavior is exhibited and how much the group approves of that behavior.
Dysfunction - Deviation from the norms of social behavior in a way regarded as bad
Distress - This term refers to the "bad" type of stress (the opposite of Eustress), and occurs when we have excessive adaptive demands placed upon us. This occurs when the demands upon us are so great that they lead to bodily and mental damage. Distress is damaging, excessive or pathogenic (disease producing) stress.
Deviance -- Behavior that is contrary to the accepted standards of a community or culture.
Psychological abnormality across history and cultures -- Cultural relativism asserts abnormal behaviors can only be understood in the cultural framework within which they occur. However, there are universalities in the underlying psychological mechanisms and subjective experiences of many psychological disorders; culture plays a role in behavioral manifestations of abnormal behavior. Contextual factors like poverty, discrimination and immigration stress should be taken into account to understand ethnic differences in rates of mental disorders. There is great diversity among and within ethnic groups in the prevalence of mental disorders.
Psychogenic perspective -- The view that the chief causes…… [Read More]
Psychology -- Aspects of the Self
As a women, I have been intimately familiar with interdependency for the majority of my life. It is only in the last few years that I have embraced a level of independence that rivals that of the men I know. Triandis (1994) suggests that we draw on the interdependent and independent aspects of ourselves as we need to, but I suspect that these construals are also established by the moment-by-moment interactions we have with others. My independence is represented by the social roles that I adopt: I am a sister and a girlfriend. In these roles, I proceed from a relational construal. My actions are fundamentally considered to be my own, reflecting well or poorly on me -- not on my brother and not on my girlfriends. Similarly, my interdependency is reflected in my role as a daughter. Social and familial regard for me as a daughter is highly associated with my family members, who my parents are, and where we are positioned in our culture and community. When I received recognition for work that I was doing in the community, my parents took it very much to heart. They felt that the achievement was as much theirs as it was mine. There is an assumption that the rightness or wrongness of my upbringing is demonstrated through my behavior. This interdependency between offspring and parents seems inescapable. However, it never crossed my mind at the time I was giving service in my community that I was doing so in an interdependent manner -- I believed that I was acting as my own independent agent. My siblings and my friends, while they did applaud my success, did not take any ownership in my achievement. To my peers and my siblings, it was simply a nice thing to happen to me, but it did not reflect on them -- because my success was achieved independently, it was an event both distant and…… [Read More]
Psychology of the Consumer Behavior
Consumer behavior is a complex phenomenon to study and analyze. When it comes to the psychology of the consumer behavior, it is even complicated. Since the individual differences affect the biasness of the people towards certain brands therefore generalizing the things is much difficult. Consumer goods can share a same apparent purpose but the real meaning can be different for different people. Psychology of the consumer behavior is actually the study of all such things in a broader perspective and there are specifications to it.
Functional-instrumental and symbolic-expressive functions of material possessions
Material possessions have got different functions to follow. They can be varied for each human. From functional-instrumental function we basically mean that the basic purpose a commodity/material is fulfilling. It is not necessary that a particular object will hold a particular or specific meaning. It can be possible that object holds a varied number of meanings. The creation of meaning is neither deterministic nor unidirectional. Each individual is likely to ascribe inconsistent and varied cultural meanings of an object/commodity which depend on the extent of their 'collective imagination' (Appadurai, 1986). Consumption basically provides us the symbolic meaning to create the identity and self. Symbolic-expressive functions of them come right after. Any object expresses a certain meanings for instance status, state of mind, emotional health, biasness and attraction, taste and much more. All of these things are served collectively by the objects which consumer chooses to buy or purchase.
Material possessions play a fundamental role in human psychology. They are capable of satisfying it and sometimes destroying it as well. There is an urge or craving to have well in order to show well. When a person gets all that, he is either satisfied or he craves for more but better. Material possessions can satisfy your conscience, ego and cognition. For, the common logic says that whatever belongs to you is yours and it depicts your abstract personality features.
Fundamental Importance of material possessions
Nobody can deny the importance of material possessions in daily life. They enslave us in a way or the other. We all are dependent on them and they control us. The worst thing is we need them for self-satisfaction and self-actualization. They are a part of our everyday life, its activities, conversation etc. They fulfill a broad range…… [Read More]
Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.
The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training, and educational intervention.
The least controversial sections of this chapter on a very controversial psychological diagnosis are about the history and symptomology. The fact that the American Psychological Association has opted to include ADHD as a disorder cannot be changed. What can change are the attitudes, beliefs, and treatments offered for the disorder. It seems that the inclusion of ADHD in the DSM has led to a proliferation of use of drugs used to treat the disorder. Many of these drugs have been used in a recreational context. Moreover, the long-term effects of the drugs are unknown, and it is unsafe to introduce psychotropic drugs into a child or adolescent mind without knowing how that drug could impact neurobiology or behavior later in life. However, the authors do a good job…… [Read More]
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will discuss the two most commonly used approaches; humanistic and biological and compare and contrast them with each other.
Psychologists and therapists who think that biological approach is the appropriate one are the ones who believe that the personality of the person is derived from the personality of their parents. In other words it can be said that they believe personality is a genetic subject. According to this approach, when a person is born, they have a certain foundation on which the personality is based later on. This belief contradicts the blank slate position of many therapists who believe that when a person is born, he or she does not have any personality but a person learns from the personality of his or her parents and the environment in which he or she is living.
It should be noted that the psychologists who use this approach do admit that biology is not the only factor influencing the personality development of a person, but they are of the view that the foundation of the personality is acquired from one's parents.
Personalities are not fully…… [Read More]
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological disorder? = Boys are more likely to have mental conditions that can be diagnosed/
Be able to differentiate between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder = the ability to distinguish between these disorders will help teachers and parents to provide the correct treatments and therapies without exacerbating he situation.
How does ADHD change from child to adulthood? = Adults with the condition may experience a sense of being "disorganized" or forgetful. It often affects concerns like job performance and keeping one job for any length of time. Children with ADHD can outgrow the condition.
Most effective treatment for ADHD = a combination of behavioral treatment and medication
Enuresis = Inability to control urination.
Key features of autism = Inability to form reciprocal social and emotional connections; lack of eye contact; lack of shared activities.
Echolalia = Involuntary repetitions of… [Read More]
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational Psychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase of my degree program is devoted to gaining the knowledge
and theoretical grounding for the extrapolation of ideas and practical
applications to be developed here after. Thus, the core competencies
relating to critical thinking will play an important role here as I
familiarize myself with the basic philosophical and research-based premises
which drive today's professional discourse. The refinement of
communication and writing skills will also play an important role here, as
I find ways not just to absorb but also to channel and apply the
information and knowledge here provided.
The second phase of my degree study will be dedicated to building the
skills and obtaining the knowledge to conduct research and evaluate
findings in my chosen profession. With concern to the core competencies, I
have selected a sequence of courses which will first orient the refinement
of abilities concerning the proper construction of research design and
which will ultimately provide the grounding necessary to pursue a sustained
research process over time. This will incur the demand for the courses
cited above which focus on the Research Methods and on the practical
application of such methods.
The third phase of the…… [Read More]
The central persuasion route is an active and mindful process in the determination of the value of a persuasive argument. In the cognitive processing in The route to persuasion can be attributed to the many variables that affect the likelihood of thinking about the value of messages. One's motivation to think about issue-relevant information and the ability to do the cognitive processing has been affected by these variables. Notably, some variables affecting one's motivation are part of the person and the situation while other variables affect the direction of thinking with some affecting the general amount of thinking the person does.
Although many advertisements use more than one technique in attempts to persuade the audience, the most commonly used technique is that of authority (Gresko, Kennedy & Lesniak, 2003). People are more likely to respect the opinions of someone who is understood to have a lot of knowledge concerning a product. In addition, people usually feel better knowing an authority person has recommended what they are about to buy. Advertisers persuade consumers to buy their products by using advertisements which capture a customer's attention in various ways. These various ways whose main goal is to appeal to a consumer's emotions may arouse the feelings of fear, love, pleasure, or vanity. Health advertisements frequently use fear to get the audiences' attention, beer and cigarette advertisements appeal to peoples' desires for fun or pleasure and plastic surgery advertisements appeal to peoples' vanity or egotism by exposing their fear of aging.
Cognitive Psychology and Advertising:
As mentioned earlier, cognitive psychology as well as other psychological principles forms the basis of advertising principles. The branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn is referred to as cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology as part of the larger field of cognitive…… [Read More]