Psychology is considered to be an area of study that involves behavior. Behavior is demonstrated in a lot of diverse areas in the field of psychology. Some of these examples are mental illness, relationships, sexuality, depression, family dynamics, or culture. Accepting of behavior is picked up by various techniques and it could be from society or changes in individuals or the overall population. Psychologists look at various factors such as experimentation, observation, and analysis and psychoanalysis methods. The area has a lot of different branches some areas to be looked at to be applied are research, consultants in governments, or societies or health care organization.
Psychologist are able to work by themselves or with a group or team of psychologists. The area of psychology is to bring some kind of assistance to others, to discover the source of the issue and then try to bring some kind of solution to the issue. It is also involves trying to supply certain coping instruments or self -awareness of a person's well-being. Awareness in the area of psychology has numerous benefits because it involves being a solution someone's problem, nonetheless in the end can be extremely rewarding to see a client overcome their hardships. Being a Psychologist is a difficult occupation it calls for total devotion and consideration to every way involved. Responsibilities are towards avoiding illness, instead of simply diagnosing and trying to treat the issue, require individuals to learn how to make healthy behavior a predictable part of existing. With that said, this essay will explore all the avenues when it comes to the fields of psychology.
Historical Foundations in the Field of Psychology
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who were the Greek Philosophers, became the first group to question the state of mind and how the mental process works. This took place during the fourth and fifth centuries B.C (Beal, 2009). This development is acknowledged as Psychology. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, questioned Aristotle, throughout the fourth and fifth periods B.C. Hippocrates was a Greek medical doctor that was likewise called the predecessor of medicine. Hippocrates was extremely absorbed in the study of the breathing organism and…… [Read More]
Psychology is an important field of study mainly because it can be used to enhance the lives of people as it increases an individual's level of self-understanding, well-being, and quality of relationships. The main reason for the impact of psychology on people's lives is because this field focuses on describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling the mental and behavioral processes of an individual. As a broad field of study, the field of psychology consists of several important topics like introduction to psychology, its scientific method, sensation and perception, learning, and memory. Developing an understanding of the field of psychology through its basic topics is significant in comprehending the wide impact of the field on people's lives.
As an important field of study with huge impacts on the lives of people, psychology can be described as the science of mental and behavioral processes that seeks to define and explain the various aspects of human feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and actions (Hamilton, 2001). The field is guided by several psychology approaches like behavioral, biological, and psychodynamic approaches. Psychodynamic approach was introduced by Freud who argued that unconscious desires and conflicts are deeply rooted on symptoms-free will. Through this theory, the behavioral aspects of a person are the product of his/her interactions with psychological factors outside the conscious awareness. In contrast, the behaviorism approach is a school of psychology that focuses on examining observable and measurable behavior. The biological approach uses biological processes and genetics to describe human behavior, study the brain and the central nervous system. Given that the field of psychology focuses understanding human functioning; its professionals focus on describing and explaining the behaviors of human beings in their respective environments ("What do Psychologists Do?" n.d.). Consequently, psychologists generally engage in every aspect of human thinking processes, feelings, and behavior ("What Does a Psychologist…… [Read More]
" Dorothy deserves a lot of credit for the level of motivation she exhibits in the Wizard of Oz. When she gets to Oz, her primary goal is to reach the Wizard so that she can return home to Kansas. The motivation Dorothy exhibited to save Toto from the old woman was a more instinctual type of motivation; whereas in Oz she was also stimulated externally by several factors including the strangeness of her environment, the fact that she had been distanced from her initial or primary goal of saving Toto, and also the fact that she met three other characters who likewise had motivation to go to Oz. Motivation is therefore a prevailing theme in the Wizard of Oz.
The interactions between Dorothy and her newfound friends in Oz can be understood in terms of psychological principles, namely those of social psychology and developmental psychology. Described in Chapter 12, social psychology includes how the individual perceives others, and how the individual develops and responds to interpersonal relationships. Dorothy's willingness to disobey the old woman at the beginning of the movie shows how she is developing a sense of individuality in accordance with Erikson's stages of development. In fact, the Wizard of Oz can be "read" as a rite of passage in which Dorothy goes from being an adolescent concerned with identity vs. role confusion (Erikson's Adolescent stage of development) to being a young adult concerned with maintaining strong intimate relationships with other people. After all, she is willing to run away from home to save her dog at the beginning of the movie. When the charlatan man tells her that she has a family who loves and misses her, Dorothy realizes that she had been acting selfishly. This is the moment she becomes a young adult. When Dorothy is in Oz, her primary motivation is related to her need to maintain healthy relationships with her family. This is why she…… [Read More]
Psychology Statement of Purpose with a Brief Personal Statement
My interest in psychology has over time been stimulated by a number of experiences. Top amongst these is my reading of a book I stumbled upon several years ago. The book, The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka, essentially concerns itself with a character by the name Gregor Samsa who one day finds himself turned into a giant vermin. As a result, Samsa ends up experiencing untold emotional and psychological anguish. Although I was only aged 15 when I first read the book, the questions it triggered in me regarding both mental illness and general psychology further prompted my curiosity in the subject. I have also been a member of my campus' Psychology Club. In addition to giving me an opportunity to interact with my peers, being a member of the club also allowed me to learn many other things I would not have ordinarily learnt in a classroom setting. This in a way also furthered my desire to pursue psychology beyond the M.A. In General Psychology for which I am currently interested in.
I view an M.A. In General Psychology as a critical step towards the other specific goals I have set for myself. I am already aware that an M.A in general psychology opens the door to a variety of other opportunities in diverse settings such as law enforcement, mental health clinics, research laboratories, etc. I plan to pursue my education past graduate studies. In the next five to seven years, I plan to have received a Ph.D. In Counseling Psychology. My choice of disciplines is in this case largely founded on my desire to play a prominent role in the improvement of the well-being of people through the alleviation of their maladjustment and distress amongst other things. In addition to entering into private practice, I also plan to offer…… [Read More]
Psychology Statement of Purpose and Personal Statement
When I was 12 years old, a cousin (let us call her Jenny) who was living with us at the time as her parents sorted out their marital problems started exhibiting strange behavior. At the time, she was only 14. At first, her strange behavior was barely noticeable but with time, it became clear that something was amiss. We became alarmed when she started refusing to eat meals claiming that her dad could have sneaked in the house (or sent someone) to poison the food as it was being prepared so as to get rid of her. Apparently, for one reason or another, Jenny had quite a low opinion of her dad. To cut the long story short, Jenny was later-on diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. All along, I had been particularly close to Jenny and her change of behavior left me totally confused. When she was eventually diagnosed with the condition, I became naturally curious and soon, I took it upon myself to learn as much as I could about the condition. With time, I came to learn that there were many other types of schizophrenia including but not limited to catatonic-type schizophrenia and disorganized-type schizophrenia. I also came to learn of the suffering those diagnosed with the condition went through especially given the society's indifference towards the same. I was slowly becoming an 'expert' in clinical psychology. My journey towards becoming a clinical psychologist had effectively begun!
A journey of a thousand miles starts with a single step. My journey towards becoming a clinical psychologist began when I was 12 years old - after my interest in psychology was stirred by my reading of various texts on schizophrenia. Completing an M.A. In General Psychology will be an important part of that journey. Indeed, my graduate studies are part…… [Read More]
The Field of Psychology:
An Overview of Foundations, Influence and Pertinence in Today's World
One of the most fascinating and complex fields of study in today's scientific world is psychology, the scientific examination of human behavior. Psychologists, as professionals, can prove to be an extremely useful resource, especially since mental disorders tend to be just as complicated as physical disorders, and, often, much less apparent. The field of psychology has grown tremendously in the past century, with numerous innovations coming to the fore from various illustrious individuals, and proving that theories can be attributed to any human being, and his or her behavior, regardless of whether there is a problem or not. Psychology, therefore, is no longer a study of those who cannot function well in society, but it has rather become a means through which we, as a society, can understand ourselves and function better as individuals. The following paragraphs will examine this vast and intricate field by beginning with a history of its foundations, continuing with the way psychology has been influenced contemporarily by individuals and pertinent issues and what theories arose from this influence, and finally concluding with the way psychology functions in society today, both in diverse and personal mediums.
Foundations of Psychology
If a person were to ask on what foundations psychology is based, he or she would receive three main answers: historical, philosophical and empirical. This section will therefore examine these elements; however, before beginning this analysis, it is important to provide some clear definitions in order to place the various elements into context. Though previously mentioned in the very first sentences above, it is important now to define psychology once again. According to an article, the concept can be defined as "a science of behavior and mental functioning that uses both quantitative and qualitative research studies to develop and test…… [Read More]
The central persuasion route is an active and mindful process in the determination of the value of a persuasive argument. In the cognitive processing in The route to persuasion can be attributed to the many variables that affect the likelihood of thinking about the value of messages. One's motivation to think about issue-relevant information and the ability to do the cognitive processing has been affected by these variables. Notably, some variables affecting one's motivation are part of the person and the situation while other variables affect the direction of thinking with some affecting the general amount of thinking the person does.
Although many advertisements use more than one technique in attempts to persuade the audience, the most commonly used technique is that of authority (Gresko, Kennedy & Lesniak, 2003). People are more likely to respect the opinions of someone who is understood to have a lot of knowledge concerning a product. In addition, people usually feel better knowing an authority person has recommended what they are about to buy. Advertisers persuade consumers to buy their products by using advertisements which capture a customer's attention in various ways. These various ways whose main goal is to appeal to a consumer's emotions may arouse the feelings of fear, love, pleasure, or vanity. Health advertisements frequently use fear to get the audiences' attention, beer and cigarette advertisements appeal to peoples' desires for fun or pleasure and plastic surgery advertisements appeal to peoples' vanity or egotism by exposing their fear of aging.
Cognitive Psychology and Advertising:
As mentioned earlier, cognitive psychology as well as other psychological principles forms the basis of advertising principles. The branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn is referred to as cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology as part of the larger field of cognitive science is related to other disciplines including philosophy, neuroscience and linguistics.
The main focus of this branch of psychology is on how people obtain, process and store information. Various practical applications for cognitive research like ways to improve memory, ways of increasing decision-making accuracy and how to structure educational curricula for enhancing learning are in existence. Unlike behaviorism (which was the dominant school…… [Read More]
A Brief History of Psychology
The study of psychology is now deeply entrenched in our society's understand as to how a human, and specifically the human mind, functions. Understanding one's psychological needs is necessary in daily life in order to understand how to cope with various stresses and emotions. However, many decades ago, such ideas were truly visionary, as psychology was not considered a true scientific subject, and many who had mental problems were thrown in institutions where they were shunned by society and often forgotten by families. This paper will examine progress in the field of psychology, and will do so by outlining the roots of early philosophy that influenced the development of modern psychology and by identifying those individuals who began this study and who established psychology as a discipline in the 19th century.
The roots of modern psychology, through they begin in the 1800's, truly lie in the ancient philosophers of Greece, and flow through history in various fields, including the political, the scientific, and the continuation of philosophy in various other mediums. Though psychology truly originates with the writings of Aristotle and his wise counterparts, and moves through history through figures such as Descartes and Locke, it modernizes in the late 1800's with the establishment of the first psychological lab by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany. Through modernization the field achieves a transition from purely philosophical to much more practical.
The study of the mind, as mentioned above, began in antiquity, as far back as Egypt and Greece. To expand upon this idea, one must note the writings of Aristotle, for instance, who believed that "the heart was the seat of the mind and that the brain was merely a radiator for the blood to dissipate the heat generated by the heart."
Hippocrates (who is said to be the father of Western medicine) also proposed that "the brain was the seat of the sensations (being the site of the eyes, ears, nose and tongue) as well as the center of the intellect, based in part on the accumulated knowledge acquired from dissections and battlefield injuries. For instance, the eyes, being necessary for visual experience of the world, are not connected to the heart but send a nerve to the brain."
As time progressed and Europe entered the Renaissance, scientists began to see more and…… [Read More]
One of the most salient measures that a psychologist can take is to base all of his work, and particularly his or her conclusions or findings, in the methodology befitting of true psychological and scientific processes. This means utilizing empirical evidence and evidence-based practices to substantiate findings before publicizing any sorts of claims surrounding their implications. This sort of testing (which author Scott Lillenfeld wrote the public believes is missing from psychology) (No author, 2012) is the key distinguishing factor between any science and a pseudoscience, and psychologists should actively pursue this type of testing before anything regarding to a particular study or treatment is revealed to the public.
The worst thing a contemporary or even future psychologist can do to aid the derisive viewpoint of psychology that is largely conceived of by the public is to forsake scientific methodology and publish treatments or findings before thoroughly and empirically examining them. Many actual psychologists and pseudo-psychologists are guilty of this sort of behavior, which is responsible for the low valuation of this discipline as a science. There is a degree of subtlety to this type of behavior, which can actually include giving public commentary about phenomena or findings that the speaker has not confirmed by such research. To that end, psychologists can actually help this problematic view of psychology by issuing approbation or disapprobation about topics of which they are not certain.
No author. (2012). "Why Are People So Skeptical About Psychology?" Providentia. Retrieved from http://drvitelli.typepad.com/providentia/2012/03/why-are-people-so-skeptical-about-psychology.html
Stanovich, K. (1997). How to Think Straight About Psychology. Ablongman.com. Retrieved from http://www.ablongman.com/partners_in_psych/PDFs/Stanovich/stanovich_ch12.pdf… [Read More]
Psychology first developed as a formal discipline in the late 19th century, even though its origins actually date back to ancient Greece (Wright, 2011, p.407). As philosophers began to probe the nature of the human mind, the theory of psychology and its overall acceptance in society began to evolve. As we look back at psychology's early beginnings, evidence of the emergence of several different schools of thought are revealed and their differences clearly delineated.
One of the first schools of thought to emerge was that of functionalism. Proponents of this school felt that the role of psychology was to investigate the function of consciousness, or the purpose of human thought (Wright, 2011, p.407). The functionalists wanted to understand how the mind worked rather than merely describing its contents and they focused on the motivations of mental processes and behavior (Hergenhahn, 2009, p.336). The functionalist school of thought was in direct contrast to structuralism. Structuralists believed that psychology should describe the basic elements of consciousness (Wright, 2011, p.407). The focus of structuralism inevitably became the structure of the mind and the observation of conscious events, hence the name structuralism (Hergenhahn, 2009, p.275).
Surely the most famous of all schools of thought was that of psychoanalysis, which was founded by the most famous practitioner of psychology, Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that people were motivated by unconscious forces and that if they were able to find a suitable outlet for these forces, they could develop a more healthy personality (Wright, 2011, p.408). Freud believed that merely discussing the mental and emotional ailments that tormented a person was enough to alleviate many of the symptoms associated with these problems. Behaviorism rejected this approach, preferring instead to focus on the direct observation of human behavior (Wright, 2011, p.409). This school encompasses the theories of conditioning in which a person associates a certain response with a given stimulus.
Humanistic psychology sought to bridge the gap between the study of the unconscious mind and behavioral psychology by focusing on a better understanding of the conscious mind (Wright, 2011, p.409). The general belief that all humans are driven to achieve their full capacity led…… [Read More]
Tolman's objective was to comprehend human mental processes by using experimental methods. Even though he used rats in mazes as his method, and was a behaviorist in his approach, he also included major ideas from Gestalt psychology. Cognitive maps are a kind of mental processing, or cognition, that is made up of a series of psychological transformations by which a person can obtain code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomenon in their everyday or figurative spatial environment. Cognitive maps are a way that people use to arrange and store spatial knowledge, allowing the mind's eye to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, and enhance recall and learning of information.
Donald Hebb (Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory)
Donald Hebb attempted to combine present day knowledge of physiology and psychology into a comprehensive theory of thought and emotion to explain the nature of consciousness in physicobiologic terms. The theory is founded in substantial part on the variable effect and oftentimes obvious lack of effect which major brain operations have on intelligence and behavior. The concept of the author is that any frequently repeated particular stimulation leads to a slow development of a cell-assembly in the cortex and diencephalon and perhaps in the basal ganglions of the brain capable of acting briefly as a closed system which can deliver facilitation to other such systems and having, usually, a specific motor facilitation. A succession of such events constitutes a phase sequence comparable to thought process. The process portrayed is considered essential to adult waking behavior.
Brenda Milner, Larry R. Squire, and Eric R. Kandel (Cognitive Neuroscience and the Study of Memory).
Cognitive neuroscience started off in two disciplines: in psychology, in the development of rigorous methods for analyzing behavior and cognition, and in systems neurobiology, in the effort to understand the structure and function of neuronal circuits of the sensory and motor systems of the brain. The synthesis of these two disciplines was made possible as well by the appearance of a coherent neuroscience, an interdisciplinary approach to the nervous system that encouraged the idea that the techniques and concepts…… [Read More]
Psychology of Emotions
In this paper, we have chosen to discuss on the topic of emotions in the field of psychology. We will discuss many different aspects in describing the definition of emotions and will also argue on various types of emotions like being excited, happy, sad, angry, scared, tender and so on.
Emotions and Related Theories
What is emotion and how do we describe it? The search for answer to this question has been on for many thousands of years and will carry on for much more time to come. However a scientific explanation to this can be given that emotions are very complex psycho-physiological experiences of any person's state of mind which are defined and altered by many internal as well as environmental influences. Emotions of human beings are considered to be more complex as compared to that of any other living creatures like animals or plants, this is because they involve more complex form of physiological arousal, any sort of expressive behavior or any type of conscious experience.
The emotions of any common individual is usually related with that person's mood, level of temper, its overall personality, its disposition and its overall motivation skills. Motivations can be used to boost the behavior whereas the emotions give the vital ingredients to the motivation factor. The study of emotions has not been developed into any sort of standardized classifications in order to justify itself, but rather it can be defined through many different categories such as the cognitive and non-cognitive set of emotions, the instinctual vs. cognitive set of emotions and so on. "Emotions can also be described based on the time factor such as some emotions occur and last for only few moments like any surprise, while others may last for many years like revenge or love." (Roberts, 2003).
In the field of Psychology, there are mainly five key theories…… [Read More]
These memories have happened in the external world and they are remembered based on what has been experienced before (Explicit Memory Storage, 2004).
Semantic memory is memory that is based on a person's knowledge. This knowledge can be factual or theoretical (Semantic v Episodic Memory, 2004). Some examples of semantic memory might be that a person knows what kind of dog they are looking at or they know their friend's phone number.
This can sometimes be confused with the third type of memory, which is episodic memory. The difference in the two types of memories is that while you may remember the phone number of your best friend from when you were both 10 years old, you also can remember calling your friend and the kinds of things you did together as best friends and the kinds of things you talked about on the phone. If you remember the phone number without remembering the best friend and the phone calls, then the memory is semantic. If you remember the feelings and the friend along with the phone number, those are episodic memories. One source explains that accumulated episodic episodes may be semantic memory (Semantic v Episodic Memory, 2004).
The processes of memory are encoding, storage and retrieval. The brain processes information so that it can be stored. This process is called encoding. The information is stored in the brain for later use and this is called storage. The retrieval of the information is from long-term memory and it is sent to short-term memory for use (Huffman, 2000).
The three stages of memory are sensory, short-term and long-term. Memory is described as a flow of information. The first stage is the sensory, which is a very short-term flash of information that your mind flashes on. This memory does not last more than about a second and it's gone from your memory. The second type of memory is short-term memory, which a person can use to review information they have just received. For instance, if you have just heard an address, you can recall the street number a few seconds later. Long-term memory is the memory people use to recall events and information that have occurred in the past. This may be learned information or perhaps it is the address that you had as a child. This also can account for the memories you have of your childhood (Sensory…… [Read More]
Describe the relationship between Behaviorism and Cognitive psychology as movements within the science of psychology in the last century. Is one better than the other? Why or why not? Compare and contrast.
The Behavioral School of thought, founded by BF Skinner and his classical conditioning approach was the natural precedent of Freud's psychoanalytical approach. According to behaviorism, all behavior is learnt and that people can be taught various things by conditioning them through the use of stimuli, response and reward/punishments.
The behavioral school of thought, in terms of conditioning was used as a psychological tool in order to cater to the needs of patients, when it was thought that rectifying behavior would stop the problems from recurring.
Then, Noam Chomsky, in 1957, reviewed Skinner's book, where it was indicated, as an example of a situation that language could not be learnt through conditioning or through stimuli and response models as were used in behavioral psychology.
The reason why language was used as a case in point by the reviewer was because, children are only taught the basic grammatical framework and words. These are put into various contexts as they grow older, with no need for conditioning or stimuli needed to learn the language.
Instead, it was argued that cognitive processes in the brain, where various nerves and synaptic connection were working, were where the psychological process lay. It was not only behavior that impacted actions and thoughts; it was the actual thought processes that enabled learning and retention, rather than merely behavior.
Another psychologist, Albert Bandura, indicated that children can learn by observation, so that they did not only need constant approval or disapproval in order to learn something about the world around them. They did this by observing the situation and simply absorbing what they could in the world around them.
Over the years, there have been arguments on which school of thought is valid, and which is better. However, these two approaches are more or less different ways of looking at the various phases of learning. Human learning does not happen only by mental processes or observation; otherwise there would be no need for formal education and training. At the same time, not all learning happens through stimuli, response and repetitive behavior. Therefore these are two different manners in which humans learn about the world around them, and so, catering to different…… [Read More]
I never found out what became of him afterwards.
Uniting psychology with spiritual guidance would be the ideal way, I believe, that Eric could have been reached. Eric had clear psychological problems that related to his difficult family situation. But there was also a clear, deep spiritual craving to relate his longings to a cause larger than himself, and to engage in some form of self-improvement. Eric had a good will and a curiosity about the questions that grip the minds of so many adolescents, like 'why am I here,' and 'what is the purpose of all of this?' But his energies needed to be directed into more productive channels than drugs. Also, Eric lacked a true sense of interdependence. He had been brought up in an insecure value system, so he experimented with his personal morality, much in the same way he experimented with drugs. He saw himself as different and removed from other people, and justified his use of drugs because he was not using drugs (he said) for the same reason as people who just wanted to get high to enjoy a part or feel buzzed. By becoming a part of a substance-free community that fulfilled his spiritual needs, Eric might have gained a positive sense of connection, rather than merely defining himself against other people. This desire for isolation, obviously, may have been rooted in a failure to trust other people that were the result of his difficult family upbringing, as he was the child of divorced parents, and a biological father who was an alcoholic.
Although McMinn makes a compelling case for merging psychology with Christian counseling in a way that can lead to healing, there are many questions which arise regarding how individuals who are reared within a secular culture, and how they may react to a therapist bringing up the topic of religion. Also, because the culture of faith and the culture of psychology…… [Read More]
Psychology of Adaptation
In order to understand the concept of adaptation in psychology, I conducted a number of experiments to demonstrate this theory in the "real" sensory world.
First, I took a piece of very coarse sandpaper, the kind that is used to smooth down furniture before applying paint or varnish. The paper at first felt very uncomfortable as I rubbed it across my fingers. I rated this sensation of roughness initially at a level of 7 because the paper felt very rough as it came into contact with my fingers. There was a tingling sensation that I would not quite describe as pain, but as extreme discomfort and irritation.
After waiting several minutes, I conducted the experiment again, using the same exact testing conditions. As I rubbed the same piece of paper over my finger, I again felt a distinct sense of discomfort. However, the discomfort level was not as severe as it was during the first part of the experiment. I would rate this level is number 4 because while still an irritant, the sandpaper did not affect my skin with the level of roughness as did in the first part of the experiment, just a few minutes earlier.
In order to demonstrate the experience of adaptation using a different sensation, I filled two cups, one with a solution of sugar water, the other with a solution of plain, fresh water. I took a sip of the solution of sugar water and gently swished it around in my mouth without swallowing. At first, the taste was quite sweet, cloyingly so. After discarding the sugar water, I then took a sip of fresh water. The sensation was quite surprising. The solution did not taste sweet, which I did not expect. However, it did taste almost salty, which I did not expect. It was a very strange and surprising taste. It was followed by a strong desire to brush my teeth.
In this experiment, I again worked with liquid. This time, however, instead of using a liquid that would affect the sense of taste, I filled three medium-sized bowls with water of different temperatures. The first bowl contained very hot tap water. The second bowl contained the opposite, very cold tap water. In the third bowl, I poured a mixture of the very hot water…… [Read More]
There is ample evidence in the literature supporting environmental, familial and socio-economic causes for mental illness among the incarcerated, including lack of familial support, financial status or access to quality healthcare (Pustilnik, 2005). Among the more common illnesses that temporarily abate but often become worse after release provided those incarcerated receive therapeutic treatment in prison include depression, anxiety and drug and alcohol dependence (Pustilnik, 2005; Bowers, 2000).
It is Bowers (2000) in fact that combines the research of others suggesting that mental illness is very much for many social in nature; thus a criminal who receives parole and provided ample therapeutic support on release is likely to perform well in society, whereas one who is left to their own devices is more likely to exhibit a worsening of symptoms. Individuals on probation who receive no therapeutic support are more likely to demonstrate increasing mental illness especially in the form of anxiety disorders, depression and drug or alcohol dependence (Bowers, 2000).
Rules and Regulations
The government has been slow to implement laws or other decisions with respect to criminals that become mentally or psychologically ill as a result of incarceration (Lawrence, 1987). There have been laws that provide for care for outpatients who are on probation, in an attempt to help them comply with medication requirements resulting from mental illnesses that may develop following incarceration (Gutterman, 2000). Kendra's Law is an example of a law that enables family members, caregivers or others related to a person on probation the ability to seek arrest for someone who fails to take their medication improperly, resulting in involuntary commitment to prison (Gutterman, 2000). This act or law is not considered a form of penalization, but rather a method of ensuring those who receive probation but have a mental illness are not at risk and do not act out and present…… [Read More]
Abnormal Psychology - the study of mental and emotional disorders or maladaptive behaviors, or of mental phenomena such as dreams, hypnosis, and altered states or levels of consciousness.
Social norms - Group-held beliefs about how members should behave in a given context. Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern society's behaviors,]while psychologists have adopted a more general definition, recognizing smaller group units, like a team or an office, may also endorse norms separate or in addition to cultural or societal expectations. The psychological definition emphasizes social norms' behavioral component, stating norms have two dimensions: how much behavior is exhibited and how much the group approves of that behavior.
Dysfunction - Deviation from the norms of social behavior in a way regarded as bad
Distress - This term refers to the "bad" type of stress (the opposite of Eustress), and occurs when we have excessive adaptive demands placed upon us. This occurs when the demands upon us are so great that they lead to bodily and mental damage. Distress is damaging, excessive or pathogenic (disease producing) stress.
Deviance -- Behavior that is contrary to the accepted standards of a community or culture.
Psychological abnormality across history and cultures -- Cultural relativism asserts abnormal behaviors can only be understood in the cultural framework within which they occur. However, there are universalities in the underlying psychological mechanisms and subjective experiences of many psychological disorders; culture plays a role in behavioral manifestations of abnormal behavior. Contextual factors like poverty, discrimination and immigration stress should be taken into account to understand ethnic differences in rates of mental disorders. There is great diversity among and within ethnic groups in the prevalence of mental disorders.
Psychogenic perspective -- The view that the chief causes…… [Read More]
Psychology of the Consumer Behavior
Consumer behavior is a complex phenomenon to study and analyze. When it comes to the psychology of the consumer behavior, it is even complicated. Since the individual differences affect the biasness of the people towards certain brands therefore generalizing the things is much difficult. Consumer goods can share a same apparent purpose but the real meaning can be different for different people. Psychology of the consumer behavior is actually the study of all such things in a broader perspective and there are specifications to it.
Functional-instrumental and symbolic-expressive functions of material possessions
Material possessions have got different functions to follow. They can be varied for each human. From functional-instrumental function we basically mean that the basic purpose a commodity/material is fulfilling. It is not necessary that a particular object will hold a particular or specific meaning. It can be possible that object holds a varied number of meanings. The creation of meaning is neither deterministic nor unidirectional. Each individual is likely to ascribe inconsistent and varied cultural meanings of an object/commodity which depend on the extent of their 'collective imagination' (Appadurai, 1986). Consumption basically provides us the symbolic meaning to create the identity and self. Symbolic-expressive functions of them come right after. Any object expresses a certain meanings for instance status, state of mind, emotional health, biasness and attraction, taste and much more. All of these things are served collectively by the objects which consumer chooses to buy or purchase.
Material possessions play a fundamental role in human psychology. They are capable of satisfying it and sometimes destroying it as well. There is an urge or craving to have well in order to show well. When a person gets all that, he is either satisfied or he craves for more but better. Material possessions can satisfy your conscience, ego and cognition. For, the common logic says that whatever belongs to you is yours and it depicts your abstract personality features.
Fundamental Importance of material possessions
Nobody can deny the importance of material possessions in daily life. They enslave us in a way or the other. We all are dependent on them and they control us. The worst thing is we need them…… [Read More]
I also have excellent communication skills, which I believe will help me in a psychology career, as I am comfortable in public speaking and working one-on-one with individuals. I believe I can communicate effectively, and I can analyze and uncover organisational pitfalls and problems, as well. I believe all a person's life experiences can assist them in their studies, and I have completed four degree programs in the past, so I am fully aware of the benefits of a university education and how it can be used effectively in our chosen career paths. I believe our career paths can alter throughout our lives, and that continuing our education is a vital aspect of growing and changing as our career paths diverge and head toward new goals.
I believe the Chicago School of Psychology can assist me in reaching my career goals by instilling me with a stellar education, preparing me for a career in organizational and industrial psychology so I can perform my duties with a greater understanding of the people and their mindsets. I believe the education I will receive at the Chicago School will be unmatched in its delivery and cognizance, and I believe that it is one of the finest schools in the world, and that I could not receive a better education anywhere else. I also believe that I can study online, at least in some areas of the program, which will help me maintain my current career while training for a new one. I also believe that the Chicago School will help me gain the best understanding of Organisational psychology, so I can be an effective and motivational psychologist, and help industries attain their highest goals. I look forward to a satisfying career in psychology, and I believe the Chicago School is the very best place for me to attain my own personal goals in psychology and pass them on to others.… [Read More]