"Yellowstone National Park Essays"

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Controlled Burning in Yellowstone National Essay

Words: 1104 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13728359

After instituting a controlled burn, forest managers can determine what areas are ripe for vegetation and which are not. Because this article contains one of the many effects of burning, its inclusion in the cannon of literature is important.

Houston, Douglas B. (1971). Ecosystems of National Parks. Science. 127 (3984), 648-

Though Douglas B. Houston's article is older than some, its topic is one that does not necessarily require a modern time stamp. Additionally, this article that discusses national park maintenance was written before the great fire in Yellowstone National Park. For those writing about controlled burning, this gives a unique example of the opinions of maintenance and the ecosystem before the fire, which allows the researcher to make comparisons between the pre and post-fire opinion. Other relevant information in the article is a detailed discussion of the parks' ecosystems, and a conclusion that the destructive activities of humans are especially dangerous for the park. In addition, the article points out the difference between national park maintenance and maintenance of other types of land, such as agricultural land. As the author of the article is a representative of the National Park Service and the article has been cited numerous times in other scholarly works, the author's credibility is established.

Romme, William H. And Knight, Dennis H. (1982). Landscape Diversity: The Concept Applied to Yellowstone Park. BioScience. 32 (8), 664-670.

In this article, the authors discuss changes in landscape patterns, and how these changes affect natural features including "wildlife abundance, nutrient flow, and lake productivity" (664). Though this may not seem relevant to controlled burning at first, landscape patterns are intrinsically important to the ecosystem of any national park. Landscape patterns also have a direct impact on plant diversity and what kinds of plants thrive in certain areas. This article will be an important…… [Read More]

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Yellowstone Controlled Burning at Yellowstone Essay

Words: 1094 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32191928

...This whole country is dry...If you don't have to burn it, don't burn it" said the fire marshal from the area (Shay & Johnson 2008). Fire damage at Yellowstone such as the damage that occurred in 1988 and 2008 has come at a tremendous cost: "Since 1984, the annual average number of fires that burn 1,000 acres or more has increased from 25 to 80...and the total average number of acres burned by each of these fires has increased from 164,000 to 765,000. Naturally, the costs of controlling such fires also have escalated exponentially -- from $134 million in 1986 to $335 million in 1994 -- which does not include the higher costs of preparedness, not to mention health consequences, environmental impact and property damage" (Paige 1998). Fire is not only damaging to life and property but also to water quality and air quality, which can hurt the wildlife the practice is attempting to preserve. If controlled burning spirals into an uncontrolled fire, it can damage rather than aid the general ecosystem of flora and fauna.

However, the reason for the severity of such recent fires, as occurred in 2008, some allege, is the lack of small, controlled burnings, not an excess of them. "Smaller, more frequent fires consume the dead wood and underbrush that otherwise accumulate to dangerous levels, resulting in more catastrophic fires when they occur" (Paige 1998). In other words, by not allowing small fires to burn, cheaply and safely during the 1980s and 1990s, as was urged by many environmentalists, the current unsafe conditions that often result from controlled burnings were spawned. In "1995 the Forest Service estimated that about one-third, or 39 million acres, of the lands it manages in the interior West were at risk of large, uncontrollable, catastrophic wildfires," because of "over-fueled forest floors" that had not been subject to…… [Read More]

Albright, Del. (May 2008) "Controlled fire." Retrieved June 4, 2008 http://www.delalbright.com/Articles/fire.htm

Cullen, Barry. (24 Sept 2008). "No, don't let Yellowstone burn." The New York Times. Retrieved June 4, 2008 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE1D81F3EF936A1575AC0A96E948260
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Get Snowmobiles Out of Yellowstone Park Essay

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15283782


Aristotle and the Cynics Conspire to get Snowmobiles out of Yellowstone National Park

In the scenario whereby individuals are rampaging across the wilds of Yellowstone National Park, willy-nilly upon snowmobiles, the great Greek philosopher Aristotle (presumably after overcoming his initial surprise at the existence of such a mechanized craft) would remind the snowmobile's users of Book VIII, Chapter 3, of his Ethics. A means of use of the park that is amicable and amenable to all, rather than to one subspecies of user, the snowmobiler, would be most desirable.

In this treatise upon Ethics, Aristotle defines relationships between human beings on the basis of friendships into of good people, friendships based on utility and friendships based on shared pleasures of company. Ethics, for Aristotle, is grounded in a need in human nature, that is, the essence of living human beings to require a just, virtuous, and happy way of life. The aim of human action is a state of happiness, where humans can feel "complete and self-sufficient," a state that could be promulgated by a kinder use of the common grounds of the park. (1097b 21-23).

For Aristotle, happiness is therefore the supreme human good - that is, the ultimate purpose of all human actions. (1097b 21-22). Happiness is a constant state of being, however. It is an activity that one must work for. Sometimes individuals must give something up, like the right to snowmobile all over the park, at all times, to ensure that happiness can be achieved a more holistic sense by others. At present, only the snowmobilers are happy, and even they are not really happy in the philosophers' sense of happiness being connected and even synonymous with virtue -- the snowmobilers are merely indulging in the pleasures of the moment, without real regard for the…… [Read More]

Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "
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Yosemite National Forest Yosemite History in East Essay

Words: 1596 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92434867

Yosemite National Forest

Yosemite History

In East Central California, Yosemite National Park spans the eastern portions of Tuolumne, Mariposa, and Madera County. Approximately 3.7 million tourists have come to love and visit the park on an annual basis, spending time on a seven square mile sector of the 760,000 acre park. Yosemite is known for the enormous rocks dating as far back as ten million years in age, with one particular known site: The half dome, where hikers may climb the treacherous rock (Yosemite National Park, 2011). With such a large amount of tourists, the park calls for a well developed management team.

Yosemite Tourism and Ownership Establishment

Yosemite was officially discovered in 1855 by James Mason Hutchings, Thomas Ayers, and other tourists to the area. The two were among the first to create publicity for the area, making artwork and articles about the wildlife and experiences, and sending them to the more established areas of the American east coast. It was this publicity that helped Yosemite get the tourist attention it desired. Soon, lodging and roads were built, ignoring the already established Native American living areas (Harris, Tuttle, & Tuttle, 2003).

As tourism grew in the area, concern for its preservation caught political attention. President Abraham Lincoln began the preservation of the area by passing the Yosemite Grant, where it was decided that specific land would be reserved for tourist purposes, while the rest of the land in the area would remain protected and wild. The United States government determined in 1872 that California would name Yosemite as the second national park, following only behind Yellowstone National Park. The process of making the area a national park was not simple: It included evicting from the area those that had already established homesteads, including founder Hutchings. It was eventually determined that Hutchings would remain the park guardian, but others were still required to leave (Harris, Tuttle, & Tuttle, 2003).

As tourism increased into the early twentieth century, the federal government was unable to ignore the problems humans caused to the natural habitat and environment. In 1916, the United States National Park Service was formed, and it immediately took over responsibility for Yosemite Park. At the turnover, park tourism exploded, causing many problems for the new management to solve in decades to follow (Harris, Tuttle, & Tuttle, 2003).

3.0 Park Management Primary Issues

3.1 Animals…… [Read More]

Harris, A.G., Tuttle, E., & Tuttle, S. (2003). Geology of national parks. Kendall/Hunt

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Wildland Management Issue -- Fires Essay

Words: 1078 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35899221

What are the pros and cons of controlled burning in Yellowstone?

The pros and cons of controlled burning in Yellowstone National Park have the same consequences -- uncontrollable fire. The pros of controlled burning are twofold. First, studies have proven the positive effects of controlled burning with regards to fire management. As previously stated, controlled burns remove debris from the forest floor that can be considered fodder for larger fires. In addition, controlled and natural burning allow fires to ecologically impact the park. In recent decades, a variety of research has been completed concerning the benefits of the burns on ecology, and controlled burning is proven to, in most cases, allow for positive change within the ecosystem.

Part II Recommendation Analysis

Based on the above information, fires in Yellowstone National Park, whether controlled or otherwise, are an issue of grave importance to park personnel. In order to appropriately deal with the issue, Yellowstone National Park's management team must put into effect an option combining both controlled burning and suppression. This will allow for the best results in terms of safety and ecology in the park as well as preventing major disasters like the fire of 1988 from reoccurring.

By implementing limited controlled or prescribed burning, forest management would allow for the removal of ground fodder that makes large-scale fires like the fire of 1988 more likely. A great deal of scientific research and experience has gone into planning when and where to burn, and forest managers can make sure to set fires or allow fires to burn during the most optimal conditions instead of during the unusually dry weather or other suboptimal conditions that allow disastrous forest fires to start and rage. Additionally, the controlled burning will have positive effects that allow Yellowstone National Park to survive in its natural ecological glory for decades, as the controlled or prescribed burning will yield positive results for the ecological system.

In addition to the controlled or prescribed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
National Park Service. "Evolution of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy." The National Park Service. 2001 January. 17 June 2008. http://www.nifc.gov/fire_policy/docs/chp1.pdf.

National Park service. "Wildland Fire in Yellowstone." The National Park Service. 28
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Gray Wolves the Gray Wolf Which Is Essay

Words: 2166 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98339608

Gray Wolves

The Gray Wolf, which is also sometimes referred to as the tundra or timber wolf, belongs to the canidae species-also known as the dog family. Among its kind it is the largest member and can weigh up to 100 pounds. The gray wolf typically originates from areas in North America, Europe and North Africa. Although these wolves are called gray wolves, they are not necessarily gray in colour. They can range from being black to white or anywhere in between. Colour depends on the age of the wolf and also the area from where the wolf belongs. These wolves have an average life span of 12 to 20 years.

Gray wolves live in the open forests and before they occupied European areas they were commonly found in areas of North America. These wolves travel in packs and the number of individuals in the packs may go up to 12. Pack members are usually related and they are organized according to gender and based on the degree of dominance. One can identify dominant behaviour by an open mouth and teeth which are bared along with ears which are pointed towards the front. The Omega wolf is known amongst the gray wolf species to have the lowest social rank and is therefore tortured by other members of the pack. (Bangs, 2012)

To hunt for food gray wolves also travel in packs and their basic strategy is to outrun their prey in order to take it down. They locate their prey through a scent trail or by encounter. The prey they hunt for is usually larger than themselves so as to feed number wolves at one time. (Bangs, 2012)

Communication amongst wolves is very strong and is done through a variety of ways. They may growl, whine, howl or yelp in order to get their thoughts and emotions conveyed to one another. Facial expressions and tail position are also used widely to communicate amongst themselves. (Lopez, 2004)

Gray wolves mate during/between the months of January…… [Read More]

Bangs, E. (2012). The reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone national park and central Idaho; final environmental impact statement.

Ewing, C. (2012). Gray wolves and the endangered species act. Nova Science Pub Inc.
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Does the United States Government Have Environmental Ethics Essay

Words: 2987 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27254600

Environmental Ethics

US Government and Environmental Ethics

The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount of funding that these agencies receive always fluctuates depending on the political mood of the country and the strength of the local environmental activists in the area. The National Parks Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service best show the ethic of environmental protection in the U.S. government.

Americans cherish the beauty of the country, but we also like to use the environment for our own purposes when money is involved, as well. There was no concept of environmental ethics for the first several hundred years of settling this land, simply because there were not yet enough people nor inventions to fully deprive the land of all that it offered. The first pilgrims to the country began burning wood, tearing down forests, killing off wildlife, and generally using the nation for their own purposes because of the untapped resources that covered the entire continent. (NewScientist, 2008) The best representation of this abuse is the Buffalo, which once numbered in the millions, and which nearly…… [Read More]

American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp.

The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D..
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Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho Essay

Words: 3733 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42147399

Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The process sparked off battles between stakeholders in the state. In 1966 when the idea was introduced to congress, the main concern was the critically high elk population in the region and this was because of the eradication of the wolves by the residents. For decades, the elk population grew tremendously because there were no predators in Yellow Park causing ecosystem instability. Soon after, other species disappeared such as the aspen because of the huge population of elks. The coyotes could not manage the large ungulate population; moreover, the large coyote population diminished the red fox. The government struggled with the wolf issue from the 1974 when a wolf recovery team was established. The general public has been engulfed in the wolf reintroduction debate for a long time until the implementation of the plan in 1995 in Idaho. The reintroduction has had legal, political, social, economic, and ecological impact in the state of Idaho.

Management of Wolves in Idaho

The introduction of wolves in Idaho began in January 1995. Since then, wolves have become a major component of the native wildlife in the state. The state manages the wolves through Idaho Department of Fish & Game (Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2008 ). Wolf is designated a major game species and classified as a predator. The state undertakes inventory, performs predator-prey research and works with other stakeholders including the local population, neighboring states and Canada to limit depredations. In addition, the state also manages hunting and trapping of the wolves.

The cornerstone of the wolf management lies in their monitoring. The state monitors the population figures, distribution and breeding. There is a selected packs tagged with radio devices spread across the occupied area, including those that are predisposed to depredation on domesticated animals.…… [Read More]

ABC News. "Court Rules Yellowstone Wolves Can Stay." ABC News, January 14, 2000.

Cockerham, Sean. "Idaho Gov. Otter to feds: Pony up more cash for wolves." www.idahostatesman.com. March 8, 2012. http://www.idahostatesman.com/2012/03/08/2026038/otter-to-feds-pony-up-more-cash.html (accessed April 7, 2012).
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Gray Wolf Giving Some Natural Essay

Words: 2075 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84412231

Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also cite history that shows wolves are quite difficult to dissuade from attacking vulnerable livestock, and that many ranchers and farmers saw eliminating the wolf as the only real way to protect their stock and their families. Writers Smith and Phillips continue,

Although several methods have been developed to minimize or prevent depredations, few have proven successful. Guard dogs have been used widely, but with marginal results. Generally one guard dog is not sufficient, as several dogs seem necessary to deter a wolf attack. Another approach requires farmers and ranchers to intensify husbandry of livestock (e.g., confine sheep to structures overnight, develop calving areas near ranch headquarters, or monitor open range stock daily). Ultimately, killing the wolf or wolves responsible for the depredation is often the only long-term solution (Smith & Phillips, 2000, p. 221).

Before the wolves came back to Yellowstone, many area ranchers protested. Another writer says, "Local ranchers portrayed themselves as cowboy defenders of their own 'Wild West', and regarded the wolf in Yellowstone as an affront to their distinguished pioneer history. Westerners cast themselves as the endangered species threatened by what one rancher called a 'hazardous waste' of wolves" (Jones, 2002). In fact, some wolves have strayed outside the park and killed some wildlife, but for the most part, the wolves remain within the boundaries of the park, and as they quickly acclimated to their new homes, they "resumed customary canine activities, establishing territories and hunting trails throughout the park" (Jones, 2002). The wolves have become one of the most popular symbols of Yellowstone, and today, thousands of tourists make the trip to the park just to view the wolves in the wild.


In conclusion, the gray wolf and its subspecies are once again making a comeback in many areas of America. In…… [Read More]

Donnelly, K.J. (1999, January). Canine in the wild. World and I, 14, 180.

Editors. (2005). Gray wolf. Retrieved from the National Wildlife Federation Web site: http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/graywolf / 26 Aug. 2005.
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United States Is the Diversity Essay

Words: 5913 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62722507

Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it seemed, the more of a synergistic effect upon their funding and use (Jensen and Guthrie, 2006).

By the Johnson Administration in the 1960s, coupled with more media attention, there was increased public awareness of America's natural treasures. This was now that "Parks for People" Campaign. During this period there was also a fairly significant new awareness about ecology and the natural environment. The mission of the National Parks Service was called into question. Reacting to this, Congress passed the General Authorities Acts of 1970, which became known as the "Redwood Amendment," since a large part of the Act was devoted to conserving Redwood National Park. Based on political pressure from citizens, Congress was also forced to provide a rather significant funding increase not only to expand National Park areas, but to provide more services (educational, lodging areas, hiking trails, etc.). The environmental community seemed particularly strong during these times, calling attention to oil spills, pollution, and extinction issues resulting in much greater attention towards the maintenance and expansion of the NPS (O'Brien, 1999).

The National Park Service recognized that working with partners' organizations greatly enhances its ability to protect park resources and provide educational and other visitor services. This includes opportunities with in the parks and beyond park boundaries. There are many kinds of partners. Some provide funding for NPs programs, while others technical expertise for NPS projects. Some are the national level, while others are at the park of office level. While these partners are not actually a part of the NPS, they all share the Service's interest in the management of the national parks. Partnering also helped the NPS add more Alaskan areas duing the 1980s to now include more than 380 parks covering more than 83 million acres in every state of the Union. Its mission remains true to its founding, and despite criticism and the ebb and flow of emphasis and funding based on the administration in power, it supports the preservation of natural and historic places, as well as outdoor recreational areas outside the system through grants and partners (The National Park Service, 2002).

Hierarchy & Structure: The NPS has a chain-of-command…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Tzu, L. (2006). Law Tzu - Tao Tai Ching. Boston: Shambhala Press.

Vecchio, R. e. (2007). Leadership. Southbend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

For an informative overview of the continual budgetary problems faced by the National Parks Service, see almost any issue of the publication National Parks. These can be found in their entirety in google books; for instance, see: http://books.google.com/books?id=dg0EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA24&dq=funding+and+the+national+parks+service&hl=en&ei=TUm4TJ-EBIOusAPeo9ilDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=funding%20and%20the%20national%20parks%20service&f=false
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Reintroduction of Wolves Designated as Essay

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99825316

Given these condition, wolf population will recover rapidly4.

Part 2: The management of the wolves from the information given it the congressional hearing. Congress decided that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) will reintroduce the gray wolf (Canis lupus), that is currently considered an endangered species, into Yellowstone National Park, which is located in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.

Congress also decided to follow Alternative One namely that the wolves would be classified as experimental wolves according to section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act).

Congress chose to do this since they adjudged the gray wolf populations to be expunged from most of the Western United States and that only a small population of the gray wolves remain in the extreme northwestern Montana, and in part of Idaho, Wyoming, and Washington where migrating wolves from Montana and Canada accidentally settled.

The objective of the reintroduction idea is to reestablish a viable wolf population in the Yellowstone area, which is one of three wolf recovery areas identified in the Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan.

Potential results of the project were evaluated in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that was completed in May 1994, and the project will not conflict with public uses of park lands, wilderness areas, or surrounding lands.

The project will be commenced in November 18, 1994 5… [Read More]

Department of the Interior, part VII

Fish and Wildlife Service: 50 CFR Part 17; RIN 1018-AC86 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1994-11-22/html/94-28746.htm
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Evolution and History of Fire Essay

Words: 1321 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95926875

We have never prescribed a "let-it-blow policy for tornadoes and hurricanes, a "let-it-erupt" policy for volcanoes or a "let-it-grind" policy for glaciers. Why, then, did we need a "let-it-burn" policy for fires, or surrogate strategies like prescribed fire? Humans and fire have an inseparable history." (p.5) Agee states that the classical view of the succession of plants "...persisted much of the 20th century: the Clementsian view of regional convergence towards a vegetation life-form created by autogenic succession in the presence of stable climate." (p.6)

Agee relates that the primary obstacle to conducting an "appropriate economic analysis of fire in wilderness as understanding "the natural state" was defined by Mills in 1985 who held that the objective of wilderness policy then would be to "allow resource change to be viewed as cost or benefit." (p. 14) Agee reports that in 1983 the Wilderness Fire workshop was held in Missoula in which the major issues of that time were defined by Brown as well as others and that more than 100 papers and posters "were presented at the conference" and of these issues there were five primary issues addressed including those as follows:

(1) the "natural fire" issue -- what is natural;

(2) the "Indian fire" issue;

(3) the "lightning (prescribed natural fire) versus human (prescribed fire)" issue;

(4) the "fire size and intensity" issue; and (5) the "unnatural fuel buildup" issue.

None of these issues were resolved at this specific time however a great deal of discussion and debate ensued.


The 1995 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review effectively changed the ..."nomenclature of fire management but firmly endorsed Wildland Fire Use for Resource Benefit (WFU) as an appropriate response to natural fire. So strong was the wording of the policy that federal fire managers


In 2001 another review was undertaken and fire policy updated with directions that

"wildland fire will be used…and, as nearly as possible, be allowed to function in its natural ecological role," and the 10-Year Comprehensive Strategy, developed to implement the National Fire Plan in 2002, established a goal to restore, rehabilitate, and maintain "fire adapted ecosystems." (2006, p.13)

Figure 2

Number of Wildland Fire Use events on…… [Read More]

Agee, J.K. (2000) Wilderness Fire Science: A State-of-Knowledge Review. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. 2000.

Leong, J.C. (nd) Evolution of Fire Science. Online available at:
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Five Step Approach The Case Essay

Words: 867 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57507253

Additionally, the exact boundaries of the park must be clearly understood and marked, so that no citizens accidentally enter into the park lands and slaughter the Bison while they are protected by the federal government. At the same time, there needs to be some leeway so that the citizens in need can still take the vital source of meat and protein when in need, especially in the winter.

The current policy required NPS officials to try to corral Bison that left the park before they got to private lands. Yet, there is a major problem here because Bison are naturally migratory. Thus this plan is not the most appropriate because the Bison are always going to leave the park at some point in time. Thus, there are a number of policy alternatives here. First and foremost, the park officials can work with the federal government to persuade Montana to adopt stricter hunting regulations in regards to the Bison. Bison can also be tagged and tracked to ensure that NP has a better chance of catching them before they enter into public lands. Alternatively, the NPS officials can lobby to have the hunting of Bison banned completely through bringing national attention to the issue.

The best policy alternative here would be to increase the hunting restrictions in Montana. Bison naturally migrate, and as such it would be difficult to try to stop all of them. At the same time, tagging and tracking each animal might be a costly endeavor. NPS must work with the state of Montana to increase the strictness of hunting Bison within state borders. Thus, larger fines and penalties would be brought to those who went above their limit in hunting Bison. At the same time, the corralling of Bison to be shipped off to slaughter must be stopped. The herd can be thinned out by hunting in smaller proportions.…… [Read More]

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Basin Spadefoot the Common Named Essay

Words: 3667 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29715331

These calls are done in a rapid series of low-pitched throaty notes (Great1 pp).

A study titled, "A Comparative Analysis of Plasticity in Larval Development in Three Species of Spadefoot Toads," reported by David Reznick in the June 01, 2000 issue of Ecology, evaluated four salient features of the Wilbur and Collins (1973) model for amphibian metamorphosis (Reznick pp) H.M. Wilbur and J.P. Collins offered an evolutionary explanation for the labile nature of amphibian metamorphosis (Reznick pp). Their model has provided the most important framework for interpreting phenotypic plasticity in age and size at metamorphosis (Reznick pp). This model is attractive due to its simplicity, and the fact that it focuses on selection at the larval life stage, is time invariant, and ignores complex relationships between larvae and their predators (Reznick pp).

Reznick study performed an experiment on three species of spadefoot toads derived from environments that differ in their degree of ephemerality, in order to evaluate the existence of a threshold, or minimum size, for attaining successful metamorphosis and to evaluate the influence of growth rate, mass, and stage of development on the definition of this threshold (Reznick pp). They further characterized the rate of development after the threshold and the nature of differences in the threshold and post-threshold development among species (Reznick pp).

According to the Reznick study, the threshold in larval development exists in all three species that separates an early larval period during which the larvae are not able to metamorphose due to a decline in food availability and a later period in development when they can metamorphose (Reznick pp). After attaining the threshold, larvae respond to a cessation of feeding by speeding up the rate of development and metamorphosing at an earlier age, and relative to fed controls, are smaller in size (Reznick pp). This response is consistent with the idea that such plasticity is adaptive since it will result in…… [Read More]

Aidem, Patricia Farrell. "Wildlife Shields Proposed Protected Areas May Expand." Daily

News. February 04, 2001. Retrieved October 08, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
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Generational Differences in Volcanic Activity Essay

Words: 1498 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37150615

Hawaiian Volcanoes and Relationship to a Deep-Mantle Plume

From the many topics that were given as options by the facilitator of this class, the author of this report has chosen to write about Hawaiian volcanoes and their relationship to the deep-mantle plumes that are nearby and close to them. The area that has come to be known as Hawaii exists within a hotbed of volcanic activity. Of course, this is true both above ground and below it as well. Volcanos play a huge part in how the earth has taken on its current shape as many islands and even many continents have been greatly impacted or formed by the activity of volcanoes. While the topic of this report makes it very clear that the deep-mantle plume and Hawaiian volcanoes are very heavily linked and this report will explore this in great detail using the suggested resources.


The deep-mantle plume activity around the Hawaiian Islands is a study of contradictions in many ways. Just as one example, there is the assertion that there has been roughly a generation, about twenty years, of no major serious challenges or changes in the deep thermal mantle plume. Indeed, that is one of the major hypotheses that has been circling around among geologists and other volcanic experts. However, there are many features of the area that clearly do not conform to this theory and idea. One sterling example of this is the great "bend" that is present near the Mendocino fracture zone. This is the point where the Emperor seamount chain ends and the Hawaiian chain begins. This bend refers to the tectonic and other sub-surface masses that are running against each other. Apparently, the bend is not caused by that sort of relationship. Indeed, India and Asia have been colliding from a tectonic standpoint for many years but there is not an ostensible corresponding response when it comes to the fracture zones mentioned above. Whereas the normal driving forces of plate tectonics are caused by ridge push and slab-pull interactions, there seems to be something else going on with the edge of the Hawaiian zone (Fouldger, Anderson, Natland and Julian).

Also,…… [Read More]

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Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho Essay

Words: 454 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41914176

(4) Oakleaf, JK; Curt, M; and Murray, DL (2003) Effects of Wolves on Livestock Calf Survival and Movements in Central Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management. Apr 2003, Vol. 67, Issue 2.

Oakleaf, Curt and Murray (2003) report a study that examined the impact of wolves on livestock and the survival and movements of calf in central Idaho during two grazing seasons.

(5) Fritts, SH et al. (1997) Planning and Implementing a Reintroduction of Wolves to Yellowstone National Park and Central Idaho. Restoration Ecology; Mar 1997. Vol. 5, P. 7. Fritts, et al. (1997) reports on reintroduction of wolves into Idaho in the Rocky Mountains and states that findings show that wolves released into Yellowstone Park "continued to live as packs, stayed closer to their release sites and settled into home ranges; two packs produced a total of nine pups."

(6) Marshall, Michael (2011) Grey Wolf Hunt is Back on. New Scientists Vol. 211 Iss. 2828. 3 Sept 2011.

The author discusses the legal issues surrounding grey wolf hunting in the sates of Idaho and Montana allowed in 2009, ruled against the law in 2010, and then reinstated in 2011.

(7) Wilson, PI (1999) Wolves, Politics, and the Nez Perce: Wolf Recovery in Central Idaho and the Role of Native Tribes. Natural…… [Read More]

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Theodore Roosevelt Elected as President of the Essay

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96202166

Theodore Roosevelt

Elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, Theodore Roosevelt, while being one of the most ambiguous political figures in American history, was also extremely influential, both culturally and socially, and reflected the times in which he lived as no other President. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.

In the years prior to Roosevelt's Presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America and foreign nations were based on the continuing struggle between the poor and the wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" into foreign lands. Domestically, America was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which upset the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic change in many areas, such as the twelve-hour work day, the dangerous conditions in American factories, the exploitation of immigrant laborers, corporate resistance to labor unions, political corruption in local and state governments, child labor laws, inadequate wages and most importantly the on-going concentration of wealth by such "Robber Barons" as J.P. Morgan and the Vanderbilts. But by the time Roosevelt was President, his ideals "that the government should be the great arbiter of the conflicting economic forces in the nation" took hold, thus "guaranteeing justice to each and dispensing favors to none." 1

By 1896, American expansion into the western regions of the country had greatly diminished; settlers from the eastern portions of the U.S. had literally taken over all of the lands once occupied by the American Indian. But due to the lingering effects of "Manifest Destiny" and the War of 1896, America expanded into many foreign territories, such as the Philippine Islands, Wake Island and Guam in the Pacific and Puerto Rico in the Atlantic. By 1898, as a result of the Spanish-American War in which Roosevelt triumphed with his "Rough Riders," America also took hold of Cuba which contributed to the victory over the Spanish. But as President, Theodore Roosevelt "is almost universally remembered for his brash foreign policy" and during his tenure as President, "with the same type of bullishness…… [Read More]

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Aldo Leopold and Environmental History in Answering Essay

Words: 2037 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50103453

Aldo Leopold and Environmental History

In answering the question of whether the United States has improved on environmental policy since the 1930s, the cyclical nature of the political system must be considered. A generational reform cycle occurs every 30-40 years, such as the Progressive Era of 1900-20, the New Deal of the 1930s and the New Frontier and Great Society of the 1960s and early-1970s. All of the progress that the United States has made in conservation, wilderness preservation and other environmental issues has happened in these reform eras. Barack Obama represents yet another reform cycle and his environmental record is better by far than any other president over the last forty years, although much of what he attempted to accomplish has been blocked by the Republicans and the corporate interests that fund them. In conservative eras like the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s and 1990s, almost nothing worthwhile happens with environmental policies, and the U.S. government simply functions as a servant to corporate interests, blatantly so under presidents like Calvin Coolidge or Ronald Reagan. Today, scientists and the educated public know more about the environment and the history of failed societies like Easter Island and the Classic Maya than ever before, both of which collapsed due to deforestation, soil erosion and droughts (Diamond 2005). Indeed, they know far more about the causes of their demise than they could have known themselves. Lack of knowledge or information is no longer a problem, but the reality is that real changes in the U.S. can only be put in place during one of the generational reform cycles. Moreover, in periods of severe economic downturns, like the Great Depression of the 1930s or today, the public and politicians are going to be more concerned with poverty, unemployment and economic development than environmental issues.

Because of the cyclical nature of the American political system, environmental problems are only addressed during the generational reform cycles, and are generally ignored in conservative, pro-business eras like the 1920s and 1980s. For this reason, progress on environmental issues has been…… [Read More]

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International Marketing of a Seaside Essay

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72658989

S. For discerning travelers" by the Travel Channel. (All Alabama, 2013, p.1) In addition, the World Fishing Network nominated Orange Beach, which is adjacent to Gulf Shores, the World Fishing Network's Ultimate Fishing Town.

II. Gulf Shores Attractions

Hummingbird Ziplines

Included in the attractions in Gulf Shores is the 'Gulf Adventure Center at Gulf State Park'. This features a Hummingbird Zipline consisting of seven towers and six ziplines over the length of one mile. The Zipline provides a great point for "taking in spectacular views of the white sand beaches and crystal clear waters found only at Gulf State Park." (Gulf Adventure Center, 2013) The following picture shows the ziplines at night.

Hummingbird Ziplines in Gulf Shores, Alabama

Source: Gulf Adventure Center (2013)

Rather than construct the zipline towers with concrete and steel, the ziplines were constructed out of wooden poles and lumber which is much more eco-friendly and environmentally conscious in keeping with the natural environment and beaches that are not commercialized in Gulf Shores, Alabama.

ABC Parasail

This is an adventure in parasailing offered by ABC Parasail, which includes a boat ride into the Gulf along with an experience in Parasailing.

Adventure Island

Adventure Island has rides and fun for the entire family including bumper boats, adventure golf, and paddleboat rides.

Other Attractions

Also featured in Gulf Shores, Alabama are fishing expeditions and kayaking as well as the Alabama Gulf Coast Zoo. These are just a few of the many attractions in Gulf Shores, Alabama.

Wildlife Tourism

Wildlife tourism is a big business in Gulf Shores, Alabama and according to one report, wildlife tourism "generates over $19 billion in annual spending." (Stokes and Lowe, 2013, p.5) The total spending in wildlife tourism includes $8 billion spent…… [Read More]

Also featured in Gulf Shores, Alabama are fishing expeditions and kayaking as well as the Alabama Gulf Coast Zoo. These are just a few of the many attractions in Gulf Shores, Alabama.

Wildlife Tourism

Wildlife tourism is a big business in Gulf Shores, Alabama and according to one report, wildlife tourism "generates over $19 billion in annual spending." (Stokes and Lowe, 2013, p.5) The total spending in wildlife tourism includes $8 billion spent on